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Chapter Sixteen The Eighteen Century: From Rococo to Revolution

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... references English Augustan movement Imitated Roman Augustan poets Return to order after English Civil War Literature in the Eighteenth Century Alexander Pope ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter Sixteen The Eighteen Century: From Rococo to Revolution


1
Chapter Sixteen The Eighteen Century From Rococo
to Revolution
  • Culture and Values, 6th Ed.
  • Cunningham and Reich

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3
Age of Diversity
  • Unqualified optimism, extreme discontent
  • Conscious engagement with social issues
  • Revolutionaries and conservatives
  • Enlightened despots
  • Welfare of citizenry
  • Duty and responsibility

4
The Visual Arts in the Eighteenth Century The
Rococo Style
  • Escapism, antibaroque
  • Frivolity, lightheartedness
  • Art as entertainment for aristocracy
  • Jean Antoine Watteau (1684-1721)
  • Fetes galantes
  • Return from Cythera (1717)

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The Visual Arts in the Eighteenth Century The
Rococo Style
  • François Boucher (1703-1770)
  • Eroticism, voluptuous beauty (Rubens)
  • Cupid a Captive (1754)
  • Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806)
  • Use of landscape
  • Love Letters (1773)

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The Visual Arts in the Eighteenth Century The
Rococo Style
  • Rosalba Carriera (1675-1757)
  • Pastel portraits
  • Anna Sofia dEste (c. 1730)
  • Portraiture and English nobility
  • Rococo sculpture
  • Rococo architecture
  • Balthazar Neumann (1687-1753)

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The Visual Arts in the Eighteenth
Century Neo-Classical Art
  • Archeological inspiration
  • New awareness of classical art
  • Roman Republic, French Revolution
  • Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825)
  • United opposition to tyranny
  • Austere poses, orderly decoration
  • Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792)

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The Visual Arts in the Eighteenth
Century Neo-Classical Art
  • Escapism vs. Idealism
  • William Hogarth
  • Satirical moral subjects
  • Sculptural quality
  • Classical models of architecture
  • Austere public buildings
  • Thomas Jeffersons State Capitol

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Classical Music
  • Style gallant
  • Empfindsamkeit
  • C.P.E. Bach (1714-8)
  • General vs. Technical definitions
  • New musical idiom
  • Emotion, intellect, balance, order

20
Classical Music The Classical Symphony
  • Orchestral standardization
  • Symphonic movements
  • Sonata form, sonata allegro form
  • Exposition, development, recapitulation
  • Slow, lyrical movement
  • Minuet
  • Spirited, cheerful conclusion

21
Classical Music Haydn and Mozart
  • Franz Joseph Haydn
  • Father of the Symphony
  • Reverence of artist in society
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
  • Early musical prowess, virtuosity
  • The Marriage of Figaro
  • Social injustice, universality of human nature

22
Literature in the Eighteenth Century Intellectual
Developments
  • Systematic examination of society
  • Pessimistic views vs. Optimistic views
  • Renewed interest in Classical culture
  • Translations, themes, forms, references
  • English Augustan movement
  • Imitated Roman Augustan poets
  • Return to order after English Civil War

23
Literature in the Eighteenth Century Alexander
Pope (1688-1744)
  • Augustan poet
  • Nature of human experience
  • Rococo satire
  • Tinged with personal hostility
  • Christian Humanist teachings
  • Revelation of human folly
  • Reverence for order, reason

24
Literature in the Eighteenth Century Jonathan
Swift (1667-1745)
  • Hatred for human race
  • Savage indignation
  • Animals capable of reason
  • Gullivers Travels
  • Satire of human behavior
  • A Modest Proposal
  • Mans inhumanity to man
  • Inevitability of human suffering

25
Literature in the Eighteenth Century Rational
Humanism The Encyclopedists
  • Encyclopédie
  • Denis Diderot (1713-1784)
  • System for the classification of knowledge
  • Compendium of human rationality
  • Freedom of conscience and belief

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Literature in the Eighteenth Century Rational
Humanism The Encyclopedists
  • Charles-Louis Montesquieu (1689-1755)
  • Distribution of governmental power
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
  • Humansgood, societybad
  • The noble savage
  • Contempt for superficial, artificial
  • Belief in human equality

28
Literature in the Eighteenth Century Voltaire
(1694-1778)
  • A man engagé
  • Importance of freedom of thought
  • Ecrasez linfame
  • Fanaticism and persecution
  • Natural religion, morality
  • Candide (1759)
  • Folly of unreasonable optimism
  • Cruelty and stupidity of the human race

29
The Late Eighteenth Century Time of Revolution
  • Technological improvements
  • Increased literacy, circulation of ideas
  • Governmental abuses
  • Louis XV Après moi le déluge
  • The Reign of Terror
  • Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794)
  • Essentiality of constitutional government

30
The Late Eighteenth Century Time of Revolution
  • American Revolution
  • Inspired revolution in France
  • Jeffersons Declaration of Independence
  • Optimistic view
  • Political and social freedom
  • Equality and justice
  • Universality of man and nature

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Chapter Sixteen Discussion Questions
  • Explain Jonathan Swifts savage indignation.
    Why does he hold such contempt for the human
    race? What is meant by the statement, reason
    aggravates mans natural corruptions? How is
    this similar to and/or different from Rousseaus
    outlook on humanity?
  • What philosophical view of humanity was generated
    by the Encyclopedists? Explain how a collection
    of knowledge lead to new insights into religion,
    humanity, society, and government.
  • In what ways does the rococo style support both
    the optimistic AND the pessimistic worldviews of
    the eighteenth century? Consider the influx of
    satire and the comparative frivolity of the art
    in addition to the changing role of the artist
    during the period.
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