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Georgia High School Graduation Test Review

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Title: Georgia High School Graduation Test Review


1
Georgia High School Graduation Test Review
  • Day One

2
GHSGT Content Weights (revised 2008)
  • American Government/Civics 17-19
  • United States History to 1865 25-27
  • United States History since 1865 24-26
  • World Geography 12-14
  • World History 17-19

3
American Government/Civics -
  • Declaration of Independence
  • July 4, 1776
  • Echoes theories of John Locke
  • Natural rights everyone is entitled to
  • Governments get the power to govern from the
    people
  • Governments that fail to serve citizens should be
    replaced
  • Outlines problems with England
  • Formal declaration of independence

4
Declaration of Independence
  • -revolutionary document
  • Emphasized equality and natural rights
  • Rights not applied to everyone, but the document
    fueled the movements that led to the end of
    slavery, equal rights for women, and recognition
    of minority rights.

5
Review
  • What document formally proclaimed the American
    colonies independence from Great Britain?
  • A. The social contract
  • B. the letters of Enlightenment
  • C. the Declaration of Independence
  • D. the writings of John Locke

6
Review
  • What document formally proclaimed the American
    colonies independence from Great Britain?
  • A. The social contract
  • B. the letters of Enlightenment
  • C. the Declaration of Independence
  • D. the writings of John Locke

7
Review
  • Rights which human beings are born with and which
    no government has a right to take away are called
  • A. Declaratory rights
  • B. Natural rights
  • C. Social rights
  • D. Alienable rights

8
Review
  • Rights which human beings are born with and which
    no government has a right to take away are called
  • A. Declaratory rights
  • B. Natural rights
  • C. Social rights
  • D. Alienable rights

9
Georgia High School Graduation Test Review
  • Day Two

10
Government Review
  • Articles of Confederation
  • U.S. Constitution drawn up following the
    Declaration of Independence.
  • Weak alliance of states
  • Failed because it didnt give enough power to the
    national government (although it made sense at
    the time)
  • No power to impose taxes
  • 9 of 13 states had to agree for Congress to pass
    a law and they rarely agreed!
  • No national executive or court
  • No power to regulate trade or enforce laws
  • Each state government was more powerful than the
    new national government.

11
Articles of Confederation
  • Accomplishments
  • Held the nation together during the American
    Revolution.
  • Passed Northwest Ordinance providing for orderly
    settlement of the western territories.
  • Problems
  • States taxed goods from other states, made trade
    difficult.
  • States printed their own money created problems
    with trade.
  • After the war was over, the national government
    had no power to create a standing army.
  • Shays Rebellion in Massachusetts led people to
    fear the weakness of the government.
  • Decided to revise the Articles.

12
Review Questions
  • Which document provided a plan for the structure
    of the U.S. government in the period before the
    U.S. Constitution was adopted?
  • A. Mayflower Compact
  • B. Articles of Confederation
  • C. Bill of Rights
  • D. Stamp Act

13
Review Questions
  • Which document provided a plan for the structure
    of the U.S. government in the period before the
    U.S. Constitution was adopted?
  • A. Mayflower Compact
  • B. Articles of Confederation
  • C. Bill of Rights
  • D. Stamp Act

14
Georgia High School Graduation Test Review
  • Day Three

15
U.S. Constitution
  • Disagreements between large and small states and
    northern and southern states.
  • Virginia Plan proposed three branches of
    government (legislative, executive, judicial),
    bicameral legislature with representatives from
    each state. Representation to be determined by
    population.
  • New Jersey Plan called for three branches of
    government, but wanted the legislative branch to
    be unicameral with each state getting a single
    vote.

16
U.S. Constitution
  • Great Compromise
  • a/k/a Connecticut Plan proposed by Roger
    Sherman of CT.
  • Legislative branch with two houses
  • House of Representatives elected directly by
    the people, with each state granted a certain
    number of seats based on population.
  • Senate elected by state legislatures, each
    state having two senators regardless of
    population.
  • The two houses together would be CONGRESS.

17
Other Compromises
  • 3/5 Compromise each slave would count as 3/5 of
    a person (this was to balance out the slave
    population in the South).
  • Slave trade compromise Those who opposed the
    slave trade agreed to allow it to continue
    unregulated for 20 years. South said they
    couldnt survive without it. Slave trade ended
    in 1808. Slavery continued until 1865.

18
Review Question
  • Use the quotation below to answer the following
    question
  • Gentlemen, I believe that this compromise
    presents the best possible solution to this
    dilemma. Since those in the North feel strongly
    that slaves are not citizens and therefore should
    not be counted in the population, while our
    Southern representatives feel just as strongly
    that they should be, I see no other solution.

19
Review Question
  • The quote above is referring to which of the
    following?
  • A. The Three Fifths Compromise
  • B. The Connecticut Plan
  • C. The Slave Trade Compromise
  • D. The Virginia Plan

20
Review Question
  • The quote above is referring to which of the
    following?
  • A. The Three Fifths Compromise
  • B. The Connecticut Plan
  • C. The Slave Trade Compromise
  • D. The Virginia Plan

21
Georgia High School Graduation Test Review
  • Day Four

22
Fundamental Principles of the Constitution
  • Rule of Law U.S. is a society governed by laws,
    not a king or small body of rulers.
  • Limited government principle that even
    governments have to obey laws and respect the
    rights of citizens. They are limited in their
    powers.
  • Separation of powers divides authority to
    govern between the branches of government.
  • Legislative makes the laws
  • Executive enforces the laws
  • Judicial interprets laws, make sure they are
    applied fairly and appropriately.

23
Fundamental Principles of the U.S. Constitution
  • Checks and balances each branch checks the
    powers of the other two. Power is divided, no
    branch becomes too powerful.
  • Federalism power is divided between different
    levels of government (national and state
    governments share power)
  • Popular sovereignty the government gets its
    power from the people and is subject to the will
    of the people.

24
Review Questions
  • The idea of a legislative branch making the laws,
    an executive branch enforcing the laws, and a
    judicial branch overseeing application of the law
    is consistent with
  • A. Separation of powers
  • B. checks and balances
  • C. federalism
  • D. popular sovereignty

25
Review Questions
  • The idea of a legislative branch making the laws,
    an executive branch enforcing the laws, and a
    judicial branch overseeing application of the law
    is consistent with
  • A. Separation of powers
  • B. checks and balances
  • C. federalism
  • D. popular sovereignty

26
Review Questions
  • Which of the following states that governments
    are empowered by and exist only for the people
    they govern?
  • A. Federalism
  • B. Popular sovereignty
  • C. Anti-federalism
  • D. Checks and balances

27
Review Questions
  • Which of the following states that governments
    are empowered by and exist only for the people
    they govern?
  • A. Federalism
  • B. Popular sovereignty
  • C. Anti-federalism
  • D. Checks and balances

28
Georgia High School Graduation Test Review
  • Day Five

29
Bill of Rights
  • Many states opposed the new Constitution because
    they felt it didnt do enough to protect
    individual rights (state constitutions had Bills
    of Rights)
  • Many refused to ratify until a Bill of Rights was
    added.
  • Federalists and Anti-Federalists

30
Bill of Rights
  • 1 Freedom of religion, press, assembly, right
    to petition
  • 2 right to bear arms
  • 3 quartering of soldiers
  • 4 search and seizure
  • 5 life, liberty and property (guaranteed due
    process, no self-incrimination)
  • 6 rights of the accused (speedy trial by jury,
    right to confront witnesses)
  • 7 right to jury trial (civil cases disputes
    involving more than 20)
  • 8 no cruel and unusual punishment
  • 9 all other rights you have rights that
    arent listed
  • 10 rights of states and the people states or
    people have all powers not assigned to the
    federal government or denied the states.

31
Review
  • Hand signals to remember amendments

32
Georgia High School Graduation Test Review
  • Day Six

33
World History
  • Renaissance
  • 1350 AD to mid 1500s
  • Rebirth
  • Era in which artists, architects, philosophers,
    political thinkers, scientists, and even
    theologians believed in reviving the classical
    ideas of ancient Greece and Rome.
  • Rebirth of culture, thought and civilization
    after a period of disorder in Europe known as the
    Dark Ages
  • More emphasis on individual worth, potential of
    individuals

34
World History
  • Renaissance
  • Changes in political thought
  • Move away from importance of monarchs ruling
    according to Christian ethics and toward rulers
    making decisions based on human nature and what
    s best for the state. (Machiavelli)
  • Renaissance Man
  • Humans are limitless in what they can accomplish
  • People can achieve great things in several areas
  • Ex Leonardo da Vinci (painter, sculptor,
    inventor, scientist, architect, engineer,
    mathematician - Mona Lisa, The Last Supper.
  • Ex Michelangelo painter, sculptor, builder
    (David, Sistine Chapel in Rome)

35
Review Question
  • He greatly impacted political thought by
    asserting that leaders should rule according to
    the needs of the state rather than simply relying
    on what is considered ethical or moral.
  • A. Martin Luther
  • B. John Calvin
  • C. Machiavelli
  • D. Leonardo da Vinci

36
Review Question
  • He greatly impacted political thought by
    asserting that leaders should rule according to
    the needs of the state rather than simply relying
    on what is considered ethical or moral.
  • A. Martin Luther
  • B. John Calvin
  • C. Machiavelli
  • D. Leonardo da Vinci

37
Review Question
  • Which statement best describes a change that
    occurred during the Renaissance?
  • A. Feudalism became the dominant political
    system.
  • B. The use of reason and logic was discouraged.
  • C. Technology and science were considered
    unimportant.
  • D. A new questioning spirit and attitude emerged.

38
Review Question
  • Which statement best describes a change that
    occurred during the Renaissance?
  • A. Feudalism became the dominant political
    system.
  • B. The use of reason and logic was discouraged.
  • C. Technology and science were considered
    unimportant.
  • D. A new questioning spirit and attitude emerged.

39
Georgia High School Graduation Test Review
  • Day Seven

40
Reformation
  • Martin Luther
  • German monk changed Christianity forever
  • Believed that the Bible taught that people are
    saved by grace of God not religious works,
    opposed Catholic church selling indulgences.
  • Nailed 95 Theses to door of church, voiced his
    protest.
  • Intended to get church to change its ways, led to
    the Protestant Reformation. (protested Catholic
    emperor imposing Catholicism in Germany)
  • Founder of new church that rejected many Catholic
    traditions and didnt answer to the pope.

41
Reformation
  • John Calvin
  • Challenged the Catholic church in Switzerland
  • Put forth many ideas that came to define
    Protestant thought such as predestination.
  • Idea that God has already decided who is saved
    and who is lost and humans can do nothing to
    change it.
  • Became ruler of Geneva and made it a Protestant
    city.
  • Calvinism became the foundation of the
    Presbyterian church.

42
Reformation
  • English Reformation
  • Henry VIII wanted divorce, pope refused
  • Established Church of England, with himself as
    its head
  • One of the new churchs first acts was to grant
    the king his divorce.
  • Kept many of the same beliefs and ceremonies of
    the Catholic church but did not answer to the
    pope.

43
Reformation
  • Catholic church responded with some reform.
  • Jesuits used education to counter arguments
    against the church.
  • Council of Trent tried to get people to come back
    to the church.
  • Council provided clearly stated doctrine and
    unified the Catholic church as never before.

44
Printing Press
  • Gutenbergs printing press had large impact on
    Renaissance and Reformation
  • Written works could be widely distributed and
    read. (Bible, 95 Theses, etc.)

45
Review Question
  • He challenged the selling of indulgences and
    other Catholic practices which he felt
    contradicted the Bible. Eventually, his
    teachings led to a new church in Germany and a
    religious movement known as the Protestant
    Reformation. Who was he?
  • John Calvin
  • Martin Luther
  • King Henry VIII
  • Ignatius Loyola

46
Review Question
  • He challenged the selling of indulgences and
    other Catholic practices which he felt
    contradicted the Bible. Eventually, his
    teachings led to a new church in Germany and a
    religious movement known as the Protestant
    Reformation. Who was he?
  • John Calvin
  • Martin Luther
  • King Henry VIII
  • Ignatius Loyola

47
Georgia High School Graduation Test Review
  • Day Eight

48
Geography
  • Study of the earths surface, land, bodies of
    water, climate, peoples, industries, natural
    resources, etc.
  • Physical geography study how physical
    characteristics (land, climate, bodies of water,
    animal life) define a region or place.
  • Human geography study of how human
    characteristics (language, religion, political
    systems, economic systems, population, way of
    life) are important to geography.

49
Continents
  • Continents are numbered below in order of
    physical size, with 1 being the largest and 7 the
    smallest.
  • 1 Asia
  • 2 Africa
  • 3 North America
  • 4 South America
  • 5 Antarctica
  • 6 Europe
  • 7 Australia

50
Review Questions
  • Practice questions using a map.

51
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52
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53
Georgia High School Graduation Test Review
  • Day Nine and Day Ten

54
U.S. History
  • Flash card review of as much as possible for the
    last day or two of review.
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