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Chapter 7 - The American Revolution

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Title: Chapter 7 - The American Revolution


1
  • Chapter 7 - The American Revolution
  • Section 1 The Early Years of the War

2
Chapter 7 - The American Revolution
  • Chapter 7.1 The Early Years of the War
  • Historians estimate that roughly 20-30 percent of
    Americans were loyalists and roughly 40-45
    percent were patriots the rest were undecided
  • Most Americans did not support the Revolution
    Loyalists were numerous in cities, New York State
    and in the South Patriots were numerous in New
    England and Virginia
  • Native Americans and African Americans fought for
    both sides
  • Some Native Americans fought with the British
    because they were afraid Americans would take
    their land if they won the war
  • Enslaved African Americans were offered their
    freedom if they joined the British Army about
    5,000 others served in the Continental Army after
    restrictions on their enlistment were lifted
  • Americans Divided

3
Chapter 7 - The American Revolution
  • Chapter 7.1 The Early Years of the War
  • In June 1775, George Washington, commander of the
    Continental Army, had serious problems
  • The militia were untrained and had only signed up
    for one year when their time was up they went
    home as a result, Washington never had more
    than 17,000 troops at a time
  • Poor supplies and a lack of equipment also
    frustrated Washington his men needed shoes,
    blankets, food, muskets, and ammunition
  • Women like Martha Washington helped by cooking,
    nursing the sick, and fighting alongside the men
  • Mary Hays nicknamed Molly Pitcher carried
    water to tired soldiers during a battle
  • British thought the Americans were disorganized,
    inexperienced rebels and hoped a decisive battle
    would make them give up Washingtons goal was
    to survive until he could build his army
  • Creating an Army

4
Chapter 7 - The American Revolution
  • Chapter 7.1 The Early Years of the War
  • After Boston, Washington took his troops to New
    York to confront General Howe and the British
    army
  • Howe hoped to occupy coastal cities to help
    launch his campaigns July of 1776, Howe arrived
    in New York along with 9,000 professional German
    mercenaries called the Hessians hired by King
    George III.
  • After months of struggling for control of New
    York State, Washington was forced to retreat
    through New Jersey by December, 1776 the
    American army had crossed the Delaware into
    Pennsylvania and was in terrible shape
  • Thomas Paine urged them to keep fighting in his
    series of pamphlets the American Crisis
  • Late on December 25, 1776, Washington crossed the
    Delaware into New Jersey and marched to Trenton
    where they surprised the Hessians 900 Hessians
    were killed and Washington captured much needed
    weapons and supplies after another victory at
    Princeton, new recruits began to enlist
  • Struggle for Middle States

5
Chapter 7 - The American Revolution
  • Chapter 7.1 The Early Years of the War
  • Britains strategy was to cut off New England
    from the other states by seizing the Hudson River
    Valley the strategy called for three armies to
    meet in Albany, New York
  • General Burgoynes army marched south from Canada
    capturing Fort Ticonderoga from there he moved
    slowly, allowing Washington time to block his
    path
  • Swampy terrain and delays on the way to Albany
    cost Burgoyne four weeks to make matters worse,
    Howe wrote telling him he had decided to invade
    Pennsylvania to capture Washington and would not
    be able to meet him as planned
  • Britains Strategy

6
Chapter 7 - The American Revolution
  • Chapter 7.1 The Early Years of the War
  • In the summer of 1777, British Colonel Barry St.
    Leger tried to capture Fort Stanwix in the Mohawk
    River Valley of New York
  • General Benedict Arnold led a small force to
    confront St. Leger at Ft. Stanwix using a
    captured loyalist and Iroquois allies to spread a
    rumor, he tricked St. Leger into believing he led
    a large American force the trick worked so
    well, St. Leger left his tents, supplies, and
    cannon behind trying to escape
  • Because of St. Legers retreat and Howes failure
    to follow the plan, no one rendezvoused with
    Burgoyne
  • Battles Along the Mohawk

7
Chapter 7 - The American Revolution
  • Chapter 7.1 The Early Years of the War
  • By August of 1777, Burgoyne was almost out of
    supplies forcing him to send raiding parties out
    for supplies and horses
  • After a defeat at the Battle of Bennington,
    Burgoyne continued on to Albany on the way, he
    met a powerful Continental Army force led by
    General Horatio Gates near Saratoga, New York
  • After a series of battles, Arnold led a charge
    against the British on October 7, galloping like
    a madman through the battlefield terrified, the
    Hessian mercenaries pulled back forcing Burgoyne
    to retreat
  • Exhausted, Burgoynes troops marched back to camp
    at Saratoga the Continental Army surrounded
    Burgoyne and fired on him day and night
    Burgoyne decided he had no choice but to
    surrender
  • Saratoga A Turning Point

8
Chapter 7 - The American Revolution
  • Chapter 7.1 The Early Years of the War
  • The Battles of Saratoga were the turning point of
    the war with two different consequences
  • Arnold met and married loyalist woman while he
    recovered from his wounds angry over not being
    rewarded enough for his actions at Saratoga, he
    decided to betray the Americans
  • Europeans like the French began to think the
    Americans might win so they decided to help them
  • Saratoga A Turning Point

9
  • Chapter 7 - The American Revolution
  • Section 2 The War Expands

10
Chapter 7 - The American Revolution
  • Chapter 7.2 The War Expands
  • To defeat the British Empire America needed a
    foreign ally
  • In the fall of 1776, Congress sent Benjamin
    Franklin to France to persuade King Louis XVI to
    provide money, troops, and ships
  • Despite his popularity in France, Franklin could
    not persuade France to agree to a formal alliance
    until America proved it could win battles
  • After the victory at Saratoga, France formally
    recognized Americas independence
  • In 1778, France signed two treaties of alliance
    with the United States
  • France went to war against Britain
  • France sent money, troops, and ships to America
  • In 1779, France persuaded Spain , another of
    Britains rivals, to join the fight
  • Help From Abroad

11
Chapter 7 - The American Revolution
  • Chapter 7.2 The War Expands
  • The Spanish Governor of Louisiana General
    Bernardo de Gálvez quickly captured British
    strongholds at Natchez and Baton Rouge
  • From there, he captured Mobile and Pensacola in
    1781 effectively preventing the British from
    attacking the U.S. from the Southwest
  • France and Spain joining the Americans forced The
    British to fight a number of enemies on land and
    sea and spreading their military resources over
    many fronts
  • Spread thin, the British were unable to exploit
    the inexperience of the Americans and defeat them
  • Help From Abroad

12
Chapter 7 - The American Revolution
  • Chapter 7.2 The War Expands
  • As European military officers came to help the
    Americans, they brought with them some of the
    military experience the Americans needed
  • Wanting a military career and believing in the
    American cause, the Marquis de Lafayette, a 19
    year-old French nobleman volunteered to serve in
    Washingtons army
  • He quickly gained Washingtons respect and was
    given command of an army division
  • He used his own money to buy his men warm clothes
  • He fought in many battles and convinced the
    French king to send 6,000 troops to America
  • He later took part in the French Revolution
  • Europeans Help Washington

13
Chapter 7 - The American Revolution
  • Chapter 7.2 The War Expands
  • Baron de Kalb was a German officer serving in the
    French army who fought in the Battle of Camden in
    1780 where he received 11 wounds and died
  • Baron von Steuben turned the inexperienced
    Americans into skilled army
  • Washington asked him to train the army in basic
    combat skills
  • In 1778, he took 100 men and trained them to move
    in lines and to fight with bayonets
  • Once von Steubens company succeeded, other army
    units adopted his methods
  • Europeans Help Washington

14
Chapter 7 - The American Revolution
  • Chapter 7.2 The War Expands
  • In late 1777, General Howe forced Washington to
    retreat from Philadelphia
  • Beginning in the winter of 1777-1778 General
    Washington and his men camped at Valley Forge,
    Pennsylvania
  • During the cold march to Valley Forge, many of
    his men had only blankets to cover themselves
    many lacked shoes and left trails of blood on the
    frozen ground
  • Valley Forge came to symbolize the suffering and
    hardships Americans endured in the Revolutionary
    War
  • Over the winter soldiers grew weak from lack of
    food and warm clothing - roughly 25 of them died
    from malnutrition, exposure, and disease
  • Despite Washingtons repeated appeals to Congress
    for supplies, they were slow in responding
  • Despite the hardships, the men stayed together
    for their love of country and for Washington
  • Winter at Valley Forge

15
Chapter 7 - The American Revolution
  • Chapter 7.2 The War Expands
  • In 1777, 24 year-old George Rogers Clark got
    permission from Virginia governor Patrick Henry
    to defend the Western frontier in what is now
    Indiana and Illinois from the British
  • Rogers stated that if a country is not worth
    protecting, it is not worth claiming
  • In May of 1778, Clark and a small band of men
    started down the Ohio River recruiting close to
    200 men along the way
  • Clark captured Kaskaskia without a fight and
    moved on to take Fort Sackville which was under
    Henry Hamilton
  • Clark and his men made their way through miles of
    icy swamps and surprised Hamilton
  • Clark captured several Native Americans allies of
    Hamilton who were wearing American scalps on
    their belts
  • He then executed them in full view of the fort
    and threatened to do the same to Hamilton if he
    didnt surrender the British gave up
  • War on the Frontier

16
Chapter 7 - The American Revolution
  • Chapter 7.2 The War Expands
  • By 1777, Britain had about 100 warships off the
    American coast allowing Britain to control the
    Atlantic trade routes
  • Patriotism and profit motivated privateers
    Congress commissioned 1,000 privateers to prey on
    British ships
  • American privateers attacked British merchant
    ships and sold their cargo
  • The success of the privateers prompted British
    merchants to call for an end to the war
  • In 1780, 14 year-old James Forten the son of a
    free African American sail maker enlisted to
    sail on the Royal Louis after his capture by
    the British in 1781 he refused a free trip to
    England and was imprisoned until after the war
  • After his release he walked barefoot from New
    York to his home in Philadelphia
  • He later became famous for his efforts to end
    slavery
  • War at Sea

17
Chapter 7 - The American Revolution
  • Chapter 7.2 The War Expands
  • Though outnumbered, the Continental navy won
    several victories against the British
  • In September 1779 John Paul Jones won the most
    famous sea battle
  • Jones and his crew aboard the Bonhomme Richard
    along with four other ships attacked two
    British warships guarding a number of supply
    ships
  • Jones attacked and rammed the larger Serapis
    getting so close their cannon muzzles almost
    touched
  • With the two ships locked together, the British
    captain demanded Jones surrender to which Jones
    responded, I have not yet begun to fight!
  • After a vicious battle, the mast of Serapis
    snapped and fell the British captain
    surrendered
  • The Bonhomme Richard was so full of holes it sank
    forcing Jones and his crew to take the Serapis
  • Joness success angered the British as much as it
    inspired Americans
  • A Naval Hero

British caricature of John Paul Jones
Action between the Serapis and Bonhomme Richard
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