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The Cold War

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Essential Question Origins of The Cold War: American Presidents Cold War Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union)_ United Nations Origins of Cold War (after WWII) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cold War


1
The Cold War
  • APUSH
  • Chapter 36 The Cold War Begins

2
What Is The Cold War?
  • Intense rivalry between the U.S. Soviet Union

3
Essential Question
  • 1. What were the origins and developments of the
    cold war?

4
Origins of The Cold War
  • 1. Ideological Differences Communism vs.
    Capitalism
  • (economic, political, philosophical disputes)
  • 2. Competition for global power Influence
  • 3. Mutual Distrust
  • 4. Atomic Weapons Arms Race

5
American Presidents Cold War
  • 1. Harry Truman 1948-1952
  • 2. Dwight D. Eisenhower 1952-1960
  • 3. John F. Kennedy 1960-

6
Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union)_
7
United Nations
  • Charter of United Nations (1945)
  • 1. maintenance of international peace and
    security
  • 2. 5 permanent members
  • U.S., Soviet Union, Britain, France, China
  • 3. 15 members in total

8
Origins of Cold War (after WWII)
  • 1. Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union)
  • Established Spheres of Influence
  • In Eastern Europe

9
Origins of Cold War
  • 2. Eastern European nations Became Soviet
    satellites (1946-1948)
  • 3. Soviets refused to sign plan eliminating
    atomic weapons

10
Origins of Cold War
  • 4. Soviets refused to allow free elections in
    Eastern Europe
  • 5. Stalin hoped to establish communist block
  • clear violation of war conference agreements

11
Winston Churchill
  • An iron curtain has descended across Europe -
    1946

12
Policy of Containment
  • President Truman interested in containing
    communism from spreading
  • Possible Soviet domination a threat to U.S.
  • Truman Doctrine (1947) funding to assist
    countries in repelling a possible communist take
    over

13
Marshall Plan
  • A Plan to re-build war torn Western Europe
  • 3 billion over 4 yr period
  • Proposed by George Marshall, U.S. Secretary of
    State

14
Berlin Airlift, 1948
  • Joseph Stalin
  • Cut off city of Berlin from Western contact
  • Blocked all routes into Berlin with Soviet troops
  • Why?
  • tired of U.S. intrusion in European affairs

15
Berlin Blockade, 1948
16
Berlin Airlift, 1948
  • American planes delivered supplies to city
  • For 11 months

17
Berlin Airlift- American Candy Bombers
  • American servicemen
  • Flew over Berlin and dropped candy for citys
    children

18
Alliances
  • President Truman joined alliance with W. European
    countries, Canada, Iceland
  • NATO North Atlantic treaty organization

19
Alliances
  • Stalins response
  • Warsaw Pact 1955
  • Communist Eastern European military alliance
  • Once a member, a nation can NEVER leave!

20
The Atomic Race Begins
  • Superior large scale weapons
  • Soviet Union exploded first A- Bomb 1949
  • 1952 U.S. developed Hydrogen bomb
  • 1,000 Xs stronger than A-bomb

21
U.S. Domestic Policy
  • 1. National Security Act (1947)- created the
    Department of Defense, the National Security
    Council, and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
  • 2. NSC-68- secret document discussed Soviet plans
    for world domination, encouraged U.S. to build up
    military

22
Containment in Asia
  • China fell to communism 1949
  • 1950 Mao Tse- Tung and Joseph Stalin signed pact
  • 2 large nations communist block

23
Korean War
  • 1945 Allies divided Korea
  • Border between North South 38th Parallel
  • North Korea communist
  • China and Soviet Union supplied weapons

24
Korean War
  • N. Korea invaded South Korea, June 1950
  • U.S. authorized police action of military force
    to liberate South Korea
  • Conflict ended in stalemate

25
Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • Became President, 1952
  • American foreign policy He would support
    nations who sought liberation from communism

26
Eisenhowers Policies
  • 1. brinkmanship U.S. would push aggressor
    nation to the brink of nuclear war, forcing
    them to back down
  • 2. massive retaliation U.S. would release
    arsenal of nuclear weapons on any threat

27
Geneva Convention, 1954
  • French lost colonies in Indochina
  • Geneva Convention agreed to split up territory
  • Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia
  • Divided Vietnam into communist north,
    anti-communist south

28
Eisenhower Doctrine, 1957
  • Policy designed to counter Soviet influence in
    the Middle East by offering military aid to those
    countries seeking help from resisting Communist
    aggression

29
Joseph Stalin died, 1953
  • Nikita Krushchev took over Soviet Union
  • 1958 demanded removal of westerners from Berlin
  • Eisenhower called meeting

30
Tense Times
  • Soviets discovered American U-2 spy plane
  • And it was shot down 2 weeks before meeting

31
John F. Kennedy
  • Elected President 1960
  • Defeated Richard Nixon

32
Berlin Wall
  • Soviets began construction, 1961
  • To prevent East Berliners from escaping to West

33
President Kennedy
  • Traveled to Berlin, 1963
  • Did not stop construction
  • Proclaimed support for people in Berlin

"Ich bin ein Berliner."
34
Castro Communizes Cuba
  • Dictator Batista overthrown by Fidel Castro 1959
  • Established communist state
  • Asked Soviets for Help
  • U.S. cut off diplomatic relations w/ Castro

35
Bay of Pigs
  • April 1961
  • U.S. planned Invasion of Cuba
  • Attempt to overthrow Castro
  • Failure
  • Embarrassment to President Kennedy

36
Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962
  • Fidel Castro Khrushchev joined forces
  • U.S. spy plane discovered
  • Building of nuclear missile sites in Cuba

37
Kennedy Ordered
  • Removal of missiles
  • U.S. enacted naval blockade against Cuba
  • Khrushchev agreed to remove missiles if
  • U.S. agreed never to invade Cuba again , and
    remove their missiles from Turkey

38
American Espionage Red Scare
  • Fear of spies in the U.S.
  • Julius and Ethel Rosenberg accused of
    delivering atomic secrets to Soviets
  • Convicted of treason espionage 1951
  • Sentenced to death

39
Senator Joseph McCarthy
  • Wanted to uncover prosecute American Communists
  • Used media to his advantage
  • His accusations mostly false
  • Hearings televised
  • Modern day witch hunt
  • .

40
Living in Fear
  • Threat of nuclear war
  • Bomb shelters
  • People purchased canned goods/water
  • duck and cover drills in schools

41
Living In Fear
  • The National Highway Act 1956
  • Created interstate freeway system
  • 42,000 miles of road

42
Interstate Highways
  • Meant to provide quick evacuation , emergency
    landing of planes, transport of missiles

43
Space Race
  • 1. Russian Space Satellite Sputnik launched 1957
  • 2. U.S. created National Aeronautics and Space
    Administration (NASA) 1958
  • Congress allocated millions to better prepare
    students in math, science, foreign languages

44
Cause of Cold WAR?
  • View 1 Stalin wanted world domination, U.S. had
    no choice but to defend democratic, capitalist
    values.
  • View 2 Truman adopted an aggressive foreign
    policy, and sought to create American spheres of
    influence throughout world

45
Chapter 37 The Eisenhower Era 1952-1960
  • Popular Culture American Society in the 1950s

46
1950s Popular Culture
47
Servicemens Re-adjustment Act, 1944
  • Also known as the G.I. Bill
  • Huge impact on American society economy in the
    1950s
  • Opportunities for WWII Veterans

48
G.I. Bill Offered
  • 1. University education
  • 2. Vocational Training
  • 3. Small business loans
  • 3. Home loans

49
Universities
  • Award 2xs as many degrees in 1950 as opposed to
    1940
  • 8 million vets used G.I. funds to attend Colleges
    Universities

50
1950s Prosperity
  • Credit Cards Diners Club, American Express,
    1958
  • Low interest home loans

51
Who is the 1950s The Middle Class?
  • 1. At least some college education
  • 2. Men work white collar jobs, or blue collar
    management
  • 3. Own 2 cars
  • 4. Own suburban home
  • 5. Stay at home wife, 2 kids
  • 6. mostly white

52
Auto Mania
  • Cars Facilitate movement
  • 85 of homes built in 1950s built in the
    suburbs.

53
Growth of Suburbs
  • Tract homes built en masse in the 1950s
  • Levittowns- emerged (planned communities in
    suburbs)
  • Levitt Construction company- east coast

54
Growth of Suburbs
  • Average home price 1950s
  • 11,500 - 14,500

55
Lakewood, Ca- 1st Planned Community in L.A.
  • STEP 1
  • STEP 2

56
Lakewood, Ca- 1st Planned Community in L.A.
  • STEP 3
  • STEP 4

57
White Flight
  • White, middle class Moved to suburbs
  • Loans denied to minorities
  • 60 of Americans owned homes by end of 50s

58
National Highway Act 1956
  • Interstate Highways unified nation
  • 40 billion
  • 41,000 mile construction project

59
Popular Culture Along Highways
  • The emergence of fast food chains, motels,
    shopping malls

60
Baby Boom
  • 50-75 million babies born between 1946-1964
  • at home mothers depicted in popular culture

61
Women in the 1950s
  • 1950s Middle Class ideal stay at home mom
  • Husband earns enough money so wife does not have
    to work

62
Television Culture
  • 9 in 10 homes had T.V. sets by 1960
  • Facilitated the spread of fads

63
1950s Fads
  • Hula Hoops! Records!
  • Barbie!
  • Telephone booth stuffing!

64
Rock N Roll
  • Term coined by DJ Alan Freed 1951
  • Controversial
  • Society concerned about teenagers

65
Rebellious Youth in Film
  • James Dean - Rebel Without a Cause (1955)
  • Marlon Brando
  • The Wild One (1954)

66
Disneyland
  • Opened in Anaheim, CA 1955
  • Price of admission 1

67
The Construction of Disneyland
  • Does Disneyland represent the social idealism of
    the 1950s??

68
Poverty and Urban Blight
  • By 1960, 35 million people lived below poverty
    line
  • Inner city deteriorated into slums
  • Reality of the ignored

69
1950s Reality
  • 1. Racism, discrimination, segregation
  • 2. Popular Culture depicts white middle class
    experience
  • 3. Poverty, urban blight, inequality

70
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