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The War to End All Wars: World War I


The War to End All Wars: World War I Mr. Phipps U.S. History STHS California State Standards 11.4.5--Analyze the political, economic, and social ramifications of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The War to End All Wars: World War I

The War to End All Wars World War I
  • Mr. Phipps
  • U.S. History
  • STHS

California State Standards
  • 11.4.5--Analyze the political, economic, and
    social ramifications of World War I on the home

  • How was World War I different than previous wars?
  • What were the long term causes of the Great War?
  • What were the immediate causes of the Great War?
  • What were the main strategies and techniques used
    during the war?
  • How did military technology change?
  • Why did the U.S. enter the war? Why did the U.S.
    enter the war so late?
  • What position in the global community did the
    U.S. have at the conclusion of the war?

1 On separate paper, answer the following
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  • Total War A war of attrition, in which
    compromise is not sought, no deals are accepted
    other than total surrender A war in which
    armies and civilians work together in the war
    effort A war that affects all aspects of
    society farmland, military, cities, etc.,
  • Schlieffen Plan German military strategy to
    invade France first, then Russia Reason--Russia
    would be unable to mobilize due to lack of
  • Mobilization A nations effort to prepare for
    war, requires the development of military
    technology, training of armies, and deployment of
  • Nationalism Extreme pride in ones country
    The belief that ones country is superior (in all
    ways) to all other countries.
  • Militarism A national desire to prove military
  • Imperialism A countrys agenda to take over
    other countries for land, resources, etc.,
  • Alliances A relationship one country has with
    another, usually for mutual protection and

The Great War In a Nutshell
  • The first war to include multiple countries
  • The first war to include countries from Europe,
    the Middle East, and Asia--drawn together by
    complex alliance system
  • The first modern war
  • Use of modern technology first airplanes, first
    tanks, first gas attack
  • Most dead in a single battle
  • The first European war the U.S. fought in
  • Largest mobilization effort, to date

The Great War The Numbers
  • Identify two long range causes of World War I.
  • Identify two short range causes of World War I.

The Long Term Causes of WWI
  • Nationalism
  • Imperialism
  • Militarism
  • Alliances

3 Rate the importance of each 1-4 (1most
important factor)
  • Causes???????
  • The belief that each country was culturally
    superior to any other countries
  • Evident in the competition for resources
  • Long term cultural hatred (the Russians hated the
    Germans, the Bosnians hated the Serbs, the
    Ottomans hated the Greeks, etc)
  • Based on social customs, religion, cultural
  • Unified people
  • Effects
  • Resulted in a global effort to prove superiority
  • Evident in growth of military, the growth of
    industry, the acquisition of territories
  • Resulted in large scale international tension

4 In what ways does the U.S. illustrate
nationalism? How is nationalism positive?
  • Effects
  • Resulted in competition over territorial
  • Resulted in long-term aggression over border
    disputes, natural resources, and new markets
  • Examples
  • France v. Germany over Alsace-Lorraine
  • Austria-Hungary v. Russia over Balkans
  • Causes????
  • Quest for resources in order to increase national
  • Prove superiority to other countries

5 How did the U.S. benefit from imperialism
during the late 1800s?
6 What changed between 1890-1910? How did this
contribute to international tension?
  • Causes
  • Competition for military superiority
  • Use of industry to create military technology
  • Effects
  • Resulted in an arms race
  • Resulted in the creation of new deadly war

The Alliance System
  • The Triple Entente
  • A.K.A. The Allies, The Good Guys, Tommies
    (G.B.), Doughboys (U.S.A.)
  • Formed by treaty in 1907
  • Purpose to challenge German naval control
  • Included Great Britain, France, Russia, Serbia,
    and the U.S.A.
  • The Triple Alliance
  • A.K.A. The Central Powers, The Bad Guys, The
  • Formed by secret alliance treaties in 1887
  • Purpose to take back land from France and balance
  • Included Austria-Hungary, Germany, and the
    Ottoman Empire

7 How does this cartoon describe the alliance
system before the war?
Immediate Causes of WWI
  • The Allies
  • Great Britain, France, Russia, and Serbia
  • The Central Powers
  • Austria-Hungary, Germany, the Ottoman Empire
  • All countries are struggling for world
  • All countries consider themselves the most able
    to rule the world.
  • All countries are bound to each other through
    complex alliances.
  • All countries are unified in their support for
    the war.
  • All countries are fully armed and hate every
    other country.

The Balkans
The Snowball Effect
  • In the spirit of nationalism and
    self-determination, the small country of Serbia
    seeks independence from Bosnia, the Ottoman
    Empire, and Austria-Hungary.
  • The region, the Balkans, is THE highway for all
    trade and communication between Europe and Asia.
  • The Balkans is a region ALL COUNTRIES want to
  • The Balkans is convulsed by civil war.

Gathering Momentum
  • On June 28, 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian
    nationalist and member of the Black Hand, kills
    Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his family while
    they are supervising a military exercise in
  • Targeting the heir to the Austrian-Hungarian
    throne, Princip attempts to declare Serbia

Degenerating to War The Fall of 1914
  • June 28, 1914 Austria-Hungarian Archduke
  • July 28, 1914 Austria-Hungary mobilizes army
    and declares war on Serbia
  • July 31, 1914 Russia mobilizes army against
    Austria-Hungary to protect Serbian ally
  • August 1, 1914 Germany declares war on Russia
  • August 3, 1914 Germany declares war on France
  • August 4, 1914 Germany invades Belgium
  • August 4, 1914 Angered, Great Britain declares
    war on Germany
  • August 6, 1914 Austria-Hungary declares war on

The Funeral Procession
So What?
  • Russia rushes to protect its ally
  • Germany declares war on everyone
  • Germany engages Schlieffen Plan, invading France
  • All sides expect a short war, over by Christmas

The Great War Begins
  • Sept. 5-10, 1914 The First Battle of the Marne
  • Germany pushes through Belgium to attack France
    at the Marne River, outside of Paris
  • Quickly mobilizing, France sends 600 taxicabs
    full of soldiers to fight back
  • The first trenches are dug, and France forces
    Germany to retreat
  • Effects
  • Russia quickly mobilizes and attacks Germany on
    the Eastern Front
  • Shows Germany that the Schlieffen Plan would not
  • Both sides dig in for long, defensive war

How did it happen?
  • Bad Directions!!!
  • A German officer, taking a wrong turn out of the
    Generals camp drove into a French patrol and was
  • In the officers bag a map which showed the
    exact location of German troops and the direction
    of the next days offensive.

  • The Tactics of Trench Warfare
  • Generals were unprepared for the development of
    trench warfare their training was in army
  • Main strategy
  • To use a combination of heavy artillery and MORE
    MEN to break the trench line
  • First, to use artillery to soften up the enemy
    and destroy barbed wire
  • Second, to fix bayonets and lead a charge across
    No Mans Land
  • Third, to kill the enemy in hand-to-hand combat.
  • Exceptions, by mutual consent
  • No bombing the latrines.
  • No bombing before breakfast.
  • No bombing on major holidays.

Life in the hole
  • The Equipment
  • 1 rifle, 1 bayonet, 170 rounds of ammo, 1 gas
    mask, 1 shovel, wire cutters, a full water
    bottle, food rations, extra clothing, medical
    supplies, portable cooking stove and fuel,
    personal belongings
  • Total Weight 60 lbs.

The Trench System
Draw a sketch of the trench system in your notes.
British trench, Thiepval Woods, France
Write a Letter from the Trench
  • Directions You will write a letter to your
    family or a friend from the trenches of the
    Western Front. The letter should be written so
    that your reader understands the stress and
    trauma of life in the trenches. You may use any
    notes to help you with this exercise. The letter
    should be AT LEAST one full page in length.
  • Time February 7, 1915
  • Place Trenches outside Verdun, France
  • It should include
  • The fear and anticipation you feel in the
  • Your living conditions and daily life in the
  • Any extraordinary events
  • Your morale and what you do to keep yourself
  • It should be detailed, explicit, and graphic--use

Total War 1915
  • January 1915 TOTAL WAR
  • Germans introduce poison gas to push the Western
    Front and break the Allied Defense.
  • May 7, 1915 H.S.S. Lusitania Sunk
  • En route from NYC to Britain, the British
    passenger ship is torpedoed by German U-Boats.

The Lusitania Incident
  • Germans accused the British that the Lusitania
    secretly carried guns and ammo to strengthen
    allied defense.
  • Germans accused the Americans for violating
    neutrality and selling the Brits war materials.
  • The H.S.S. Lusitania took 18 minutes to sink
    fully below water.
  • Due to the location of the explosion, the poor
    positioning of the lifeboats, and the confusion,
    1195 people (over 60) of the passengers
    died--128 of whom were American.
  • The Lusitania Incident resulted in angering the
    American public, calling for war.
  • Woodrow Wilson waited two years before declaring

Why was the bombing of the Lusitania so
scandalous? Was it fair for the Germans to
torpedo it? Explain.
The Battle for 1916
  • The Battle of Verdun February-December, 1916
  • The longest battle of the WWI, lasting over 10
  • Over 1 million dead on the battlefield
  • The battle became symbolic for WWI French
    stubbornness to defend vs. German stubbornness to
    bleed the French dry.

Total War at Verdun
Battle of the Somme 1916
  • The Battle of the Somme July-November, 1916
  • British offensive to relieve French allies at
  • British casualties on the first day 20,000
  • Most dead on both sides 1 million

A New Technology
Cyanide/Mustard Gas launched by artillery, gas
would stay close to the ground Results in
U-Boats unrestricted, underwater, undetectable
could fire self-propelled missiles
Machine Guns rapid fire, automatic weapons
Armored Tank combat vehicle on tracks used to
cross barbed wire in No-Mans Land
The Results
Battlefield Flanders, 1916
Battlefield Verdun, 1917
Battlefield Ypres, 1917
Battlefield Flanders, 1917
Battlefield Chateau Wood, 1917
Mass Grave, Eastern Front
The U.S. Joins the War 1917
  • January 1917 U.S. intercepts the Zimmerman
  • Sent by Germany to Mexico
  • Asked Mexico for support on a North American
    invasion of the U.S. in exchange for North
    American territory
  • Violated the Monroe Doctrine--No intervention in
    Western Hemisphere
  • Equaled a declaration of war for the U.S.

American Intelligence
The U.S. Declares War!
  • February 1917 Germany declares unrestricted
    submarine warfare on ALL allies Great Britain,
    France, Russia, and the U.S.
  • April 1917 U.S. President Woodrow Wilson asks
    Congress for Declaration of War
  • April 6, 1917 Congress declares war on
    Germany--the U.S. officially joins the war
  • July 1917 The American Expeditionary Force
    (A.E.F.) is mobilized and sent to the Western

American Mobilization
  • American factories earn government contracts to
    make armaments, tanks, and ammunition.
  • The A.E.F. begins mobilization effort

Should the U.S. have joined the war? Would you
have joined the war? Why? Why not?
America Prepares
  • Council of National Defense, War Industries
    Board, National War Labor Board
  • Oversaw mobilization, shipbuilding, and armament
  • Expanded size of American government
  • Food Administration Board
  • Supported rationing, abstinence programs, and
    home gardens (liberty gardens)
  • Passed 18th Amendment--Prohibition of Alcohol
  • Draft passed in 1917

The War at Home
  • The Committee of Public Information
  • Headed by George Creel
  • Publishes propaganda and radio addresses
  • Called for immediate mobilization of 75,000 men
  • Espionage and Sedition Acts
  • Infringed on civil liberties
  • Spying on citizens, targeted adversaries,
    wrongfully imprisoned critics of war
  • Instituted to encourage loyalty among American
    citizens (especially German-Americans,
    Socialists, liberals, and unionists.)
  • Restricted immigration

1917 The Western and Eastern Fronts
  • The Western Front
  • Dragged by failed offensives on both sides, the
    war is at a stalemate
  • Resources ammunition, food, and morale is
    exceedingly low
  • American forces boost morale and supplies
  • The Eastern Front
  • Dragged by failed offensives on both sides, the
    war is at a stalemate
  • Resources ammunition, food, and morale is lower
    for both sides
  • Russia, starving, is left without any help

The Tide Turns
  • November 1917 The Communist Revolution
  • Desperate for food and angry at Czar Nicholas and
    the Romanov Dynasty for stupidity, a group of
    radicals declare a revolution
  • Led by Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky
  • The Bolsheveik Revolution declared
  • A return of property to the poor
  • A return of power to the people
  • A complete and total withdrawal from the war
  • The killing of all royals

The Results 1917
  • The U.S. joins the war
  • Russia withdraws from the war
  • The Western Front is reinforced
  • The Eastern Front is lost to Austria-Hungary
  • Communism is born

The War Unravels 1918
  • January 8 Wilson proposes 14 Point Peace Plan
  • May 3 German offensive at Paris is stopped
  • July Germans begin to desert the army
  • September Allies begin final offensive and
    breaks the German Hindenberg Line
  • October The German Army collapses
  • November 11 The Germans sign armistice and
    surrender to the army

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The Sum of All Fears
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  • Numbers have dehumanized us. Over breakfast
    coffee we read of 40,000 American dead in
    Vietnam. Instead of vomiting, we reach for the
    toast. Our morning rush through crowded streets
    is not to cry murder but to hit that trough
    before somebody else gobbles our share.
  • An equation 40,000 dead young men 3,000 tons
    of bone and flesh, 124,000 pounds of brain
    matter, 50,000 gallons of blood, 1,840,000 years
    of life that will never be lived, 100,000
    children who will never be born.
  • Let us use his same arithmetic for World War I
    9,000,000 dead young men equal 1,350,000,000
    pounds of bone and flesh, 27,900,000 pounds of
    brain matter, 11,250,000 gallons of blood,
    414,000,000 years of life that will never be
    lived, and 22,500,000 children who will never be
    born. The dry if imposing figure "9,000,000 dead"
    seems a little less statistical when we view it
    from this perspective.
  • Dalton Trumbo, Johnny Got His Gun.

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The War to End All Wars
  • The war ends on the 11th day, of the 11th month,
    at the 11th hour
  • The Treaty of Versailles
  • Germans surrender
  • Germans completely demilitarize
  • Germans forced to pay war damages to Great
    Britain and France
  • All countries form a League of Nations to
    diplomatically solve international problems

The Terms
  • German Armistice, Nov. 11, 1918
  • Germany was required to evacuate all occupied
    territories everywhere. The iniquitous treaties
    of Brest-Litovsk and Bucharest were annulled.
  • Germany was to surrender 5,000 pieces of light
    and heavy artillery, 25,000 machine guns, 3,000
    minenwerfers, 1,700 airplanes, 5,000 locomotives,
    150,000 railroad cars, and 5,000 motor lorries.
    All these were to be in perfect condition. All
    submarines were to be surrendered, together with
    10 battleships, 6 battle cruisers, 8 light
    cruisers, and 50 destroyers. The remaining naval
    vessels were to be disarmed and placed under
    allied supervision.
  • Prisoners of war in German hands were to be
    yielded up without reciprocity.
  • All territory on the left bank of the Rhine was
    to be occupied by the allied armies, and three
    bridgeheads were to be established at Mayence,
    Coblenz, and Cologne, each with a radius of
    eighteen miles. A trip of territory six miles
    wide on the right bank of the Rhine was to
    constitute a neutral zone.
  • The period of armistice was one month, with
    provision for renewal if necessary.