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JAA CNS/ATM Steering Group

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Briefing Objectives Acronyms FAA Program Updates VHF Communication Equipment Data Link Recording Flight Data Recorders New RTCA SC-220 Automatic Flight Guidance ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: JAA CNS/ATM Steering Group


1
JAA CNS/ATM Steering Group
  • FAA Avionic Systems Report

Presented by Peter Skaves, Aircraft
Certification Service, Avionic Systems Branch,
February 10th, 2009
2
Briefing Objectives
  • Acronyms
  • FAA Program Updates
  • VHF Communication Equipment
  • Data Link Recording
  • Flight Data Recorders
  • New RTCA SC-220 Automatic Flight Guidance and
    Control Committee
  • Wireless Airborne Communication Security
  • Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast
  • Discussion and wrap-up

3
Acronyms
  • Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC)
  • Advisory Circular (AC)
  • Aircraft Certification Service (AIR)
  • Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG)
  • Airline Administrative Communication (AAC)
  • Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast
    (ADS-B)
  • Automatic Flight Guidance Control (AFGC)
  • Electronic Flight Bag (EFB)
  • European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA)
  • Flight Standards Service (AFS)
  • Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA)
  • Technical Standard Order (TSO)
  • Temporary Guidance Leaflet (TGL)
  • Very High Frequency (VHF)

4
VHF Communications Equipment
5
VHF Communications Committee Activities
  • TSO-C169A VHF Communication Equipment
  • DO-186B VHF MOPS
  • Not harmonized with ED-23B/Amend 3
  • RTCA/Industry is not planning on re-convening
    committee to address differences
  • Administratively a huge problem for FAA having to
    deal with many deviations
  • Recommend FAA/EASA establish a joint RTCA/EUROCAE
    committee to minimize regulatory oversight/dual
    equipage

6
VHF Communications TSO
  • TSO-C122 Devices which Prevent Simultaneous
    Transmissions (step on microphone conversation)
  • RTCA DO-209
  • Not popular with radio manufacturers (only 1 TSOA
    holder)
  • TSO-C128 Devices which Prevent Unintentional
    Transmissions (stuck microphone)
  • RTCA DO-207
  • Very popular with radio manufacturers
  • C122 and C128 are considered voluntary equipage
  • TSO-C160 VDL Mode 2 Equipment
  • DO-281A
  • Equipment Architecture Classes include VHF
    Digital Radios

7
VHF Communications Harmonization
  • Other issues that require harmonization of FAA
    TSO and EASA ETSO standards
  • ITU expansion of VHF Communication band from
    118.000-136.975MHz to 112.000-136.975MHz
  • Control/display issues
  • Simultaneous transmissions on VOR frequencies?
  • 8.33kHz Offset Carrier
  • Harmonization is required
  • VDL Mode 2 Multiple Frequency Operation
  • Safety implications if not properly
    standardized/harmonized
  • Important to SESAR/NextGen programs

8
Data Link Recording
9
Background
  • FANS Interoperability Team (FIT)
  • Late 1993-1995
  • Deferred NTSB recommendation for recording of
    FANS-1 TWDL (CPDLC)
  • NTSB recommendation A-99-17
  • 1999 draft recommendation written specifically
    for FANS data link
  • Official recommendation states CPDLC
  • Clarification of intent was all data link
    messages that could affect pilot workload or
    continued safety flight of the aircraft
  • Establishing data messages to be recorded
  • AIR-1 asked of feasibility of NTSB recommendation
    in rulemaking
  • AVR-1 (AVS-1) stated that any rulemaking must not
    impact ACARS (AOC only) equipped aircraft

10
Data Link Recording Scope Options
  • Record all messages to/from cockpit
  • Pros
  • Less complex engineering (routing, continued
    airworthiness, etc)
  • More post accident/incident information
  • Cons
  • Huge fleet impact
  • Potentially high bandwidth
  • May include proprietary information (AOC/AAC)
  • Record subset of all messages to/from cockpit
  • Pros
  • Less impact upon fleet / lower cost of rule
  • Potentially lower bandwidth
  • Cons
  • More complex engineering (routing, continued
    airworthiness, etc)
  • Must define mandatory message sets (not easy!)

11
Technical Coordination AEEC
  • Flight Recorder SC / Data Link SC
  • Analysis performed for worst case (all messages
    recorded)
  • Recorder memory was adequate
  • Would require more memory, however
  • Increasing memory was inexpensive compared to
    recorder qualification
  • Graphics were not considered a showstopper with
    existing compression algorithms
  • Multiple bursts of data link messages was of
    concern
  • Would require high-speed bus
  • May introduce latency between CMU and Recorder

12
Data Recording Considerations
  • Based upon the no ACARS only directive and the
    technical considerations, it was decided that the
    most beneficial solution was to record those
    messages that would have the greatest safety
    contributions in a post accident scenario.

13
Harmonization/Coordination
  • FAA / AIR-130 made considerable effort to
    harmonize the recording scope
  • JAA CNS/ATM Steering Group
  • EASA
  • ICAO FLIREC Panel
  • However, NPA development was progressing in a
    much more conservative direction
  • Initially record everything (in accordance with
    Annex 6)
  • Then, record all ATSC messages (including ACARS
    only)
  • NPA content and scope is still under deliberation
  • Currently, FAA rule is considered not
    harmonized1 with JAA/EASA planning (i.e.,
    recording scope not the same)
  • FAA rule scope is a subset of latest draft NPA

1 Reference final rule preamble
14
Rule Content (sheet 1 of 2)
  • Parts 91, 121, 129, 135
  • Example91.609(j) - All airplanes or rotorcraft
    required by this section to have a cockpit voice
    recorder and a flight data recorder, that install
    datalink communication equipment on or after
    INSERT DATE 2 YEARS FROM THE EFFECTIVE DATE OF
    THE FINAL RULE, must record all datalink
    messages as required by the certification rule
    applicable to the aircraft.
  • No retrofit requirement
  • Captures new aircraft production, as well as new
    data link installation on legacy aircraft

15
Rule Content (sheet 2 of 2)
  • Parts 23, 25, 27, 29
  • Example23.1457(a)(6) - If datalink
    communication equipment is installed, all
    datalink communications, using an approved data
    message set. Datalink messages must be recorded
    as the output signal from the communications unit
    that translates the signal into usable data.
  • Approved data message set is defined in
    preamble by direct reference to Advisory Material

16
Means of Compliance
  • AC 20-160 Data Link Recording in Onboard Crash
    Survivable Memory
  • References EUROCAE ED-93 MASPS for CNS/ATM
    Message Recording Systems
  • Recorded information
  • Content - Complete message vs. message ID
    variable(s)
  • Priority Display or transmission priority
    levels
  • Queues Messages received, messages generated
    but not sent
  • Status Received, displayed, saved, recalled
  • Timing Defines reference to other recorded
    information

17
Data Link Messages to be Recorded
  • AC 20-160 requires recording of Controller Pilot
    Data Link Communication (CPDLC), defined as
  • ICAO Doc 4444 Procedures for Air Navigation
    Services Air Traffic Management (PANS/ATM)
  • App. 5 Controller Pilot Data Link Communication
    (CPDLC) Message Set
  • Uplink and downlink message elements
  • Based upon voice phraseology

18
Data Link Recording Equipment Qualification
  • TSO-C177 Data Link Recording Systems
  • ED-112 MOPS for Airborne Crash Protected Recorder
    Systems

19
Areas Requiring Harmonization
  • Europe requires retrofit requirement
  • Installation of data link provisions
  • Modification of the data link message set
  • FANS-1/A CPDLC vs. ATN CPDLC
  • ICAO Doc 4444 App.5 may include some ACARS ATS
    messages (PDC, DCL, OCX)
  • Future data communication message elements
  • Message queues
  • Message timing
  • Recording points

20
VHF Communications Equipment Data Link
Recording
  • For further information, please contactMatt
    WadeAircraft Communications Program Mgr.Avionic
    Systems Branch425.227.2751

21
Flight Data Recorders
22
Revisions to Cockpit Voice Recorder and Digital
Flight Data Recorder Regulations (Slide 1 of 2)
  • Effective date April 7, 2008
  • Increases duration of certain CVR recordings
  • Increases data recording rate for certain DFDR
    parameters
  • Physical separation of DFDR and CVR
  • Improves reliability of DFDR and CVR power
    supplies

23
Revisions to Cockpit Voice Recorder and Digital
Flight Data Recorder Regulations (Slide 2 of 2)
  • FAA published AC 20-160 Onboard Recording of
    Controller Pilot Data Link Communication In Crash
    Survivable Memory, dated 2/21/08
  • Recording is enforced if data link communication
    equipment is installed on an aircraft on or after
    April 7, 2010

24
Revisions to Digital Flight Data Recorder
Regulations for Boeing 737 Airplanes and for all
Part 125 Airplanes
  • Effective data February 2, 2008.
  • Increases the number of DFDR parameters for all
    Boeing 737 series airplanes manufactured after
    August 18, 2000.
  • Parameters 88 (for 57 parameter recorders), 89,
    90, and 91
  • Prohibits deviations from flight data recorder
    requirements for all airplanes operating under
    part 125.

25
Filtered Flight Data
  • SNPRM public comment period closed December 29,
    2008.
  • FAA defines filtered flight data signal as
    filtered when an original sensor signal has been
    changed in any way, other than changes necessary
    to
  • Accomplish analog to digital conversion of the
    signal
  • Format a digital signal to be DFDR compatible or
  • Eliminate a high frequency component of a signal
    that is outside the operational bandwidth of the
    sensor.
  • Final rule is estimated to be published in Spring
    2010.

26
AC 20-141A Revision (Slide 1 of 4)
  • Airworthiness and Operational Approval of
    Digital Flight Data Recorder Systems published
    December 8, 2008.
  • Cancels AC 20-141, dated October 5, 1999.
  • Provides FAA information on certification and
    continued airworthiness of Digital Flight Data
    Recorder Systems.

27
AC 20-141A Revision (Slide 2 of 4)
  • Separation of TC holder and operator
    responsibilities
  • Additions to Definitions
  • Correlation data, dedicated sources, dynamic
    condition, readily retrievable, reasonableness
  • Revisions to Definitions
  • Correlation, correlation coefficient (0.99),
    DFDAU, DFDRS, functional check (3 types), single
    source, split flight control parameter

28
AC 20-141A Revision (Slide 3 of 4)
  • Recommends use of ARINC 647A Flight Recorder
    Electronic Documentation
  • Clarifies regulatory correlation requirements
    in TC and operating rules
  • Additional Method to Establish Correlation
    Coefficient
  • Sensor Reliability Potentiometers

29
AC 20-141A Revision (Slide 4 of 4)
  • Rotorcraft Combination FDR/CVR
  • Procedures to Establish a Correlation When
    Information is not Available
  • Flowchart of Parameter Applicability
  • Reserved Appendix for Guidance and Considerations
    on Filtered Flight Data

30
Recording Solutions for Unequipped Aircraft
  • Program Overview
  • EUROCAE WG-77, June, 2009
  • Eurocopter and Bell CIRS installations being
    evaluated

31
Aircraft Equipage Requirements
Part 91
Part 135
Part 121
No Recorders Required
Piston Engine
Turbine Powered Aircraft (lt10 seat)
Multi-Engine Turbine Powered Aircraft (gt10 seats)
FDR CVR Required
32
Cockpit Information Recording System
  • A low-cost, non-intrusive alternative/supplement
    to FDR
  • Records instruments, outside view of cockpit,
    control inputs, and lever adjustments.
  • Ideal for all aircraft models by eliminating the
    need for expensive and intrusive sensor
    installations

33
Advantages of a Cockpit Information Recording
System
  • Small size
  • Relatively inexpensive
  • Shows all gages, warning panels and control
    inputs
  • Ruggedized
  • GPS time/location stamp
  • Potential for real-time fleet tracking
  • Audio sensor for acoustic analysis
  • Useful for training / flight test
  • Operational oversight
  • Protection for pilots
  • Less intrusive for older aircraft

34
Camera
  • Network Camera
  • Shoots between one and twelve still images per
    second
  • Can be streamed to video
  • Works for day/night/NVG flights unaltered
  • Megapixel resolution up to 1280x1024
  • Built-in microphone for acoustic analysis

35
Questions?
FAA Headquarters Contact Information Brian
Verna, 202-385-4643 Maurice (Mac) Cookson,
202-385-4687
36
RTCA SC-220 Automatic Flight Guidance Control
37
Outline
  • Why the New Special Committee was Formed
  • Terms of Reference
  • Recommended PMC Action

38
Request for new Special Committee
  • Automatic Flight Guidance Control (AFGC) are
    becoming more complex, automated and integrated
  • TSO-C9c, Automatic Pilots, October 15, 1960,
    requires update as the standards are obsolete
  • Many deviation requests to TSO-C9c
  • Provide significant safety improvements in the
    future, including small GA airplane rotorcraft
  • Envelope protection can reduce Loss of Control
    accidents, particularly for GA as pilot
    experience base continues to decline

39
Performance Criteria Example
  • A Certification Example
  • TSO-C9c performance requirements Corrective
    Control The automatic pilot (AP) shall be
    capable of restoring the aircraft to the
    commanded attitude about the three axes
    throughout the following minimum ranges
  • a. Pitch 50
  • b. Roll 75
  • c. Yaw 20
  • Different interpretations from different
    applicants and ACO engineers engage AP then
    override or establish attitude and then engage
    AP?
  • Requires deviation from FAA required maneuver
    considered acrobatic for transport, small
    airplanes, and helicopters

40
Terms of Reference Overview
  • Minimum Operational Performance Standard (MOPS)
    for AFGC
  • Safety, performance, protective mechanisms,
    general operational requirements, environmental
    requirements, etc.
  • Unique considerations for transport, small
    airplanes rotorcraft
  • RTCA MOPS -- June 2010
  • Installation Guidance Document for AFGC
  • Design and safety standards, failure envelope
    protection functions, warnings annunciations,
    pilotflight deck interfaces, etc.
  • Additional guidance for transport airplanes
    (Reference AC 25.1329-1B)
  • RTCA Guidance document -- October 2011

41
  • Terminology

(FD) Command BARS
DISPLAY
T Str F Str
Devs
Pos
NAV
Guide
Steering
SAS ltgt HUMAN-IN-LOOP
Servo Cmds
Mode Select
Trajectory Control
Inner Loops
AIRCRAFT
Servo Control
Att Cntrl
FPL
Outer Loops
Aircraft Control
Sensors
Sensors
TGT SEL
Pilot
42
Interests in Committee
  • Participants in new committee

5
43
Wireless Airborne Communication Security Program
Update
  • FAA is in the process of developing security
    guidance for airborne wireless communications
    including EFB systems
  • RTCA SC-216 committee has been established
  • www.rtca.org

44
FAA ADS-B Program Update is Contained in a
Separate File and is Available on Request
45
Questions
Peter Skaves, Aircraft Certification
Service Peter.Skaves_at_faa.gov (425) 802-0395
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