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Global Business Today, 5e

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Title: Global Business Today, 5e


1
MANAGEMENT INTERNAZIONALE
Prof. Mario Carrassi
2
1
  • Introduzione

3
Definition of International Management
  • International management is defined as a process
    of accomplishing the global objectives of a firm
    by
  • effectively coordinating the procurement,
    allocation, and utilization of the human,
    financial, intellectual, and physical resources
    of the firm across national boundaries
  • effectively charting the path towards the desired
    organizational goals by navigating the firm
    through a global environment that is not only
    dynamic but often very hostile to the firms very
    survival.

4
AMBITO DI RICERCA DEL MANAGEMENT INTERNAZIONALE
MARKETING INTERNAZIONALE
ECONOMIA INTERNAZIONALE
tecniche di marketing e di gestione delle
relazioni con i sistemi di distribuzione
nazionale ed internazionale
teorie e approcci per lo studio dei rapporti
economici tra paesi diversi
MANAGEMENT INTERNAZIONALE
gestione manageriale dell'impresa nei processi di
internazionalizzazione e globalizzazione
STRATEGIA AZIENDALE
gestione strategica, commerciale e organizzativa
nelle imprese che operano nei mercati nazionali
ed internazionali
5
Strategia aziendale
SISTEMA DI SCELTE ED AZIONI CHE CONSENTE
ALLAZIENDA DI RAGIUNGERE E DI MANATENERE
SIMULTANEAMENTE E DINAMICAMENTE UN POSIZIONAMENTO
SUL MERCATO DI SBOCCO, SUI DIVERSI MERCATI DI
APPROVVIGIONAMENTO DEI FATTORI DI PRODUZIONE E
RISPETTO AI SUOI PRINCIPALI STAKEHOLDERS. TALE DA
ASSICURARLE UN VANTAGGIO COMPETITIVO DIFENDIBILE
ED IL CONSEGUENTE RAGGIUNGIMENTO DEI TRE ORDINI
DI EQUILBRIO ECONOMICO, FINANZIARIO,
PATRIMONIALE - PRINCIPIO DI ECONOMICITA -
REQUISITI DI UNA STRATEGIA EFFICACE Indicare la
direzione di marcia da seguire tanto
nellimmediato quanto nel medio periodo Generare
un tensione alla realizzazione della stessa. E
indispensabile che la strategia sia efficacemente
comunicata ai diversi interlocutori della cui
collaborazione e consenso limpresa ha bisogno
6
STRATEGIA AZIENDALE
  • Sistema di scelte
  • Scelte di fondo e non contingenti
  • Ricerca lottimizzazione delle relazioni con
    gli Stakeholders
  • Determina il posizionamento nel mercato
    domestico ed in quello internazionale e crea
    lImmagine dellazienda
  • Ricerca lequilibrio simultaneo nei diversi
    mercati anche attraverso la delocalizzazione
    spaziale della catena del valore
  • Ricerca un equilibrio dinamico nelle
    componenti
  • economiche, finanziarie e patrimoniali
    dellazienda
  • Determina le condizioni per la sopravvivenza
    o per lo sviluppo dellimpresa

7
Dimensione Economica
Economicità
Dimensione competitiva
Dimensione sociale
Capacità di rispondere alle attese degli
Stakeholders
Capacità di soddisfare i bisogni dei clienti
8
FORMULA IMPRENDITORIALE PIENAMENTE VALIDA
Una strategia efficace realizza lequilibrio
simultaneo di tutte le variabili
9
Le strategie di sviluppo dellimpresa
Acquisizione di nuova tecnologia
Ottimizzazione della localizzazione
Atmosfera di cambiamento positiva per
lorganizzazione
Rapidità
Crescita della quota di mercato
Superamento di barriere allentrata
Facilità di finanziamento
Convenienza
10
Le strategie di sviluppo dellimpresa
Economie di costo Economia di scala manageriali,
organizzative e finanziarie Economie di
scopo Diversificazione del rischio
Integrazione a monte Integrazione a valle
  • Sviluppo monosettoriale
  • Sviluppo polisettoriale
  • Sviluppo internazionale

Sviluppo verticale
Nuovi prodotti per i mercati tradizionali
Nuovi prodotti con sinergie di marketing e/o
tecnico-produttive, ingresso in nuovi mercati
Costituita da società facenti capo ad unimpresa
dominante la cui espansione avviene mediante la
partecipazione, il controllo e la gestione di
imprese operanti in altri Stati
Sviluppo di attività non correlate con le attuali
in termini di prodotti, mercati e tecnologie
Orizzontale
Espansione in altri Paesi con gusti dei
consumatori omogenei
Conglomerativa
Sviluppo multinazionale della gestione
11
1
  • Globalization

the trend towards a more integrated global
economic system
12
Globalization
  • Effects of globalization can be seen everywhere
  • the cars people drive
  • the food people eat
  • the jobs where people work
  • the clothes people wear

13
Globalization
  • WHAT IS GLOBALIZATION?
  • Globalization refers to the shift towards a more
    integrated and interdependent world economy.

14
Globalization
  • The Globalization of Markets
  • Globalization of markets the fact that in many
    industries historically distinct and separate
    national markets are merging into one huge global
    marketplace in which the tastes and preferences
    of consumers in different nations are beginning
    to converge upon some global norm.
  • Examples
  • Sony Playstation Citicorp credit cards
  • Coca-Cola McDonald's hamburgers

15
Globalization
  • The Globalization of Production
  • Globalization of production the tendency among
    many firms to source goods and services from
    different locations around the globe in an
    attempt to take advantage of national differences
    in the cost and quality of factors of production
    (such as land, labor, capital, and energy),
    thereby allowing them to compete more effectively
    against their rivals.
  • Examples
  • Boeing Dell

16
Globalization
  • THE EMERGENCE OF GLOBAL INSTITUTIONS
  • Global institutions
  • help manage, regulate, and police the global
    market place
  • promote the establishment of multinational
    treaties to govern the global business system

17
Globalization
  • Examples of Global Institutions
  • World Trade Organization (WTO) responsible for
    policing the world trading system and ensuring
    that nations adhere to the rules established in
    WTO treaties
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF) maintains
    order in the international monetary system
  • World Bank promotes economic development
  • United Nations (UN) maintains international
    peace and security, develops friendly relations
    among nations, cooperates in solving
    international problems and promotes respect for
    human rights, and is a center for harmonizing the
    actions of nations

18
Globalization
  • DRIVERS OF GLOBALIZATION
  • Two macro factors underlie the trend toward
    greater globalization
  • Declining trade and investment barriers
  • The role of technological change

19
Globalization
  • Declining Trade and Investment Barriers
  • After WWII, the industrialized countries of the
    West began the process of removing barriers to
    the free flow of goods, services, and capital
    between nations
  • Under GATT, over 100 nations negotiated further
    decreases in tariffs and made significant
    progress on a number of non-tariff issues

20
Globalization
  • Under the WTO, a mechanism now exists for dispute
    resolution and the enforcement of trade laws, and
    there is a push to cut tariffs on industrial
    goods, services, and agricultural products
  • Removal of barriers to trade has contributed to
    increased international trade (the export of
    goods or services to consumers in another
    country), world output, and foreign direct
    investment (the investing of resources and
    business activities outside a firms home
    country)

21
Globalization
  • The volume of world trade and investment has
    accelerated since the early 1980s.

22
Globalization
  • The Role of Technological Change
  • The lowering of trade barriers made globalization
    of markets and production a theoretical
    possibility, technological change made it a
    tangible reality.

23
Globalization
  • Microprocessors and Telecommunications Major
    advances in communications and information
    processing have lowered the cost of global
    communication and therefore the cost of
    coordinating and controlling a global
    organization
  • The Internet and the World Wide Web Web-based
    transactions have grown from virtually zero in
    1994 to nearly 7 trillion in 2004 . In 1990 - 1
    million users, by 1995 - 50 million users, by
    2007 - 1,3 billion users are connected to
    internet.
  • Transportation Technology the most important
    developments are probably development of
    commercial jet aircraft and super freighters and
    the introduction of containerization, which
    greatly simplifies trans-shipment from one mode
    of transport to another

24
Globalization
  • Implications for the Globalization of Production
  • Improvements in transportation technology have
    enabled firms to better respond to international
    customer demands
  • Dispersal of production to geographically
    separated locations became more economical

25
Globalization
  • Implications for the Globalization of Markets
  • Electronic global marketplace
  • Managers today operate in an environment that
    offers more opportunities, but is also more
    complex and competitive than that of a generation
    ago
  • Reduction of cultural distance between countries
    and some convergence of consumer tastes and
    preferences.

26
Globalization
  • THE CHANGING DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE GLOBAL ECONOMY
  • In the 1960s
  • the U.S. dominated the world economy and the
    world trade picture
  • U.S. multinationals dominated the international
    business scene
  • about half the world-- the centrally planned
    economies of the communist world-- was off limits
    to Western international business

27
Globalization
  • The Changing World Output and the Changing World
    Trade Picture
  • In the early 1960s, the U.S. was the world's
    dominant industrial power accounting for about
    40.3 percent of world manufacturing output
  • By 2007 the United States accounted for only
    20.7 percent
  • Rapid economic growth is now being experienced
    by countries such as China, Thailand, and
    Indonesia
  • Further relative decline in the U.S. share of
    world output and world exports seems likely
  • Forecasts predict a rapid rise in the share of
    world output accounted for by developing nations
    such as China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, and
    South Korea, and a decline in the share by
    industrialized countries such as Britain, Japan,
    and the United States

28
Globalization
  • The changing picture of world output and trade

29
Globalization
  • The Changing Foreign Direct Investment Picture
  • The share of world output generated by
    developing countries has been steadily increasing
    since the 1960s
  • The stock (total cumulative value of foreign
    investments) generated by rich industrial
    countries has been on a steady decline
  • There has been a sustained growth in
    cross-border flows of foreign direct investment
  • The flow of foreign direct investment (amounts
    invested across national borders each year) has
    been directed at developing nations especially
    China

30
Globalization
  • The stock of FDI by the worlds six most
    important national sources.

31
Globalization
  • The Changing Nature of Multinational Enterprises
  • A multinational enterprise is any business that
    has productive activities in two or more
    countries.
  • The Rise of Mini-Multinationals
  • The number of mini-multinationals (small and
    medium-sized companies) is on the rise

32
Globalization
  • Expect the growth of new multinational
    enterprises (any business that has productive
    activities in two or more countries) from the
    world's developing nations
  • The Rise of Mini-Multinationals
  • The number of mini-multinationals (small and
    medium-sized companies) is on the rise

33
Globalization
  • The Changing World Order
  • The collapse of communism in Eastern Europe
    represents a host of export and investment
    opportunities for Western businesses
  • The economic development of China presents huge
    opportunities and risks, in spite of its
    continued Communist control
  • Mexico and Latin America also present tremendous
    new opportunities both as markets and sources of
    materials and production
  • Firms must be aware that while the more
    integrated global economy presents new
    opportunities, it also could result in political
    and economic disruptions that may throw plans
    into disarray

34
Globalization
  • THE GLOBALIZATION DEBATE
  • Is the shift toward a more integrated and
    interdependent global economy a good thing?
  • Anti-globalization Protests
  • Anti-globalization protesters now turn up at
    almost every major meeting of a global
    institution
  • Protesters fear that globalization is forever
    changing the world in a negative way

35
Globalization
  • Globalization, Jobs, and Incomes
  • Critics of globalization worry that jobs are
    being lost to low-wage nations
  • Supporters of globalization argue that free
    trade will result in countries specializing in
    the production of those goods and services that
    they can produce most efficiently, while
    importing goods and services that they cannot
    produce as efficiently

36
Globalization
  • Globalization, Labor Policies, and the
    Environment
  • Critics of globalization argue that that free
    trade encourages firms from advanced nations to
    move manufacturing facilities offshore to less
    developed countries with lax environmental and
    labor regulations
  • Supporters of free trade point out that tougher
    environmental regulation and stricter labor
    standards go hand in hand with economic progress
    and that foreign investment often helps a country
    to raise its standards

37
Globalization
  • Globalization and National Sovereignty
  • Critics of globalization worry that economic
    power is shifting away from national governments
    and toward supranational organizations such as
    the World Trade Organization (WTO), the European
    Union (EU), and the United Nations

38
Globalization
  • Globalization and the Worlds Poor
  • Critics of globalization argue that the gap
    between rich and poor has gotten wider and that
    the benefits of globalization have not been
    shared equally
  • Supporters of free trade suggest that the
    actions of governments have made limited economic
    improvement in many countries

39
Globalization
  • MANAGING IN THE GLOBAL MARKETPLACE
  • Managing an international business (any firm that
    engages in international trade or investment) is
    different from managing a domestic business
    because
  • countries differ
  • managers face a greater and more complex range
    of problems
  • international companies must work within the
    limits imposed by governmental intervention
    and the global trading system
  • international transactions require converting
    funds and being susceptible to exchange rate
    changes
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