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Disease

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... Infection these are of the reason to blame for human illness Degenerative diseases ... diptheria, TB Spherical cocci cells are round. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Disease


1
Disease
  • Chapter 4.5
  • Students Copy ppt.

2
Pg 76 of AP book
  • Contains
  • Microorganisms
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Fungi
  • Protozoa
  • This PP. was taken from old book used. Study the
    pp. and from what I lectured on for the test

3
Disease is
  • Is abnormal structure or function of a part,
    organ or system
  • May be r/t known or unknown causes and may affect
    individuals differently

4
There are several categories of disease that
disease is caused by
  • Infection these are ½ of the reason to blame
    for human illness
  • Degenerative diseases - these are disorders that
    involve the breaking down of tissues in any
    system of the body such as M.D., cirrhosis of the
    liver, Alzheimer's, osteoporosis and arthritis

5
  • Nutritional disorders due to lack of vitamins,
    minerals or other substances like scurvy lack of
    vit c, rickets due to lack of calcium. Also,
    excess intake like alcoholism, over
    nutritionobesity
  • Metabolic disorders due to disruptions of
    cellular metabolism, like diabetes, thyroid
    disorders, T3and T4

6
  • Immune disorders these affect how we fight
    infections like AIDS. This category includes
    allergies in which the immune system is
    overactiveallergic reactions
  • Neoplasms refers to cancer and tumors, they are
    abnormal cell formation
  • Psychiatric disorders mental disorders like
    Bi-polar disorder and this is related to the brain

7
Predisposing causes of disease
  • These are other factors that cause disease, it
    increases the probability of a person becoming ill

8
Examples of predisposing causes of disease
  • 1)Age- wear tear 2)sex women get
    diabetes
  • 3)Hereditary like allergies
  • 4)psychosocial/emotional-cause stress and other
    diseases
  • 5)physical chemical bone injuries predispose
    you to degeneration
  • 6)Pre-existing conditions-high BP can cause
    other diseases
  • These usually cant be changed

9
TERMS TO KNOW
10
Pathophysiology
  • Is the combined study of the pathologic and
    physiological aspect of a disorder
  • This is the study of the disease AND how disease
    affects the function of the body

11
Etiology
  • The study of the cause of disease or the theory
    of its origin

12
Incidence
  • The range of occurrence, how often it happens

13
Acute
  • Anything that comes on quickly and lasts a short
    time
  • These diseases can be relatively severe

14
Chronic
  • Diseases are often less severe but they are long
    lasting, over a period of time

15
Subacute
  • This is in between acute and chronic, came on
    somewhat quickly and hasnt lasted too long

16
Idiopathic
  • A disease without known cause

17
Communicable
  • Disease that can be transmitted from one person
    to another

18
Epidemic
  • Many people in a given region acquire a certain
    disease at the same time

19
Syndrome
  • A groups of signs symptoms that accompany a
    disease like a person with Downs syndrome has
  • Slanted eyes, low ears, small hands, can have
    diabetes, leukemia or heart problems

20
Steps in Treatment
  • Signs Symptoms (SS)
  • Diagnosis
  • Prognosis
  • Therapy

21
Steps In Treatment
  • 1) The Dr. has to review or see the signs and
    symptoms. Signs are objective, symptoms are
    subjective
  • 2) He can then come up with a medical diagnosis
  • 3) He makes a prediction of the probable outcome
    known as prognosis
  • 4) Then he prescribes a course of treatment known
    as therapy

22
Treatment vs. Prevention
  • Used to just treat or cure people now, prevention
    is HUGE.

23
Infectious Disease
  • Is the study of how infections and disease spread
    to and affect people

24
Microorganism
  • Micro small
  • Organisms anything having life
  • Or small germies
  • Some microorganisms can be harmful while most
    others are beneficial ?

25
Pathogen
  • Any disease causing organism

26
Infection
  • Invasion of pathogens with adverse affects to the
    body

27
Local infection
  • An infection that is limited to a small area of
    the body

28
Systemic Infection
  • A generalized infection that affects the whole
    body
  • The blood usually spreads systemic infections

29
Opportunistic Infections
  • If a person (known as the host), is ill with some
    disease such as AIDS, his immune system cant
    fight infection. He can easily get sick from
    organisms that are usually harmless

30
Normal Flora
  • The normal population of microorganisms that grow
    in our body
  • These are good for us because they crowd out and
    prevent the growth of other harmful varieties of
    organisms
  • HOWEVER, if normal flora are destroyed, some
    usually harmless organisms may become bad for us

31
What kills normal flora?
  • Antibiotics kill normal flora
  • One can get yeast infects then because yeast
    overcrowds the area d/t normal flora being
    destroyed by the med
  • What med is used to treat these?

32
Transmission of pathogens
  • Microorganisms can be transmitted to others by
    way of
  • Vector an insect or other animal that transmits
    a disease-causing organism from one host to
    another

33
Direct vs. Indirect
  • DIRECTOne person infects another by kissing or
    handshaking, like when one has a cold.
  • INDIRECT touching an object that has been
    contaminated by an infected person like breathing
    in droplets or touching a toy that has been
    contaminated

34
Bacteria
  • Are Single-cell organisms
  • Can only be seen with a microscope
  • Staining with dye helps to see the bacteria
    better
  • Are found everywhere, in soil, in hot springs, in
    polar ice on plants and animals

35
Bacteria
  • Are strong and viable and adapt to their
    surroundings
  • Their requirement for water O2 and nutrients vary
    among their species

36
Bacterias needs
  • Some bacteria need O2 to live aerobic
  • Some bacteria dont need O2 anaerobic
  • Some bacteria produce spores to be able to
    tolerate dryness and other harmful conditions
  • Some can swim quickly with their flagella

37
Shapes of Bacteria
  • Rod-shaped bacilli cells are straight and
    slender like cigars. Tetanus, diptheria, TB
  • Spherical cocci cells are round. When in pairs
    they are called diplococci like gonorrhea and
    meningitis
  • When in chains like a string of beads, they are
    called streptococci. Like strep throat
  • When in large clusters like grapes, they are
    called staphylococci like pneumonia, rheumatic
    fever and scarlet fever
  • Shapes are not on the test

38
Shapes of bacteria
  • Curved rods looks like a comma and the shape is
    called vibrio like in cholera or watery diarrhea
    that is deadly
  • Another curved rod bacteria is called
    spirochete.Looks like a corkscrew and enters the
    body to the bloodstream like the STD syphilis or
    Lymes disease caused by a tick
  • Shapes are not on the test

39
Curved rods. ZOOMING IN What feature indicates
that the cells in A are capable of movement?
40
Other bacteria
  • Rickettsia Chlamydia very small bacteria that
    can exist only in living cells.
  • They exist at the expense of their host and are
    referred to as parasites. Which means they feed
    off of the human or animal they are inside of to
    stay alive, cant do it on own, then the host
    gets sick
  • Shapes are not on the test

41
Virus size comparison.
42
Some parasitic protozoa. ZOOMING IN Why are the
parasites in E described as intracellular? What
is the role of the vectors shown in C and E?
43
Antibiotics
  • Very important in killing bacteria
  • Some bacteria are and others are
  • Must use the correct antibiotics to kill them
  • Must take ALL of the antibiotic to cure or
    bacteria grows back as in strep throat, may cause
    body to become resistant to this antibiotic then
  • Must NOT share antibiotics with others ad must
    watch the expiration date can cause reaction or
    not work at all

44
Problems with antibiotics
  • Reactions due to allergies can be so severe, can
    cause death anaphylaxis

45
Other problems with antibiotics
46
Assess for allergies
  • Urticaria hives
  • Erythema redness
  • Pruritis itching
  • Cyanosis bluish color to the skin from lack of
    O2
  • Pallor pale colored skin from lack of O2
  • S.O.B and tightening of throat if allergic
  • What is released and we feel the symptoms of an
    allergin? ___________________

47
Meds to give for anaphylaxis
  • Benadryl
  • Epinephrine
  • O2
  • steroids

48
Mycology
  • The study of fungus or fungi

49
Fungi
  • Large group of plantlike organisms
  • Only a few are pathogenic and are bad to humans
    and sometimes fungi are hard to cure
  • Fungi are much larger and complicated than
    bacteria but they are a simple form of life

50
Secondary infections
  • Kill off the good with the bad
  • Yeast infections due to no more normal flora, now
    yeast have room to grow
  • Diarrhea can be caused

51
Superinfections
  • A new infection caused by an organism different
    from that which caused the initial infection
  • The microb responsible is usually resistant to
    the treatment given for the initial infection
  • An example of this is is an infection following a
    previous infection, especially when caused by
    microorganisms that are resistant or have become
    resistant to the antibiotics used earlier

52
Yeasts Molds
  • Are of the fungi group
  • Yeasts are of single-cell forms
  • We know these as bread molds and mushrooms or
    yeasts for baking

53
Yeasts that affect health
  • Yeasts like Candida or thrush found in the mouth,
    dig. Tract, vaginal tract
  • Thrush infects a weakened host
  • Treatment of Candida is Nystatin or Mycostatin,
    its an anti-fungal
  • Treatment of vaginal yeast is Diflucan or
    Monostat or Miconazole

54
Molds that affect health
  • Medically, we know as black molds or toxic molds
  • Causes lots of allergies and reactions
  • MUST rid the mold with bleach and use air
    purifiers

55
Viruses
  • Very small in size, can only be seen with
    microscope like the common cold, measles, chicken
    pox and HIV
  • Viruses can only grow within living cells
  • NOT SUSEPTIBLE TO ANTIBIOTICS

56
Protozoa
  • Described as animal-
  • like, are single-celled
  • and are larger than
  • bacteria
  • Found all over the
  • world in soil, in any
  • body of water, in moist
  • grass, in mud puddles

57
Amebas
  • Made of cytoplasm like Amebic Dysentery causes
    diarrhea

58
Parasitic Worms
  • Worms are known as helminthes
  • The presence of parasites worms in the body is
    known as infestation

59
Pinworms is a roundworm
  • Found in children mostly
  • Worms live in the large
  • intestine
  • Adult female moves to the anus to lay thousands
    of eggs
  • Childs fingers itch these and transfers them to
    the mouth. The child is now the host and in the
    dig. System, eggs develop to form new adult worms
    and infestation begins

60
Pin worm
61
Hookworms are roundworms
  • Parasites that live in the small intestine
  • They suck blood from the host or person causing
    severe anemia
  • Then the person or host is susceptible to other
    infections
  • Hookworms lay thousands of eggs in soil that has
    been contaminated by waste. Eggs develop into
    larvae which penetrate intact skin or bare feet,
    they enter the blood, lungs and dig. tract

62
Hook worm - CHRIS
63
Other roundworms
  • Trichina found in pork are roundworms that
    become enclosed in cysts or sacs inside muscles
    of pigs. When pork is undercooked and we eat it,
    our digestive juices dissolve the cysts then tiny
    worms come out, mature and travel to our muscles
    where they can become encased. KNOWN AS
    TRICHINOSIS

64
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65
Flatworms
  • Resemble long ribbons known as tape worms
  • These worms grow in the intestine to become 5-50
    ft long ?
  • Spread by infected, improperly cooked meats like
    beef and pork and fish
  • Each worm produces a lrg number of eggs which
    contaminate food water and soil

66
Flat worm
67
Treatment of worms
  • Some OTC meds can be purchased like Pyrantel
    pamoate for hookworms
  • CCF uses Mebendazole for all worms, that is
    prescription

68
How microbes spread
  • Person-to-person is easiest way
  • Microbes are in dust and we breathe them in like
    in droplet form if another sneezes
  • Animals spread pathogens

69
What we do as a society to prevent spread of
microbes
  • Sewage and garbage disposal
  • Purification of water
  • Prevention of food contamination
  • Milk pasteurization milk is heated to 145 F
    then its cooled rapidly, all done in closed
    system

70
Asepsis vs. Sepsis
  • Asepsis a condition in which NO pathogens are
    present a means without. Like wearing sterile
    gloves to prevent infection, you use aseptic
    technique
  • Sepsis - is when there are pathogens, we try to
    prevent against sepsis, it can kill us

71
  • Medical asepsis - hand washing
  • Surgical Asepsis - sterile technique

72
Ways to get rid of microbes
  • Sterilization to kill every organism on an
    object. Used on O.R. Used on gowns, surgical
    equipment
  • Autoclave

73
Autoclave
  • Steam is used under pressure.
  • Dry heat can also be used
  • Most pathogens can be killed by exposure to
    boiling water for 4 minutes

74
Disinfection
  • Refers to any measure that kills all pathogens
    but does not necessarily kill harmless microbes.
  • Chemicals are usually used in disinfection,
    sometimes called bactericides or germicides

75
Antiseptics
  • Any process where pathogens are not necessarily
    killed but are prevented from multiplying
  • Antiseptics are lt powerful than disinfectants and
    are safe to use on living tissue like
  • alcohol or betadine (iodine) or hydrogen
    peroxide H2O2

76
Ways we protect ourselves from microbes as nurses
  • Always wear gloves to prevent against body fluids
    called BSI
  • BSI body substance isolation
  • Never re-cap needles
  • Hand washing
  • Disposal of items in red bags

77
Nosocomial Infections
  • Hospital acquired infections
  • We need to prevent ourselves and our patients
    from these

78
Lab identification of pathogens
  • Thank goodness for the lab
  • Staining techniques are most common
  • They use dyes to check for gram or bacteria
    called gram staining
  • We can then treat that bacteria according to if
    its or -

79
Gram and Gram -
  • Staphylococci and streptococci are , these cause
    certain pneumonias
  • Diplococci that cause gonorrhea are gram-

80
Another stain used is
  • Acid-fast staining red dye is used then an acid
    is put over that
  • Some bacteria sustain the acid calling them
    acid-fast

81
Culture Median
  • A swab which is like a Q-tip, of an infected
    area is rubbed or swabbed over an agar dish
    (looks like clear jello) and the lab waits for it
    to grow to determine what the bacteria is

82
Culturette Swab
  • Used to culture the throat or a wound
  • Swab is then sent to lab inside of the bottle for
    protection and then rubbed onto the agar or petri
    dish

83
Culture Sensitivity (CS)
  • It determines the susceptibility of a pts
    bacterial infection to antibiotics
  • The specimen obtained from the patient is
    cultured in various liquid dilutions of the drug
  • THIS IS A STERILE TEST

84
CHAIN OF INFECTION
Reservoir person or soil where infec Agent
multiplies
Host
Exit
Portal of Entry
Method of Transmission
85
Chain of Infection-6 steps
  • By interfering with any one step, humans can
    avoid acquiring the infection
  • 1. An infectious agent
  • 2. A reservoir for growth and reproduction
  • 3. An exit route from the reservoir
  • 4. A mode of transmission
  • 5. A port of entry
  • 6. A susceptible host

86
Cycle of infection
  • Infectious agent, microbe or germ is in the air,
    soil or on something
  • This bug enters the new host
  • The bug uses the host as a reservoir to grow
  • The bug leaves or exits from mouth, nose, or
    vector
  • Mode of transmission skin, resp. tract, dig.
    Tract, urinary or reproduct. tract
  • It enters into another host and the process
    starts again

87
BSI
  • Body Substance Isolation
  • This is protecting yourself from others body
    fluids
  • VERY IMPORTANT FOR LIFE

88
BSI includes
  • masks
  • Gowns
  • Gloves
  • Goggles
  • Red bags

89
Fungus - Candida
  • Oral thrush is white and painful
  • Treatment is Nystatin or Mycostatin
  • In liquid swish and spit or swallow form
  • Losenge is also available to suck on

90
Fungal Infection from Antibiotic use
91
In what ways is this chapter important to Nursing?
92
TESTING..
  • 1) This test is open book/open notes
  • 2) There will be an in class vocabulary test.
    (Date to be announced)

93
The End - Bella
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