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Oceans of the World

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Characteristics of each ocean must include: Currents Water Masses Submarine Ridges Some definable Land ... Indian Ocean Water Features The Indian is the smallest of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Oceans of the World


1
Oceans of the World
2
Ocean Facts
  • 97 of the Earths water is in the Ocean!!
  • The ocean is made up of 322 million cubic miles
    of water!!
  • If we filled in ocean basins, all the water would
    be 1.5 miles deep- all over the world!!

3
  • Average depth- 2.3 miles
  • Ocean water contains 3.5 dissolved salts 35
    salinity
  • Vast majority of ocean water is extremely cold
    (less than 39F or 4C)
  • Vast majority of the ocean is dark only tropical
    surface water (upper 300) is warm.

4
Distinguishing Characteristics of Oceans
5
1. Size
  • Must be quite large

6
  • 2. Features that set it apart from neighboring
    oceans, since the major bodies of water are
    interconnected

7
3. Characteristics of each ocean must include
  • Currents
  • Water Masses
  • Submarine Ridges
  • Some definable Land Boundaries

8
  • Using these features, oceanographers consider the
    earth to have 5 oceans!

9
The Pacific Average Depth 14,500 ft.
10
2. The Atlantic Average Depth 12,500 ft
11
3. The Indian Average Depth 13,000 ft
12
4. The Arctic Average Depth 3500 ft.
13
  • 5. The Southern Ocean
  • Average depth 13,100 ft.

14
Land and Ocean
  • The ocean accounts for 71 of the earths surface
  • Land accounts for the remaining 29
  • Most of it is in the northern hemisphere

15
Pacific Ocean
  • Water Features
  • Dominates the earths surface
  • Holds 52 of the earths ocean water
  • Deepest and largest basin occupying more than 33
    of the earths surface.

16
  • Land Features
  • Mountain building dominates the Pacific basin
    margins
  • Pacific is less affected by continents
  • Islands are abundant in the pacific, especially
    in the southern and western portions
  • Most of the islands are volcanoes

17
The Ring of Fire
  • an area of frequent earthquakes and volcanic
    eruptions encircling the basin of the Pacific
    Ocean
  • 90 of worlds earthquakes, and 81 of the
    worlds largest earthquakes occur along the ring
    of fire.

18
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19
The Mariana Trench
  • Deepest known submarine trench, with a maximum
    depth of about 11 km (6.8 mi), and the deepest
    location on the surface of the Earth's crust
  • It is located in the floor of the western North
    Pacific Ocean, to the east and south of the
    Mariana Islands, near Guam

20
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22
Atlantic Ocean
  • Water Features
  • The Atlantic Ocean is a relatively narrow basin
    connecting the Artic and Antarctic oceans.
  • The Atlantic accounts for 26 of the ocean waters
  • Relatively shallow, averaging 3310 meters deep
  • Several shallow marginal seas

23
  • Land Features
  • Large continental margins
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge
  • Few islands in the Atlantic
  • The Atlantic receives large amounts of water and
    sediment from rivers

24
The Gulf Stream
  • A powerful, warm, and swift current that
    originates in the Gulf of Mexico, exits through
    the Strait of Florida, and follows the eastern
    coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland
    before crossing the Atlantic Ocean
  • First charted by Benjamin Franklin in 1786

25
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26
Mid-Atlantic Ridge
  • Mostly underwater mountain range of the Atlantic
    Ocean and Arctic Ocean.
  • The highest peaks of this mountain range extend
    above the water mark, to form islands

27
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29
Gulf Coast Features
  • Land along the Gulf Coast tends to be low and
    flat, and much of it is (or was) marshland
  • The western portions of the Gulf Coast include
    many barrier islands and peninsulas, including
    the 130 mile (210 km) Padre Island and Galveston
    Island
  • These landforms protect numerous bays and inlets
  • Because of its proximity to the subtropical
    waters of the Gulf of Mexico, the Gulf Coast area
    is vulnerable to hurricanes

30
Barrier Islands
  • Barrier islands are long, narrow, offshore
    deposits of sand or sediments that parallel the
    coast line.
  • Some barrier islands can extend for 100 miles
    (160 km) or more.
  • 130 mile (210 km) Padre Island and Galveston
    Island
  • The islands are separated from the main land by a
    shallow sound, bay or lagoon.
  • Barrier islands are often found in chains along
    the coast line and are separated from each other
    by narrow tidal inlets

31
  • Barrier islands serve two main functions.
  • First, they protect the coastlines from severe
    storm damage.
  • Second, they harbor several habitats that are
    refuges for wildlife.

32
Indian Ocean
  • Water Features
  • The Indian is the smallest of the three major
    ocean basins (Pacific, Atlantic, Indian)
  • Indian Ocean accounts for 20 of the worlds
    ocean water
  • Primarily in the southern hemisphere

33
  • Northern region has an abundance of both fresh
    water and sediment
  • Three of the worlds largest rivers (Ganges,
    Brahmaputra, Indus) discharge into the northern
    Indian Ocean
  • Northern Indian Ocean has two major sources of
    warm saline waters
  • The Red Sea
  • The Arabian Gulf

34
Arctic Ocean
  • Water Features
  • The Artic Ocean accounts for 2 of the worlds
    ocean water
  • Circular in shape
  • Almost completely surrounded by land
  • Considerably shallower than the other oceans
  • During most of the year, sea ice covers its
    surface
  • Is not considered by some as a separate ocean,
    but rather a land locked arm of the Atlantic

35
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36
Southern Ocean
  • Also known as the Antarctic Ocean or South Polar
    Ocean, is the oceanic division completely in
    Earth's southern hemisphere encircling Antarctica
  • It is the fourth largest of the five principal
    ocean divisions and the latest to be defined,
    having been accepted by a decision of the
    International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) in
    2000, though the term has long been traditional
    among mariners

37
  • Sea temperatures vary from about -2 to 10 C (28
    to 50 F).
  • The Southern Ocean is geologically the youngest
    of the oceans
  • 30 million years ago
  • The water of the Southern Ocean is different from
    the water in the other oceans because of its
    circumpolar current.
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