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Conflict Resolution and Negotiation Skills for Integrated Water Resources Management

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Introduction: Reasons for Water Crisis Water resources under pressure from population growth, economic activity, growing competition from many water users; ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Conflict Resolution and Negotiation Skills for Integrated Water Resources Management


1
Conflict Resolution and Negotiation Skills for
Integrated Water Resources Management
Module One Integrated Water Resources
Management and Conflict Resolution
2
Objectives and Outcomes of the session
  • Objectives
  • To understand the meaning and principles of IWRM
  • To demonstrate relevance of IWRM for managing
    conflicts
  • To introduce various tipping points for conflict
    and cooperation on water resources

3
Objectives and Outcomes of the session
  • OUTCOMES
  • The participant will have a clear understanding
    of the link between IWRM, conflict and conflict
    management, and have a clear understanding of the
    relevance of conflict management skills.
  • SKILLS
  • The participant will be able to systematically
    analyze his or her own particular setting through
    the lens of IWRM and to perceive possible entry
    points for conflict resolution from the
    perspective of Alternative Dispute Resolution
    (ADR).

4
Presentation Outline
  • Introduction
  • What is IWRM
  • IWRM principles and elements
  • IWRM and conflict management
  • Tipping points for conflict..cooperation

5
1. Introduction
  • The Importance of Water
  • Water is essential to human survival (20-40
    litres per person daily)
  • Effective primary health care
  • Fight poverty, hunger, child mortality, gender
    inequality and environmental damage.
  • Millennium Development Goals

6
1. Introduction Facts on Water Crisis
  • More than 2 billion people suffer from water
    shortages in over 40 countries
  • 1.1 billion people do not have access to safe
    drinking water
  • 2 million tonnes per day of human waste is
    discharged into water courses
  • Every year 1.6 million children below 5 years old
    die because of unsafe water and lack of basic
    sanitation.

7
1. Introduction Reasons for Water Crisis
  • Water resources under pressure from population
    growth, economic activity, growing competition
    from many water users
  • Withdrawals increased more than twice the rate of
    population growth
  • Development and pollution are exacerbating water
    scarcity
  • Uncoordinated development and management of water
    resources
  • Climate change will impact on water resources.

8
2. What is IWRM?
  • A systematic process for sustainable development,
    allocation and monitoring of water resource use
    in the context of social, economic and
    environmental goals and objectives.
  • IWRM is a process which promotes the coordinated
    development and management of water, land and
    related resources, in order to maximize the
    resultant economic and social welfare in an
    equitable manner without compromising the
    sustainability of vital ecosystems (GWP 2000)

9
2. What is IWRM? IWRM is a paradigm shift
  • Departs from traditional approaches in three
    ways
  • Cross-cutting and departs from traditional
    sectoral approach.
  • Spatial focus is the river basin
  • Departure from narrow professional and political
    boundaries and perspectives and broadened to
    incorporate participatory decision-making of all
    stakeholders (Inclusion versus exclusion).

10
2. What is IWRM? Interdependency
  • The basis of IWRM is that there are a variety of
    uses of water resources which are interdependent.

The need to consider the different uses of water
together
11
2. What is IWRM? Competing but Interdependent Uses
12
2. What is IWRM? A Water Balancing Act
13
2. What is IWRM? Dimensional View
14
2. What is IWRM?
15
3. IWRM Principles and elements
  • 1. Fresh water is a finite and vulnerable
    resource.
  • 2. Water development and management should be
    based on a participatory approach.
  • 3. Women play central role in provision,
    management and safeguarding of water.
  • 4. Water has an economic value but should be
    recognised as an economic good and a social good.

16
Principle 1 Freshwater is a finite and
vulnerable resource.
17
Why is it vulnerable?
  • Water is essential for development and is
    vulnerable to development.
  • Holistic approach Link social and economic
    development with the protection of natural
    ecosystems.
  • Integrated Perspective No dichotomy between land
    use and water use.
  • The river basin is the logical unit for water
    resources management.

18
Principle 2 Water development management
should be participatory.
  • Everyone is a stakeholder (inclusion/exclusion)
  • Democratisation of decision-making principle is
    adopted
  • Ideally, multiple stakeholders
  • In reality, involvement in decision-making at the
    most feasible level (subsidiary)
  • Gender sensitive and sensitive to
    issues of vulnerability and poverty.

19
Benefits of participation
  • More successful projects in terms of scale,
    design, operation and maintenance
  • Improve cost recovery . Key to revenue generation
    and financing
  • Environmental resources are protected and
    cultural and human rights are respected
  • Coordinate interests and resolve conflicts
  • Increase transparency and accountability in
    decision-making.

20
Challenges to the Participatory Approach
  • Participation does not always achieve consensus
  • Arbitration processes and conflict resolution
    mechanisms needed.
  • Government intervention needed to create enabling
    environment for marginalised social groups (poor,
    indigenous people, the elderly women.
  • Disadvantaged groups must also have the capacity
    to participate.

21
Think about it
  • In your country are all stakeholders involved in
    decision-making on water supply, management and
    investment decisions?

22
Principle 3 Women play a central role in the
provision, management and safeguarding of water.
  • In many countries women are the collectors of
    water, responsible for safeguarding water for
    domestic use and agricultural use.
  • Women less instrumental than men in key areas
  • Management
  • Problem analysis
  • Decision-making in relation to design of systems
    and investment etc.

23
Links between Gender and IWRM
  • Gender and environmental sustainability linkages.
  • Gender and economic efficiency linkages.
  • Gender and social equity linkages.

24
Gender and economic efficiency linkages
  • Women may be less mobile and have payment
    constraints.
  • Payment centres should be in closer proximity to
    their homes.
  • Payment amounts should be smaller and can be made
    at more regular intervals making more affordable.

25
Think about it
  • In your country is a gender-sensitive approach
    being used to manage water resources?
  • If not, give reasons why this approach has not
    been adopted.

26
Principle 4 Water has an economic value among
all competing uses and should be recognised as
an economic good as well as a social good.
  • Water has a value as an economic good as well as
    a social good.
  • The value of water in alternative uses is
    important for the rational allocation of water as
    an economic good as well as a social good.

27
Think about it
  • Is there any adoption of water management
    principles in your country? Where can you find
    them?

28
Key Criteria and elements of IWRM
Figure 8. The Three pillars of Integrated Water
Resources Management
29
Key Criteria and elements of IWRM -- Change Areas
  • Enabling environment
  • Setting goals for water use, protection and
    conservation.
  • Legislative framework the rules to follow to
    achieve policies and goals.
  • Financing and incentive structures allocating
    financial resources to meet water needs.

30
Key Criteria and elements of IWRM -- Change Areas
  • Institutional roles
  • Creating an organizational framework forms and
    functions.
  • Institutional capacity building developing
    human resources.

31
Key Criteria and elements of IWRM -- Change Areas
  • Water Resources Management
  • Water resources assessment understanding
    resources and needs.
  • Plans for IWRM combining development options,
    resource use and human interaction.
  • Demand management using water more efficiently.
  • Social change instruments encouraging a
    water-oriented civil society.

32
Key Criteria and elements of IWRM -- Change Areas
  • Conflict resolution managing disputes, ensuring
    sharing of water.
  • Regulatory instruments allocation and water use
    limits.
  • Economic instruments using value and prices for
    efficiency equity.
  • Information management and exchange improving
    knowledge for better water management.

33
4. IWRM and conflict management Tipping points
for conflict..cooperation
  • Given all the IWRM change areas, its introduction
    to the existing systems of water resources
    management creates a climate for both conflict
    and cooperation.

34
4. IWRM and conflict management Tipping points
for conflict..cooperation
  • Achieving good water governance
  • Each IWRM change areas holds potential to
    contribute to more equitable, efficient and
    sustainable water use and management
  • But, it also holds the potential to create
    conflict within and across user groups and
    societies.
  • While change is key, how one enters this
    environment the time, place and pace are
    equally important.

35
4. IWRM and conflict management Tipping points
for conflict..cooperation
  • Securing water for people
  • Access to safe and sufficient water and
    sanitation (basic human needs essential to health
    and well-being).
  • Meeting water supply and sanitation needs for
    urban and rural areas especially in developing
    countries represents one of the most serious
    challenges in the years ahead.

36
4. IWRM and conflict management Tipping points
for conflict..cooperation
  • Securing water for food
  • Population projections - Over the next 25 years
    food will be needed for 2-3 billion more people.
  • Water is seen as a key constraint on food
    production, equivalent to if not more crucial
    than land scarcity.
  • Irrigated agriculture is already responsible for
    more than 70 of all water withdrawals (more than
    90 of all consumptive use of water).

37
4. IWRM and conflict management Tipping points
for conflict..cooperation
  • Even with an estimated need for an additional
    15-20 of irrigation water over the next 25 years
    - which is probably on the low side serious
    conflicts are likely to arise between water for
    irrigated agriculture and water for other human
    and ecosystem uses.

38
4. IWRM and conflict management Tipping points
for conflict..cooperation
  • Water for ecosystems
  • Land and water resources management must ensure
    that vital ecosystems are maintained and that
    adverse effects on other natural resources are
    considered and where possible reduced when
    development and management decisions are made.

39
4. IWRM and conflict management Tipping points
for conflict..cooperation
  • Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems produce a
    range of economic benefits depending on water
    flows.
  • Does this mean that concerns for environmental
    protection stand above the needs of economic
    development?
  • Limited resources requires managing the
    environment and development, or approaching
    development from an environmentally sensitive way
    is not always possible. Trade-offs will be
    necessary, but how and who to decide?

40
4. IWRM and conflict management Tipping points
for conflict..cooperation
  • Gender disparities
  • The way that water resources are managed affects
    women and men differently.
  • Throughout the world, and particularly in rural
    areas, women are the custodians of family health
    and hygiene and providers of domestic water and
    food. Women therefore are the primary
    stakeholders in household water and sanitation.

41
4. IWRM and conflict management Tipping points
for conflict..cooperation
  • Yet, decisions on water supply and sanitation
    technologies, locations of water points and
    operation and maintenance systems are mostly made
    by men. How may this effectively be changed?
    What, exactly, does mainstreaming gender mean?

42
4. IWRM and conflict management Tipping points
for conflict..cooperation
  • Managing Risks
  • Drought, flood, point-source and diffuse
    pollution, upstream actions with downstream
    impacts these are all common events with often
    uncommon and unpredictable outcomes.
  • Ensuring early warning systems and adequate
    structural responses to both natural and
    human-made calamities are key activities in
    conflict avoidance.

43
4. IWRM and conflict management Tipping points
for conflict..cooperation
  • Positive initial responses must be built upon and
    lead to appropriate mitigation and adaptation
    procedures this is all the more important in
    the face of the anticipated negative effects on
    of global warming on local and global
    hydrological cycles.

44
4. IWRM and conflict management Tipping points
for conflict..cooperation
  • Valuing water
  • In addition to the economic, water in all its
    uses has social, environmental and cultural
    value.
  • In addition to the economic cost of service
    delivery water pricing must reflect issues of
    equity, and meeting the needs of the environment,
    the poor and the vulnerable.

45
4. IWRM and conflict management Tipping points
for conflict..cooperation
  • That means decisions must be made in culturally,
    socially, economically and environmentally
    sensitive ways surely a recipe for conflict!

46
4. IWRM and conflict management Tipping points
for conflict..cooperation
  • Water for Industry and Cities
  • Should agriculture continue to have 70 of all
    withdrawals when the sector contributes only 4
    to the GDP? While industry uses less water to
    more profitable effect, there are ecological
    costs involved.
  • Many states are eager to attract new industry,
    but lack the capacity to monitor their behaviour
    fearing that applying the polluter pays rule will
    drive them out to a neighbouring country, many
    governments are unwilling to adhere to their own
    laws regarding environmental and social health.

47
4. IWRM and conflict management Tipping points
for conflict..cooperation
  • As cities grow, the demand for water rises and
    governments may be faced with questions of
    building dams or transferring water from one
    basin to another.
  • Rural people may lose out in these decisions.
    What are the ways forward? And how to manage the
    conflicts that are sure to arise?

48
4. IWRM and conflict management Tipping points
for conflict..cooperation
  • Water in a Transboundary setting
  • States often act unilaterally when it comes to
    the management of transboundary waters. This is
    especially the case when the upstream state is
    more politically and economically powerful than
    the downstream state.

49
4. IWRM and conflict management Tipping points
for conflict..cooperation
  • What do states disagree upon? The pie-chart (next
    slide) shows that most often states argue about
    the quantity of water and the types of
    infrastructure in place that affect the amount
    and timing of flows.

50
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51
Key IWRM questions to ask yourself
  • What is the evidence of commitment to integrated
    water resources management in your country?
  • Considering the water management structures in
    your country, what institutional and legal
    reforms are needed to implement IWRM?
  • Is there an urgency to manage water resources in
    an integrated manner and how is this best done?
    What will be the benefits for the different
    sectors?
  • How are men and women affected differently by
    changes in water resources management in your
    country?
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