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Human Resources Management in Public Administration

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Meeting Agenda Introduction Trends in work environment HRM principles Tides of reforms New Public Management HRM Reform Trends Emerging Approaches to Recruitment ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Resources Management in Public Administration


1
Human Resources Management in Public
Administration
  • Ustron, 2.09.2008

mgr Martyna Julia Wronka Department of
Entrepreneurship and Innovative Management
University of Economics in Katowice
2
Meeting Agenda
  1. Introduction
  2. Trends in work environment
  3. HRM principles
  4. Tides of reforms
  5. New Public Management
  6. HRM Reform Trends
  7. Emerging Approaches to Recruitment and Selection
  8. Summary
  9. Example from Polish Ground

3
  • When government has the right people, and the
    right system, and the right intentions, many good
    things are possible. The trick is knowing which
    ones they are.
  • Alan Ehrenhalt

4
A dynamic environment and key principles
  • Managers today need to be mindful of several
    trends in the government and public
    administration environment. These trends are
    important because they provide the context in
    which decisions are made. The items listed below
    highlight significant developments for human
    resources management in predictable future.

5
Meeting Agenda
  1. Introduction
  2. Trends in work environment
  3. HRM principles
  4. Tides of reforms
  5. New Public Management
  6. HRM Reform Trends
  7. Emerging Approaches to Recruitment and Selection
  8. Summary
  9. Example from Polish Ground

6
Trends in work environment (1)
  • Changing workforce. The workforce is smaller,
    greyer and composed more of women then in
    previous years. Paradoxically, there is a need
    for workers with high-level skills, knowledge,
    and ability to meet the call for learning
    organizations.
  • Declining confidence in government. Many opinion
    polls in different countries have shown a steady
    erosion in confidence and trust to government at
    all levels. Rebuilding trust is an important
    challenge facing the public sector.
  • Declining budgets. A combination of tax
    limitations measures, budget cuts, and political
    pressures to curb the future expenditures has
    occurred at all levels of government.

7
Trends in work environment (2)
  • Downsizing/upsizing. The size of state civilian
    workforce is gradually decreasing although early
    retirements were the preferred approach rather
    than disruptive layoffs. By contrast, the size
    of local and regional government has increased.
  • Emerging virtual workplace/virtual government.
    With the introduction of new information
    technologies, some tradition 9-5 (7-3) workplaces
    with fixed central office locations are being
    replaced by innovative organizations with more
    flexible arrangements.

8
Trends in work environment (3)
  • Reforming/reengineering activities. Alternative
    approaches to the delivery of goods and services
    are being proposed and implemented with
    increasing frequency.
  • Centralization/decentralization of human
    resources activities. At state, regional and
    local level there occurs relocation of
    responsibilities from centralized staff agencies
    to line agencies and managers. Administrators at
    the operational level now have greater
    flexibility and discretion in the acquisition,
    development, motivation, and maintenance of human
    resources.

9
Meeting Agenda
  1. Introduction
  2. Trends in work environment
  3. HRM principles
  4. Tides of reforms
  5. New Public Management
  6. HRM Reform Trends
  7. Emerging Approaches to Recruitment and Selection
  8. Summary
  9. Example from Polish Ground

10
HRM principles (1)
  • Many roles of public service. Stakeholders expect
    civil servants to do many different things
    (ensure effective government performance,
    implement controversial social policies, respond
    to political imperatives).
  • Performance. Human resources management seeks
    optimal contribution to an organization by
    acquiring, developing, motivating and retaining
    people. This requires an understanding of human
    relations and what motivates workers.

11
HRM principles (2)
  • Understanding the basis for a personnel system.
    The public workforce is subject to different
    personnel systems. Each has its unique basis and
    operating limitations. Effective manager
    understand their systems basis and find ways to
    deal with its limitations.
  • Alternatives to civil service. Public services
    have been delivered by civil service employees
    however, alternative mechanism have emerged
    (e.g., purchase of service agreements,
    privatization, subsidy arrangements and tax
    incentives).

12
HRM principles (3)
  • Rule of law. Personnel systems, processes and
    rules are often based on legal requirements.
  • Public accountability/access. Another
    distinguishing feature of human resources
    management is that government decisions are
    subject to intense public visibility and
    inspection.
  • Values matters. Neutral competence of the public
    service has been stressed since the beginning of
    the merit system in the late 1800s, but
    neutrality (noninvolvement of employees in
    political activities) should not suggest that
    values of the workers are unrelated.

13
A Comparison of Traditional Public Sector Values
With Those Competing For Emphasis (1)
Macrolevel values
  • Competition
  • Market incentives (organization around mission)
  • Continuous improvement
  • Changing programs
  • Monopoly
  • Regulation (organization fort control)
  • Reduction vs. Growth
  • Adding programs

14
A Comparison of Traditional Public Sector Values
With Those Competing For Emphasis (2)
Values about structure
  • Centralized
  • Supervisor as controller
  • Nondemocratic
  • Individual work
  • Hierarchical organization
  • Simple jobs
  • Single service
  • Decentralized
  • Supervisor as helper
  • Participative
  • Teamwork
  • Flat organization
  • Multidimensional jobs
  • Multiple versions of service

15
A Comparison of Traditional Public Sector Values
With Those Competing For Emphasis (3)
Values about work
  • Expert focus (internally driven)
  • Focus on tradition (status quo)
  • Problem analysis
  • Mesaurement is feared
  • Protective
  • Performance
  • Inspection and control
  • Customer focus (externally driven)
  • Focus on innovation (change)
  • Seeing possibilities
  • Measurement is an opportunity
  • Productive
  • Ability
  • Prevention

16
A Comparison of Traditional Public Sector Values
With Those Competing For Emphasis (4)
Values about employees
  • System indifference
  • Employee as expense
  • Manager focus
  • Appraisal sanction ranking
  • Employee needs
  • Employee as asset
  • Employee focus
  • Development learning recognition

17
Meeting Agenda
  1. Introduction
  2. Trends in work environment
  3. HRM principles
  4. Tides of reforms
  5. New Public Management
  6. HRM Reform Trends
  7. Emerging Approaches to Recruitment and Selection
  8. Summary
  9. Example from Polish Ground

18
Tides of reforms (1)
  • Scientific Management
  • Here the focus is on hierarchy, microdivision of
    labour, specialization and well-defined chains of
    command.
  • This philosophy, usually associated with Frederic
    Taylor, is manifest in the bureaucratic
    organizational form with its emphasis on
    structure, rules and search for the one best
    way.
  • Scientific management has implications for human
    resources. In emphasizes conformity and
    predictability of employees contributions to the
    organization (machine model) and it sees human
    relationships as subject to management control.

19
Tides of reforms (2)
  • War on Waste
  • The second tide emphasizes role of auditors,
    investigators and inspectors.
  • The implications of the war on waste for HRM are
    plentiful. It can result in increase of detailed
    rules, processes, procedures and multiple reviews
    that are so characteristic of government
    bureaucracy.
  • Management concerned with controlling waste try
    to minimize idle time, avoid bottlenecks, install
    time clocks, audit travel vouchers and monitor
    attendance and punctuality.

20
Tides of reforms (3)
  • Watchful Eye
  • The third reform emphasizes fairness and
    openness. Whistleblowers, the media, interest
    groups and the public need access to information
    to ensure that rights and the general interests
    are protected.
  • Human resources implications from this philosophy
    can be identified as well. Concern about ethical
    conduct of employees leads to greater scrutiny in
    the hiring process to ensure integrity, as well
    as job-related competence of new recruits. It
    also minimizes the unlawful use of hiring
    criteria such as sex, race, age and handicap
    status.
  • Creating an organizational culture of openness,
    transparency, careful record keeping is
    consistence with watchful eye philosophy.

21
Tides of reforms (4)
  • Liberation Management
  • The goal of the final tide is higher performance
    in government. Buzzwords like evaluation,
    outcomes and results are associated with this
    tide.
  • Liberation management also holds implications for
    managing people in public administration.
  • Employee empowerment, reengineering, work teams,
    continuous improvement, customer service,
    flattened hierarchies reflect breakdown of the
    bureaucratic machine model and the move towards
    liberation.
  • Belief in harmonious relation between employees
    and management increases the prospects for
    productive partnership.

22
Meeting Agenda
  1. Introduction
  2. Trends in work environment
  3. HRM principles
  4. Tides of reforms
  5. New Public Management
  6. HRM Reform Trends
  7. Emerging Approaches to Recruitment and Selection
  8. Summary
  9. Example from Polish Ground

23
NPM
  • The beginning of the reforms in public sector was
    the eight-decade of the XX century. When the
    quality improvement in the private sector was
    compared with the unchanging public sector the
    claims for the public sector occurred at that
    time and the total discontent with the state
    management increased.

24
NPM
  • New public management (NPM), management
    techniques and practices are drawn mainly from
    the private sector, is increasingly seen as a
    global phenomenon.
  • NPM reforms shift the emphasis from traditional
    public administration to public management.
  • Seeking for the effectiveness of public
    institutions activity the importance of human
    resources becomes especially evident, because it
    is not only the most important resource of public
    organizations, but also the most sensitive field.
    Therefore when managing it, it is necessary to
    bring into play modern prime methods.

25
Shifting from a Traditional Public Sector System
to a System for 21st Century
Traditional Public Sector System
Public Service for 21st Century
  • Expert focus (internally driven)
  • Focus on tradition (status quo)
  • Problem analysis
  • Mesaurement is feared
  • Protective
  • Performance
  • Inspection and control
  • Customer focus (externally driven)
  • Focus on innovation (change)
  • Seeing possibilities
  • Measurement is an opportunity
  • Productive
  • Ability
  • Prevention

26
Principal characteristics of NPM
27
HRM dilemmas (1)
  • The aging of the local civil service, posing the
    immediate threat of high turnover and a lack of
    qualified replacements
  • A growing vacuum among the leadership bench
    the next generation of policymakers and top civil
    servants who will assume critical roles in
    directing their governments efforts to negotiate
    the troubled waters of the 21st Century
  • The changing definition of career, which means
    that employee loyalty to the organization is weak
    at best, and which discourages workers from
    joining government service for the long time

28
HRM dilemmas (2)
  • Rapid change (e.g., in technology and economic
    conditions) that requires a highly fluid skill
    mix in the workforce
  • Strong competition from the private sector for
    the best and the brightest
  • Budget limitations that reduce compensation and
    financial incentives, thereby placing government
    at a disadvantage vis-à-vis business and
    industry and
  • A negative public image (government bashing),
    which translates into the widespread perception
    that government is no longer the employer of
    choice (if it ever was)

29
  • The aim of HR in the new economy is to enable the
    organisation to create value through people,
    practices and processes, bearing in mind that
    people are the competitive edge of any
    organisation.
  • Within this context the defined role of HR must
    be seen as providing Human Resources products,
    services and solutions that will enable the
    organisation to achieve its set strategic
    objectives.
  • Human Resources practitioners must operate as
    people Champions and prove their value to the
    organisation.

30
  • The application of HRM principles within the
    public sector displaced the traditional model of
    personnel administration.
  • The adoption of New Public Management (NPM) then
    may have opened the possibility of managers
    acquiring or developing sophisticated HRM
    techniques. Thus, NPM principles allow a more
    flexible and responsive approach to questions of
    recruitment, selection, retention, training and
    development of public sector employees.

31
Meeting Agenda
  1. Introduction
  2. Trends in work environment
  3. HRM principles
  4. Tides of reforms
  5. New Public Management
  6. HRM Reform Trends
  7. Emerging Approaches to Recruitment and Selection
  8. Summary
  9. Example from Polish Ground

32
HRM Reform Trends
33
HRM Reform Trends
34
HRM Reform Trends
35
HRM Reform Trends
36
HRM Reform Trends
37
NPM
  • Of course some experts believe that New Public
    Management (NPM) has done as much harm as good,
    because
  • It converts citizens into customers
  • It shifts the focus from the collective interest
    to user satisfaction
  • It borrows from private sector management
    practices without adapting them to public sector
    values and principles

38
Meeting Agenda
  1. Introduction
  2. Trends in work environment
  3. HRM principles
  4. Tides of reforms
  5. New Public Management
  6. HRM Reform Trends
  7. Emerging Approaches to Recruitment and Selection
  8. Summary
  9. Example from Polish Ground

39
Emerging Approaches to Recruitment and Selection
(1)
  • Procedural Changes
  • Both simple and more complex procedural
    adjustments can improve and expedite recruitment
    of public servants.
  • Most procedural innovations are intended to
    simplify and demystify the application process to
    prospective workers. In other words, governments
    are attempting to make their entry procedures
    more user-friendly and transparent.
  • Other procedural changes are designed to enhance
    governments attractiveness to applicants and its
    appeal to current employees.
  • Another restrictive practice is a residency
    requirement that obligates workers to live in the
    jurisdiction where they are employed.

40
Emerging Approaches to Recruitment and Selection
(2)
  • Adopting flexible and appealing hiring procedures
  • Government has not always extended a welcoming
    and helpful hand to job applicants. Progressive
    governments have eliminated procedural barriers
    by making the application process more inviting
    (i.e., training interviewers to not only evaluate
    candidates, but also to market jobs) providing
    more hospitable physical settings and offering
    flexibility in the dates, times, and locations of
    tests and interviews.

41
Emerging Approaches to Recruitment and Selection
(3)
  • Screening applicants quickly
  • Too often, governments has a well-earned
    reputation for asking applicants to carry on long
    and tortuous examination procedures.
  • Validating entry requirements and examinations
  • One of the biggest problems in HRM is validating
    testing instruments and other pre-entry
    requirements.
  • Job interview
  • Group interview
  • Assessment centers

42
Emerging Approaches to Recruitment and Selection
(4)
  • Instituting worker-friendly personnel policies
  • These include the wide use of flexible work
    hours flat hierarchies that offer workers more
    opportunities to participate in decision-making
    telecommuting family-friendly procedures and
    good working conditions
  • Creating more flexible job descriptions
  • Narrow job descriptions and restrictive career
    ladders discourage potential employees.
  • Job rotations
  • Clear and progressive career ladder

43
Emerging Approaches to Recruitment and Selection
(5)
  • Improvements to the Recruitment and Selection
    Process
  • public sector recruitment has a notorious
    reputation for being slow, unresponsive,
    bureaucratic, and passive
  • giving operating agencies and managers the
    flexibility to handle most HR decision making
    accelerates the speed, flexibility, and
    responsiveness of recruitment
  • Job descriptions
  • Public announcement of openings
  • Terms of appointment

44
Emerging Approaches to Recruitment and Selection
(6)
  • Aggressive outreach efforts
  • Increasingly, public agencies are using
    strategies that have long been exploited by
    business and industry.
  • outreach strategies at job fairs, on college
    campuses, in local communities
  • aggressive advertising in print and electronic
    media distribution of marketing and recruitment
    material (e.g., brochures) that promote public
    service careers
  • other aggressive efforts to stay in touch with
    job applicants during the screening process
  • using outside search agencies (headhunters) to
    recruit high-profile applicants for important
    vacancies

45
Emerging Approaches to Recruitment and Selection
(7)
  • Current employees as recruiters
  • Due to concerns about propriety and the supposed
    neutrality of the civil service, public agencies
    have only recently involved their own employees
    in the search for new talent. The tactic proven
    to be most effective is employee referrals in
    which current workers are asked to recommend
    qualified candidates.
  • temporary workers
  • internships
  • mentors

46
Emerging Approaches to Recruitment and Selection
(8)
  • Use of Technology
  • a movement from traditional HRM to virtual HRM
  • on-line job posting
  • paperless application systems
  • résumé database

47
Meeting Agenda
  1. Introduction
  2. Trends in work environment
  3. HRM principles
  4. Tides of reforms
  5. New Public Management
  6. HRM Reform Trends
  7. Emerging Approaches to Recruitment and Selection
  8. Summary
  9. Example from Polish Ground

48
  • People are assets whose value can be enhanced
    through investment
  • David Walker

49
Ten Human Resources Essentials
  1. Pay attention to employee morale
  2. Establish and communicate clear ethics standards
    and hold managers and employees accountable
  3. Implement a recruitment process that will ensure
    hiring the right person
  4. Establish and communicate a solid process for
    managing employee performance
  5. Before hiring a new manager, assess their skills
    and abilities for the job. Follow up with
    orientation and training

50
Ten Human Resources Essentials
  1. Ensure that every new employee has been
    sufficiently assimilated and trained
  2. Develop and implement diversity and multicultural
    organizational development
  3. Continue employee retention programs
  4. Ensure that the departments structure is aligned
    with overall organizations goals and strategies
  5. Stay ready to manage change

51
  • Excellence is an act won by training and habit
  • Aristotele

52
What skills are needed to improve quality of
public service?
  • Observe, promote and maintain high standards of
    professional ethics
  • Promote efficient, economic and effective use of
    resources
  • Development orientation
  • Provide impartial, fair, equitable service
    without bias
  • Respond in time to the needs of the public and
    encourage community participation in policy
    making

53
What skills are needed to improve quality of
public service?
  • Be accountable
  • Foster transparency by providing timely, and
    accurate information
  • Practice good human resource management and
    career development to maximise human potential
  • Ensure that employment practices are based on the
    principles of ability, objectivity, fairness,
    equity and are representative of all people

54
To sum up
  • What the public sector needs more than ever is
    its fair share of the best talent in any given
    country to respond effectively to evolving
    traditional functions of the State, as well as
    the challenges of globalization and other social
    changes.
  • Moreover, it is important to underline that
    improving human capacity in the public sector
    also requires sound public institutions and good
    governance.

55
To sum up
  • In other words, strengthening public sector
    capacity requires a holistic approach, which
    should begin by rebuilding trust in the public
    sector and promoting high-quality leadership.
  • There are key issues that need to be addressed in
    order to promote adequate capacities among public
    servants, including

56
  • Reinforcing human resources planning and
    management systems and units
  • Reinforcing core public service values, such as
  • Revaluation of learning, integrity and competence
  • Low tolerance for corruption and crime
  • Stress on meritocracy
  • Growing sensitivity towards and respect for
    citizens needs
  • Fostering a political culture that places
    emphasis on the respect for institutions and
    norms over personal interest
  • Promoting professionalism in the public service
  • Creating a culture of learning organization

57
  • Introducing incentive structures, such as
  • Fair remuneration system and
  • Increasing recognition of the need to acknowledge
    and to reward industry, loyalty, accomplishment
    and merit
  • Increasing recognition of the value of
    cross-cultural and international links as means
    towards the improvement of the professional image
    and performance of the public service
  • Tapping the best talent from underrepresented
    groups, including women
  • Promoting the knowledge and use of ICT tools

58
Meeting Agenda
  1. Introduction
  2. Trends in work environment
  3. HRM principles
  4. Tides of reforms
  5. New Public Management
  6. HRM Reform Trends
  7. Emerging Approaches to Recruitment and Selection
  8. Summary
  9. Example from Polish Ground

59
Research
  • Research was conducted by specialist from Agency
    for Economic Development of Municipalities from
    UK, NI-CO organisation from Belfast, Wielkopolska
    Szkola Biznesu from Poznan and Dolnoslaskie
    Centrum Szkolenia Szamorzadowego from Wroclaw

60
Research
  • 2000 the end of the biggest public
    administration project in Poland
  • part of Proffesional development of Public
    Administration Employees
  • 3 years in partnership with British Fund
    Know-How aiming at indentifying key positions
    in public sector

61
Key positions
  1. Mayor (burmistrz)
  2. Organizational Unit Manager (kierownik jednostki
    organizacyjnej)
  3. Head of Department (naczelnik/dyrektor wydzialu)
  4. Inspector/Civil Servant (inspektor/urzednik)
  5. Department Manager/Administrative Official
    (referent/pracownik administracyjny)
  6. Treasurer (skarbnik)
  7. Secretary (sekretarz)

62
Post description
  • Tasks
  • Responsibilities
  • Position in organizational structure
  • Functions
  • Main job effectiveness indicators

63
Personal requirements
  • Qualifications
  • Skills
  • Exeperience
  • Knowledge

64
Terms of agreement
  • Detailed information concerning labour contract
  • Comparison to labour contracts in other EU
    countries

65
Thank you for your attention
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