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Winter Weather Awareness and Safety


Winter Weather Awareness and Safety Central Alabama Snowfall Event March 1st 2009 ... or sleet are expected to cause hazardous driving conditions. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Winter Weather Awareness and Safety

Winter Weather Awareness and Safety
Central Alabama Snowfall Event March 1st 2009
Winter 2012-2013
Winter 2012-2013
How Winter Storms are Formed
  • There are many ways for winter storms to form
    however, all have three key components.
  • COLD AIR For snow and ice to form, the
    temperature must be below freezing in the clouds
    and near the ground.
  • MOISTURE Water evaporating from bodies of water,
    such as a large lake or the ocean, is an
    excellent source of moisture.
  • LIFT Lift causes moisture to rise and form
    clouds and precipitation. An example of lift is
    warm air colliding with cold air and being forced
    to rise. Another example of lift is air flowing
    up a mountain side.

Winter Storm Producers
Warm Front
Cold Front
Lake Effect
Mountain Effect
  • Major Winter Weather Threats in the Southeast
  • Ice Storms
  • Occasional Snow
  • Cold Stress
  • Crop Killing Freezes

Ice Storms
  • Heavy accumulations of ice can bring down trees
    and topple utility poles and communication
  • Ice can disrupt communications and power for days
    while utility companies repair extensive damage.
  • Even small accumulations of ice can be extremely
    dangerous to motorists and pedestrians.
  • Bridges and overpasses are particularly dangerous
    because they freeze before other surfaces.

Winter Precipitation
Freezing Rain
Frozen precipitation melts in warm air rain
falls and freezes on cold surfaces as a sheet of
Frozen precipitation melts refreezes into sleet
before hitting ground.
Snow falling into cold air never melts.
Frozen precipitation melts into rain.
Historical Ice Storms
  • Ice storms can cause billions of dollars worth of
  • 1993- Storm of the Century costs estimated at
    7.0B and 270 deaths.
  • 1994- Southeastern Ice Storm costs estimated at
    3.7B and 9 deaths.
  • 1998- NE Ice Storm costs estimated at 1.5B and
    16 deaths.

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Alabama Snowfall
Alabama Snowfall
Cold Stress
  • Exposure to cold can cause frostbite or
    hypothermia and
  • become life-threatening.
  • Infants and elderly people are most susceptible.
  • What constitutes extreme cold varies in
    different parts of the country.
  • In the South, near freezing temperatures are
    considered extreme cold!!!
  • Freezing temperatures can cause severe damage to
    crops and other vegetation.
  • Pipes may freeze and burst in homes that are
    poorly insulated or without heat.

Cold Stress
  • Crop Damage

Cold Stress
Cold Stress
  • Frostbite and hypothermia can become life
    threatening! Prevention is KEY! Cover all exposed

Alabama Statistics
... Greatest 24-Hour Snowfall Records ... ... Greatest 24-Hour Snowfall Records ... ... Greatest 24-Hour Snowfall Records ...
Huntsville 11 Dec. 31 - Jan. 1, 1964
Birmingham 13 Mar. 12-13, 1993
Montgomery 11 Dec. 5-6, 1886
Mobile 6 Feb. 14-15, 1895
... Coldest Temperature Records ... ... Coldest Temperature Records ... ... Coldest Temperature Records ...
Huntsville -11 Jan. 30, 1966 Jan. 21, 1985
Birmingham -10 Feb. 13, 1899
Montgomery -5 Feb. 13, 1899
Mobile -1 Feb. 13, 1899
Alabama Statistics
... Average Snowfall... ... Average Snowfall...
Huntsville 2.5
Birmingham 1.4
Montgomery 0.5
Mobile 0.4
Freeze Dates Means and Extremes Freeze Dates Means and Extremes Freeze Dates Means and Extremes Freeze Dates Means and Extremes Freeze Dates Means and Extremes Freeze Dates Means and Extremes
City Average Record Average Record
Huntsville Nov 5 Oct 9, 2000 Mar 30 May 2, 1909
Birmingham Nov 8 Oct 18, 1948 Mar23 Apr 23, 1986
Montgomery Nov 17 Oct 20, 1989 Mar 8 Apr 13, 1940
Mobile Nov 26 Oct 28, 1957 Feb 27 Apr 13, 1940
Winter Weather Terminology
  • Winter Storm Warning Issued when a combination
    of significant accumulations of snow, freezing
    rain, or sleet is expected. Winter Storm Warnings
    are usually issued within 24 hours before the
    event is expected.
  • Winter Storm Watch Alerts the public to the
    potential for winter storm conditions within the
    next 12 to 36 hours.
  • Winter Weather Advisory Issued when
    accumulations of snow, freezing rain/drizzle, or
    sleet are expected to cause hazardous driving
  • Wind Chill Advisory Issued when the wind chill
    temperatures are expected to range from zero to
    ten below zero.
  • Wind Chill Warning Issued when wind chill
    temperatures are expected to be colder than ten
    below zero.

Winter Weather Terminology
  • Snow Flurries Snow falling for short durations
    with very little or no accumulation.
  • Snow Showers Snow falling at varying intensities
    for a brief time. Some accumulation is possible.
  • Significant (heavy) Snow In Alabama, snow
    accumulations greater than 2 inches in 12 hours.
  • Sleet Rain drops that freeze into ice pellets
    before reaching the ground. Sleet usually bounces
    when hitting a surface and does not stick to
    objects. However, it can accumulate like snow and
    cause a hazard to motorists and pedestrians.
  • Freezing Rain Rain that falls onto a surface
    with a temperature below freezing. This causes it
    to freeze to surfaces, such as trees, cars, and
    roads, forming a coating or glaze of ice.

Safety Tips
  • In General...
  • Keep ahead of a winter weather by listening to
    the latest weather warnings and bulletins on NOAA
    Weather Radio, local radio or television. Be
    alert to changing conditions and avoid
    unnecessary travel.
  • For your homePlan ahead!
  • Check battery powered equipment, and stock extra
    batteries for flashlights and a portable
    television or radio. Also, check emergency
    cooking facilities.
  • Check your food and stock an extra supply. Your
    supplies should include food that requires no
    cooking or refrigeration in case of power
    failures. Consider high energy foods such as
    dried fruit or candy. Dont forget prescription
    medicines, first aid supplies, and other
    specialty items.

Safety Tips
  • continued
  • Check your supply of heating fuel, but prevent
    fire hazards due to overheated coal or
    oil-burning stoves, fireplaces, heaters, or
  • Stay indoors during storms and cold snaps.
    Elderly persons, children, and those in bad
    health may be especially susceptible to cold
    weather. Avoid overexertion, especially if
    shoveling snow.
  • Dress to fit the season. Loose, layered clothing
    will keep your warm, and a hat and mittens will
    protect your extremities.
  • Winterize your home by caulking around openings,
    installing storm windows, and adding insulation.
  • Dont forget your pets or livestock. Move animals
    to sheltered areas. For pets, bring them indoors
    or provide some form of heat. Provide fresh water
    since many pets die from dehydration in winter

Safety Tips
  • In your prepared!
  • Get your car winterized before the storm season
    begins. Maintain a checklist of the preparation
  • Carry a winter storm car kit, especially if you
    plan cross country travel or anticipate travel in
    northern states. Items to consider include a
    mobile phone and charger, blankets or sleeping
    bags, flashlights and batteries, first aid kit,
    non-perishable foods, extra clothing, window
    scraper, water, road maps, small shovel, and
    kitty litter or sand for traction.
  • If the storm exceeds or even tests your driving
    limitations, seek available shelter immediately.
    Plan your travel and select primary and alternate
    routes. Check the latest weather information
    before departing, and drive carefully and
    defensively. Avoid traveling alone, and be sure
    someone knows your travel plans and route of

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