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ISO 9001:2000

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Title: ISO 9001:2000


1
ISO 90012000
  • INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION
  • Objectives
  • To provide quality management system
  • To ensure customer satisfaction
  • To improve from inspection to prevention
  • To define responsibilities for quality

2
ISO 9000
  • ISO in Greek refers to equal, homogeneous or
    uniform.
  • ISO is the acronym for the International
    Organization for Standardization.
  • ISO 9000 began with the launch of Technical
    Committee 176 in 1979 to deal with generic
    quality principles the need for an
    international minimum standards for how
    manufacturing companies establish quality control
    methods, not only to control product quality, but
    to maintain its uniformity and predictability.
  • The system was issued in 1987 largely based on
    the 1979 British quality standard.
  • ISO 9000 standards originally designed to cover
    manufacturing, later to the service industries
    and now is extended in training and education.
  • Of the 20 standards in ISO 9000, 12 have direct
    application.

3
ISO 9000
  • ISO 90012008 standards, to higher education
  • institutions. The International Organization for
    Standardization (ISO)
  • ISO has been described as requiring organizations
    to say what they do, do what they say, then
    prove it to a third party (Seddon, 2000).
  • A criticism of the ISO approach has been of its
    perceived focus on process rather than on
    outcomes.

4
ISO 9000
  • http//www.iso.org/iso/home.html

5
Flowchart of ISO 9000
Design control
Quality System
Management responsibility
Purchasing
Contract review
Training students
ISO 9000 Quality System for Higher Education
Purchaser supplied product
Training management administration
Process control
Control of non-performing products
Training instructors staff
Internal quality audits
Corrective action
Quality records
Monitoring
6
ISO 90012000
  • PROCESS APPROACH
  • ISO 90012000 promotes a process approach in
    developing, implementing and improving the
    effectiveness of a quality management system to
    enhance customer satisfaction by meeting customer
    requirements.
  • Process approach is referred to as the
    application of system of processes within an
    organization, together with the identification,
    interactions and management of the processes.

7
ISO 9001 ISO 9004
  • ISO 9001 specifies requirements for a quality
    management system that can be used for internal
    application by organizations, or for
    certification, or for contractual purposes and
    focuses on effectiveness of the quality
    management system in meeting customer
    requirements.
  • ISO 9004 gives guidance on a wider range of
    objectives of a quality management system than
    ISO 9001, especially for the continual
    improvement on overall performance, efficiency
    and effectiveness.

8
ISO 90012000
  • PROCESS APPROACH
  • Process approach emphasizes on four components
  • Understanding and meeting requirements.
  • Considering processes in terms of added value.
  • Obtaining results of process performance and
    effectiveness.
  • Continual improvement of processes based on
    objective measurement.

9
  • MODEL OF A PROCESS APPROACH

Value added activities
Information flow
10
  • PROCESS APPROACH PDCA
  • Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) methodology can be
    applied
  • Plan establish the objectives and processes
    necessary to deliver results in accordance with
    customer requirements and the organizations
    policies.
  • Do implement the processes.
  • Check monitor and measure processes and product
    against policies, objectives and requirements for
    the product and report the results.
  • Act take actions to continually improve process
    performance.

11
Vision, Mission, Goals, Objectives and Plans
  • Vision
  • Is a broad intentions of an organization, all
    inclusive and forward thinking.
  • Describes aspirations for the future without
    specifying the means that will be used to achieve
    the desired ends.
  • Inspires employees for the best, the most or the
    greatest.

12
UPM Vision
  • To become a world class university, an
    internationally reputable community of
    intellectuals who will make the nation proud for
    their contributions to scholarly writing and
    discoveries and continue to give new meaning to
    the progress, growth and development of the
    nation and the world.
  • Untuk menjadi Universiti bertaraf dunia iaitu
    sebuah komuniti cendekiawan dan intelek
    bereputasi antarabangsa yang menjadi kebanggaan
    negara kerana sumbangannya dalam penulisan
    kesarjanaan dan penemuan yang sentiasa memberi
    pengertian baru kepada kemajuan, perkembangan dan
    pembangunan negara dan dunia.

13
Mission
  • Mission is a statement that verbalizes the
    beliefs and the directions of the organization.
    Key elements of a mission statement include
  • Obligation to stakeholders emphasis is placed
    on meeting the needs of various stakeholders.
  • Scope of the business defines the customers
    served, the functions provided and the technology
    employed.
  • Sources of competitive advantage the skills
    that will be developed to achieve the vision and
    describes how the organization intends to succeed
    in creating value and competitive advantage.
  • View of the future the anticipated regulatory,
    competitive and economic environment in which the
    organization must compete.

14
UPM Mission
  • To be a leading Center of Learning and Research,
    contributing not only towards human advancement
    and discovery of knowledge but also to the
    creation of wealth and nation building.
  • Menjadi Pusat Pembelajaran dan Penyelidikan yang
    unggul, yang menyumbangkan bukan sahaja kepada
    kemajuan manusia dan penerokaan ilmu tetapi juga
    kepada pembentukan kekayaan dan pembangunan
    negara.

15
Goals, Objectives and Plans
  • Goals
  • Attempts to improve an organizations performance
    by making mission statement more concrete.
  • Address both financial and non-financial issues.
  • Reachable can be reached with a stretch.
  • Cut across financial areas.
  • Objectives
  • Represents the operational definition of goals,
    can be measured and have time dimension.
  • Plans
  • Describe specific tactics, assign
    responsibilities, identify how resources can be
    allocated, schedule activities and specify vision
    targets.

16
Quality Policy for UPM
We, the staff of Universiti Putra Malaysia, are
committed towards excellence through the
inculcation of quality culture in teaching,
research and professional service, and to fulfill
the expectations of our clients. Kami, staff
Universiti Putra Malaysia beriltizam ke arah
kecemerlangan melalui penerapan budaya kualiti
dalam pengajaran, penyelidikan, dan perkhidmatan
profesional untuk memenuhi ekspekstasi pelanggan.

17
ISO 90012000
  • REQUIREMENTS
  • 4.0 Quality management system
  • 5.0 Management responsibility
  • 6.0 Resource management
  • 7.0 Product realization
  • 8.0 Measurement, analysis, improvement

18
4. Quality management system
  • 4.1 General requirements
  • The organization shall establish, document,
    implement and maintain a quality management
    system and continually improve its effectiveness
    in accordance with the requirements.
  • The organization shall
  • Identify the processes needed for the quality
    management system
  • Determine the sequence and interaction of these
    processes
  • Determine criteria and methods needed
  • Ensure availability of resources and information
    necessary
  • Monitor, measure and analyze these processes
  • Implement actions necessary to achieve planned
    results and continual improvement of these
    processes.

19
4. Quality management system
  • 4.2 Documentation requirements
  • 4.2.1 The QMS documentation shall include -
  • Documented statements of a quality policy and
    quality objectives
  • A quality manual
  • Documented procedures required by this standard
  • Documents needed by the organization to ensure
    the effective planning, operation and control of
    its processes
  • Quality records required by the International
    Standard.

20
4. Quality management system
  • 4.2 Documentation requirements
  • 4.2.2 Quality Manual
  • The organization shall establish and maintain a
    quality manual that includes -
  • The scope, details of and justification for any
    exclusions
  • The documented procedures or reference to them
  • A description of the interaction between the
    processes of QMS
  • 4.2.3 Control of documents
  • Documents shall be controlled. The documented
    procedure must define the controls needed -
  • To approve documents for adequacy prior to issue
  • To review and update as necessary and re-approve
    documents
  • To ensure that changes and the current revision
    status of documents are identified

21
4. Quality management system
  • To ensure that relevant versions of applicable
    documents are available at points of use
  • To ensure that documents remain legible and
    readily identifiable
  • To prevent the unintended use of obsolete
    documents, and to apply suitable identification
    to them if they are retained for any purpose.
  • 4.2.4 Control of records
  • Records shall be established and maintained to
    provide evidence of conformity to requirements
    and of the effective operation of the QMS.
  • Records shall remain legible, readily
    identifiable and retrievable.
  • A documented procedure shall be established to
    define the controls needed for the
    identification, storage, protection, retrieval,
    retention time and disposition of records.

22
5. Management responsibility
  • 5.1 Management commitment
  • Top Management shall provide evidence of its
    commitment to the development and implementation
    of the quality management system and continually
    improving its effectiveness by -
  • Communicating the importance of meeting customer,
    statutory and regulatory requirements
  • Establishing the quality policy
  • Ensuring the quality objectives are established
  • Conducting management reviews
  • Ensuring the availability of resources

23
5. Management responsibility
  • 5.2 Customer focus
  • Top Management shall ensure that customer
    requirements are determined and are met with the
    aim of enhancing customer satisfaction.
  • 5.3 Quality policy
  • Top Management shall ensure that the quality
    policy -
  • Is appropriate to the purpose of the organization
  • Includes a commitment to comply with requirements
    and continually improve the effectiveness of the
    QMS
  • Provides a framework for establishing and
    reviewing quality objectives
  • Is communicated and understood within the
    organization
  • Is reviewed for continuing suitability.

24
5. Management responsibility
Example of quality policy for the scope of
research and commercial development of the TNC
(RI) UPM Visi Menjadi pusat penyelidikan dan
pembangunan komersil yang unggul dalam memberikan
sumbangan kepada penerokaan ilmu, kemajuan
manusia, pembentukan kekayaan dan pembangunan
negara. Misi Berusaha untuk menjadi pusat
penyelidikan dan pembangunan komersil yang
efisien dan profesional.
25
5. Management responsibility
Example of quality policy for the scope of
research and commercial development of the TNC
(RI) UPM Dasar Kualiti Staf UPM beriltizam ke
arah kecemerlangan dalam pengurusan penyelidikan,
pelaksanaan penyelidikan dan pengurusan
pengkomersialan melalui penerapan budaya kerja
berkualiti secara berterusan untuk memenuhi
ekspektasi pelanggan dan selaras dengan MS ISO
90012000. Seterusnya seluruh entiti
penyelidikan dan pembangunan komersil akan
melaksanakan tanggungjawab dalam mencapai
objektif kualiti yang ditetapkan, serta
memastikan objektif tersebut dikaji dari semasa
ke semasa supaya selaras dengan visi, misi dan
dasar kualiti penyelidikan dan pembangunan
komersil UPM.
26
5. Management responsibility
  • 5.4 Planning
  • 5.4.1 Quality objectives
  • Top Management shall ensure that the quality
    objectives are established at relevant functions
    and levels within the organization.
  • 5.4.2 QMS planning
  • Top Management shall ensure that -
  • The planning of QMS is carried out in order to
    meet the requirements
  • Integrity of the QMS is maintained when changes
    to the QMS are planned and implemented.

27
5. Management responsibility
  • 5.5 Responsibility, authority and communication
  • 5.5.1 Responsibility and authority
  • Top management shall ensure that
    responsibilities and authorities are defined and
    communicated within the organization
  • 5.5.2 Management representative (MR)
  • Top Management shall appoint a member of
    management who, irrespective of other
    responsibilities have the responsibility and
    authority that includes -
  • Ensuring processes needed for the QMS are
    established, implemented and maintained
  • Reporting to top management on the performance of
    the QMS and any need for improvement
  • Ensuring the promotion of awareness of customer
    requirements throughout the organization.

28
5. Management responsibility
5.5.3 Internal communication Top management
shall ensure that appropriate communication
processes are established within the organization
and that communication takes place regarding the
effectiveness of the QMS. 5.6 Management
review 5.6.1 General Top Management shall review
the organization QMS, at planned intervals, to
ensure its continuing suitability, adequacy and
effectiveness. Records from management review
shall be maintained (see 4.2.4).
29
5. Management responsibility
  • 5.6.2 Review input
  • Inputs include current performance and
    improvement opportunities related to
  • Results of audits
  • Customer feedback
  • Process performance and product conformity
  • Status of preventive and corrective actions
  • Follow-up actions from previous management
    reviews
  • Planned changes that could affect the QMS
  • Recommendations for improvement.

30
5. Management responsibility
  • 5.6.3 Review output
  • Output from management review shall include any
    decisions and actions related to
  • Improvement of the effectiveness of the QMS and
    its processes
  • Improvement of product related to customer
    requirements
  • Resource needs.

31
6. Resource management
  • 6.1 Provision of resources
  • The organization shall determine and provide the
    resources needed
  • To implement and maintain the QMS and continually
    improve its effectiveness
  • To enhance customer satisfaction by meeting
    customer requirements.

32
6. Resource management
  • 6.2 Human resources
  • 6.2.1 General
  • Personnel shall be competent on the basis of
    appropriate education, training, skills and
    experience.
  • 6.2.2 Competence, awareness and training
  • The organization shall
  • Determine the necessary competence for personnel
  • Provide training or take other actions to satisfy
    needs
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the actions taken
  • Ensure that personnel are aware of the relevance
    and importance of their activities
  • Maintain appropriate records of education,
    training, skills and experience.

33
6. Resource management
  • 6.3 Infrastructure
  • The organization shall determine, provide and
    maintain the infrastructure needed to achieve
    conformity to product requirements.
  • Infrastructure includes -
  • Buildings, workspace and associated utilities
  • Process equipment (hardware and software)
  • Supporting services (transport and communication)
  • 6.4 Work environment
  • The organization shall determine and manage the
    work environment needed to achieve conformity to
    product requirements. Human factors include such
    as creative work methods, safety rules, special
    facilities for staff. Physical factors include
    such as cleanliness, ventilation, noise, hygiene.

34
7. Product realization
  • 7.1 Planning of product realization
  • The organization shall plan and develop the
    processes needed for product realization.
  • The organization shall determine -
  • Quality objectives and requirements for the
    product
  • The need to establish processes, documents and
    provide resources
  • Required verification, validation, monitoring,
    inspection and test activities to the product and
    the criteria for product acceptance.
  • Records needed to provide evidence that
    realization processes and resulting product meet
    requirements.

35
7. Product realization
  • 7.2 Customer related processes
  • 7.2.1 Determination of requirements related to
    the product
  • The organization shall determine -
  • Requirements specified by the customer
  • Requirements not stated by customers but
    necessary for specified use and intended use
  • Statutory and regulatory requirements related to
    product
  • Any additional requirements determined by the
    organization.
  • 7.2.2 Review of requirements related to product
  • The organization shall ensure that -
  • Product requirements are defined
  • Differences are resolved
  • The organization has the ability to meet the
    defined requirements.

36
7. Product realization
  • 7.2.2 Review of requirements related to product /
    service
  • Records of the results of the review and actions
    arising from the review shall be maintained.
  • Where the customer provides no documented
    statement of requirement, the customer
    requirement shall be confirmed by the
    organization before acceptance.
  • Where product requirements are changed, the
    organization shall ensure that relevant documents
    are amended and that relevant personnel are made
    aware of the changed requirements.

37
7. Product realization
  • 7.2.3 Customer communication
  • The organization shall determine and implement
    arrangements for communicating with customers in
    relation to -
  • Product / service information
  • Enquiries, contracts or order handling, including
    amendments
  • Customer feedback including customer complaints.
  • 7.4.1 Purchasing process
  • The organization shall ensure that purchased
    product / service confirms to specified purchase
    requirements.
  • The type and extent of control applied to the
    supplier and the purchased product / service
    shall be dependent upon the effect of the product
    on subsequent product realization or the final
    product.

38
7. Product realization
  • 7.4.1 Purchasing process
  • Shall evaluate and select suppliers based on
    their ability to supply product in accordance
    with the organizations requirements.
  • Criteria for selection, evaluation and
    re-evaluation shall be established.
  • Records of the results of evaluations and any
    necessary actions arising from the evaluation
    shall be maintained.
  • 7.4.2 Purchasing information
  • Purchasing information shall describe the
    product to be purchased, including where
    appropriate -
  • Requirements for approval of product, procedures,
    processes and equipment
  • Requirements for qualification of personnel
  • Quality management system requirements.

39
7. Product realization
  • 7.4.3 Verification of purchased product
  • Shall establish and implement the inspection or
    other activities necessary for ensuring that
    purchased product meets specified purchase
    requirements.
  • Where the organization or its customer intends to
    perform verification at the suppliers premises,
    the organization shall state the intended
    verification arrangements and method of product
    release in the purchasing information.

40
7. Product realization
  • 7.5 Production and service provision
  • 7.5.1 Control of production and service provision
  • The organization shall plan and carry out
    production and service provision under controlled
    conditions which includes -
  • The availability of information that describes
    the characteristics of the product
  • The availability of work instructions
  • The use of suitable equipment
  • The availability and use of monitoring and
    measurement
  • The implementation of release, delivery and
    post-delivery activities.

41
7. Product realization
  • 7.5.2 Validation of processes for production and
    service provision
  • The organization shall validate any processes for
    production and service provision where the
    resulting output cannot be verified by subsequent
    monitoring or measurement.
  • This includes any processes where deficiencies
    become apparent only after the product or service
    is in use or the service has been delivered.
  • Validation shall demonstrate the ability of these
    processes to achieve planned results.

42
7. Product realization
  • 7.5.3 Identification and traceability
  • Where appropriate, the organization shall
    identify the product by suitable means throughout
    product realization.
  • The organization shall identify the product
    status with respect to monitoring and measurement
    requirements.
  • Where traceability is a requirement, the
    organization shall control and record the unique
    identification of the product.
  • 7.5.4 Customer property
  • The organization shall exercise care with
    customer property while it is under the
    organizations control or being used by the
    organization.
  • The organization shall identify, verify, protect
    and safeguard customer property provided for use
    or incorporation into the product.
  • If any customer property is lost, damaged or
    otherwise found to be unsuitable for use, this
    shall be reported to the customer and records
    maintained.

43
7. Product realization
  • 7.5.5 Preservation of product
  • The organization shall preserve the conformity of
    product during internal processing and delivery
    to the intended destination.
  • This preservation shall include identification,
    handling, packaging, storage and protection.
  • Preservation shall also apply to the constituent
    parts of a product.
  • 7.5.6 Control of monitoring and measuring devices
  • The organization shall determine the monitoring
    and measurement to be undertaken and the
    monitoring and measurement devices needed to
    provide evidence of conformity of product to
    determined requirements.
  • The organization shall establish processes to
    ensure that monitoring and measurement can be
    carried out.

44
7. Product realization
  • 7.5.6 Control of monitoring and measuring devices
  • Where necessary to ensure valid results,
    measuring equipment shall
  • Be calibrated and verified at specified
    intervals, or prior to use
  • Be adjusted or re-adjusted as necessary
  • Be identified to enable the calibration status to
    be determined
  • Be safeguarded from adjustments that would
    invalidate the measurement result
  • Be protected from damage and deterioration during
    handling, maintenance and storage.
  • Shall assess and record the validity of the
    previous measuring results when the equipment is
    found not to conform to requirements and take
    appropriate action on the equipment and any
    product affected.
  • Records shall be maintained.

45
8. Measurement, Analysis and Improvement
  • 8.1 General
  • Plan and implement the monitoring, measurement,
    analysis and improvement process needed.

Man
Material
CAUSE
EFFECT
Method
Module
46
8. Measurement, Analysis and Improvement
  • 8.2 Monitoring and measurement
  • 8.2.1 Customer satisfaction
  • Monitor information relating to customer
    perception as to whether the organization has
    fulfilled customer requirements.
  • The methods for obtaining and using this
    information shall be determined.
  • 8.2.2 Internal audit
  • Conduct periodic internal audits at planned
    intervals to determine whether the QMS
  • conforms to planned arrangements
  • Has been effectively implemented and maintained.
  • Auditors shall not audit their own work.
  • Responsibilities, requirements for planning and
    conducting audits, reporting results and
    maintaining records shall be defined in a
    documented procedure.

47
8. Measurement, Analysis and Improvement
  • 8.2.3 Monitoring and measurement of processes
  • Apply suitable methods for monitoring and
    measurement of QMS processes that will
    demonstrate the ability of the processes to
    achieve planned results.
  • When planned results are not achieved, correction
    and corrective actions shall be taken, as
    appropriate, to ensure conformity of the product.
  • 8.2.4 Monitoring and measurement of product
  • Monitor and measure the characteristics of the
    product to verify that product requirements are
    fulfilled that shall be carried out at
    appropriate stages of the product realization
    process.
  • Evidence of conformity with the acceptance
    criteria shall be maintained.
  • Records shall indicate the person(s) authorizing
    release of product.

48
8. Measurement, Analysis and Improvement
  • 8.3 Control of nonconforming product
  • Ensure that product which does not conform to
    product requirements is identified and controlled
    to prevent its unintended use or delivery. These
    shall be defined in documented procedure.
  • Shall deal with nonconforming product by one or
    more of the followings
  • By taking action to eliminate the detected
    nonconformity
  • By authorizing its use, release or acceptance
    under concession by a relevant authority
  • And where applicable by the customer by taking
    action to preclude its original intended use or
    application.
  • Records of the nature of nonconformities and any
    subsequent actions taken, including concessions
    obtained, shall be maintained.
  • When nonconforming product is corrected it shall
    be subject to re-verification.
  • When detected after delivery, shall take action
    appropriate to the effects or potential effects
    of the nonconformity.

49
8. Measurement, Analysis and Improvement
  • 8.4 Analysis of data
  • Determine, collect and analyze data to
    demonstrate the suitability and effectiveness of
    the QMS and to evaluate continual improvement.
  • The analysis of the data shall provide
    information relating to -
  • Customer satisfaction
  • Conformance to product / service requirements
  • Characteristics and trends of processes and
    products including opportunities for preventive
    action
  • Supplier performance.

50
8. Measurement, Analysis and Improvement
  • 8.5 Improvement
  • 8.5.1 Continual improvement
  • Continuously improve the effectiveness of the QMS
    through the use of quality policy, quality
    objectives, audit results, analysis of data,
    corrective and preventive actions and management
    review.
  • 8.5.2 Corrective action
  • A documented procedure shall be established to
    define requirements for -
  • Reviewing nonconformities including customer
    complaints
  • Determining the causes of nonconformities
  • Evaluating the need for action to ensure that
    nonconformities do not recur
  • Determining and implementing action needed
  • Recording of the results of action taken and
    reviewing corrective action taken.

51
8. Measurement, Analysis and Improvement
  • 8.5.3 Preventive action
  • Determine action to eliminate the causes of
    potential nonconformities in order to prevent
    their occurrence.
  • A documented procedure shall be established to
    define requirements for
  • Determining potential nonconformities and their
    causes
  • Evaluating the need for action to prevent
    occurrence of nonconformities
  • Determining and implementing action needed
  • Recording of results of action needed
  • Reviewing preventive action taken.
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