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The High and Late Middle Ages

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The High and Late Middle Ages Monarchs, Nobles, and the Church 1000-1300 the balance of power shifts Monarchs centralized power; expand their domains at expense of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The High and Late Middle Ages


1
The High and Late Middle Ages
2
Monarchs, Nobles, and the Church
  • 1000-1300 the balance of power shifts
  • Monarchs centralized power expand their domains
    at expense of the Church
  • Supported by townspeople who wanted peace for
    trade

3
William of Normandy
  • William conquers England King (1066)
  • Fiefs and taxes
  • Common law and trial by jury
  • By 1154 Henry II has serious conflict with church
    over legal authority
  • 1170 Thomas Becket, archbishop is assassinated

Battle of Hastings, 1066
4
Evolving Systems of Government
  • John angers the Church and his own nobles
  • 1215 the nobles force him to sign the Magna Carta
  • Gives nobles rights due process given to all
    citizens
  • King subject to the law

King has a council of advisors cant tax
arbitrarily
5
Parliament
  • 1200s the Great Council becomes Parliament
  • This becomes Englands legislature
  • House of Lords
  • House of Commons
  • Power of the Purse the right to approve any new
    taxes

6
Monarchs in France
  • In 1179 Phillip II becomes King of France
  • Loyalty, taxes, expansion make him most powerful
    ruler in Europe
  • His grandson Louis IV clashes with the pope
  • Schism Avignon
  • Estes General

7
The Holy Roman Empire
  • After Charlemagnes death empire broke up
  • 936 Otto I becomes King of Germany
  • Close ties to Pope
  • 962 crowned Emperor
  • Claim control of central and eastern Europe

8
Pope Versus Emperor
  • 1054 Henry IV King of Germany Holy Roman Emperor
  • Gregory VII Pope
  • Fight over lay investiture
  • Excommunication rebellion exile
  • 1122 The Concordat of Worms

9
The Struggle for Italy
  • 1100-1200 German emperors try to control Italy
  • Frederick I tries to take Italy
  • Hes defeated but clashes with several popes
  • While hes in Italy his nobles get more
    independent

10
Church Power at its Height
  • 1198 Innocent III
  • Claims authority over all earthly rulers
  • 1209 launches a holy war against French heretics
    Crusade tens of thousands slaughtered
  • Extends Papal Sates and power

11
The Crusades
  • Europe in isolation
  • Brilliant civilizations in India, Asia, Africa
    and the Middle East
  • Especially the Muslim
  • Series of wars begun in 1096
  • Christians battle Muslims for control of the Holy
    Land
  • Lasts for 200 years

12
The Call to Crusade
  • Seljuk Turks (Muslim) overrun Middle East
  • The Byzantine Emperor asks Pope Urban II for help
  • At the Council of Clermont Urban makes the call
  • Urban hopes to increase his power and heal the
    Schism

13
Massacre
  • Only the First Crusade is successful
  • Crusader States
  • These are overrun causing more Crusades
  • 1187 Jerusalem falls to Saladin
  • 1291 Muslims overrun the Crusader States

14
Economic Impact of the Crusades
  • Religious hatred
  • European economies expand trade routes open to
    move luxury items from the Byzantine Empire
  • Venetians build huge fleets
  • Growth of money economy

15
Effects on Monarchs and Church
  • Increases power of the Monarchs
  • Collect taxes to support Crusades
  • Papal power reaches its height
  • Contact with the Muslim world opened the world to
    Europeans through trade and exploration

16
The Reconquista
  • The campaign to drive the Muslims from the
    Iberian Peninsula
  • 1085 Christians retake Toledo
  • 1300 Christians control peninsula except for
    Grenada
  • 1469 Ferdinand and Isabella marry

Jews Being Expelled from Spain
17
Education
  • As economic and political conditions improve
    there is a need for educated people
  • 1100s sees schools and cathedrals to train clergy
  • Women couldnt attend universities but could go
    to convents

18
New Learning
  • Greek and Roman knowledge lost to Europe
  • Muslim scholars had translated it
  • 1100s these reach Europe
  • Creates crisis of faith versus logic
  • Thomas Aquinas

19
Medieval Culture
  • Literature epics and the Divine Comedy
  • The Canterbury Tales
  • Architecture and art
  • Romanesque to Gothic
  • Stone glass Notre Dame Cathedral

The North Rose Window
20
Notre Dame Cathedral
21
The Black Death
  • 1347 trading ships dock at Messina bring Black
    Death
  • By 1348 reached Spain and France
  • Bubonic Plague spreads to Asia
  • Epidemic set off by Mongol invasions in the 1200s

22
Effects of the Plague
  • Normal life breaks down terror, bodies, people
    flee cities
  • Jews are blamed and persecuted
  • Economy suffers inflation
  • Church splits The Great Schism

Illustration of the Black Death from the
Toggenburg Bible (1411)
23
The Hundred Years War
  • 1337-1453 France and England engage in a series
    of conflicts
  • English win early victories
  • Joan of Arc fights for France
  • War creates sense of nationalism in France
  • Absolute monarchs
  • England sees rise of Parliament
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