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Five Paragraph Essay

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Five Paragraph Essay 6/A+ PAPERS Persuasion in Daily Life Imagine that you overslept this morning but still managed the following achievements: You persuaded your mom ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Five Paragraph Essay


1
Five Paragraph Essay
  • 6/A
  • PAPERS

2
Persuasion in Daily Life
  • Imagine that you overslept this morning but still
    managed the following achievements 
  • You persuaded your mom that she should give you
    some money to buy breakfast on the way to
    school. 
  • You persuaded a friend to give you a ride to
    school. 
  • How were you able to do all of this? You used
    your skills of persuasion to win another person
    over to your viewpoint. 

3
Persuasion in Daily Life
  • Probably without being aware of it, you have
    developed skills of persuasion. These are skills
    that you will need throughout your life.
  • At work you will need to negotiate with your
    colleagues, employers, and customers.
  • Socially, you will often want to persuade your
    friends to do what you want to do, such as going
    to a particular movie.
  • You may want to persuade your parents about the
    ideal place for the family vacation or convince
    them that they should extend your curfew.
  • Other people, in turn, will seek to persuade you,
    both those close to you and those far removed,
    such as politicians, advertisers, and the media.

4
Forms of Persuasion
  • Persuasion can take many forms, including ads,
    editorials, speeches, debates, phone calls,
    conversations, letters, memos, e-mail, pamphlets,
    and essays, just to name a few.
  • This PPT focuses mainly on the most common
    persuasive writing assignment in school the
    persuasive essay. It also describes the basic
    methods that apply to all forms of persuasion.
  • Understanding these methods will help you improve
    your ability to persuade and to analyze attempts
    by others to persuade you. 

5
Four Types of Persuasion
  •  There are four main types of persuasion
  • using logic and evidence
  • appealing to authority
  • appealing to emotions
  • appealing to shared beliefs or identity.
  • Think about what method or methods will be most
    convincing to your audience. In a way, you are
    like a trial lawyer trying to persuade a jury. 

6
Logic and Evidence
  • Logic is the use of clear reasoning to draw
    conclusions.
  • You can use logic by supporting your argument
    with reasons backed up by evidencespecific
    statements of fact (statements that can be proved
    or disproved).
  • You are trying to prove that your opinion makes
    the most sense.

7
Appeal to Authority
  • You can also point to authorities, just as trial
    lawyers use expert witnesses.
  • When you refer to an authoritysuch as a person,
    an organization, or a bookyou expect that your
    audience will consider that source believable.
  • Depending on the topic, you might even present
    yourself as an authority. 

8
Appeal to Emotions
  • Persuasion can rely on a variety of emotions,
    such as anger, love, pity, guilt, pride,
    jealousy, sorrow, joy, and greed.
  • For example, advertisers play on children's greed
    to persuade them that they need the latest toy.
    Charities use images of starving people to arouse
    feelings of guilt and pity and to raise
    donations.
  • Emotionally charged words, words that have a
    strong positive or negative slant, can also be
    effective. 

9
Appeal to Shared Beliefs or Identity
  • You might emphasize beliefs or characteristics
    you share with your audience.
  • With this method, you imply that they should
    share your opinion because you are "one of them."
  • A variation is to imply that if they do not
    agree, they will be excluded from the "club" to
    which you both belong. 

10
Guidelines for Using Logic and Evidence
  •  "That doesn't follow!" "What has that got to do
    with it?" "You're arguing in circles!" "You're
    just telling one side of the story." To help you
    avoid such criticisms, here are a few guidelines
    on using logic and evidence 
  • Be fair. 
  • Don't let bias or prejudice take over. You will
    be more effective if the audience sees that you
    have considered the other side. 
  • Don't ignore contrary evidence. Instead, show how
    evidence for your claim is stronger than evidence
    against it. 

11
Guidelines for Using Logic and Evidence
  • Be clear. 
  • Define your terms. If your audience is not sure
    what you mean, they won't be able to follow your
    argument. If a word has more than one meaning,
    specify which meaning you are using.  
  • If you use a term in more than one way, make the
    meanings clear. 

12
Guidelines for Using Logic and Evidence
  • Be logical. 
  • Make sure your conclusions follow from the
    evidence. An incorrect conclusion is known as a
    non sequitur (Latin for "it does not follow"). 
  • Don't make unsupported assertions. 
  • Make sure that the evidence is relevant. 
  • Don't pose a "false choice," that is, don't
    present only two causes, explanations, or
    options, when there may be more. 
  • Avoid false analogiessaying that if two things
    are alike in one way they must be alike in
    others. 
  • Avoid jumping to conclusions about
    cause-and-effect. Just because one event happened
    before another does not mean that the first event
    caused the second. 
  • Make sure that your reasons support your thesis
    statement rather than simply repeating it. 

13
Guidelines for Using Logic and Evidence
  • Be thorough. 
  • Check to make sure that your evidence is
    accurate. 
  • Gather enough evidence to make a strong case.
    Avoid hasty generalizations based on just a few
    examples.

14
Methods of Appealing to Emotion
  • The core of your argument should be logic and
    evidence. However, some appeals to emotions may
    help, if used appropriately. Four common
    techniques are
  • verbal irony
  • Hyperbole
  • rhetorical questions
  • emotionally charged words. 

15
Verbal Irony
  • Verbal irony is the use of words to express
    something that is different from, and often the
    opposite of, the literal meaning.
  • It can catch the audience's attention to
    emphasize a point.
  • A famous example is Jonathan Swift's "A Modest
    Proposal," written to point out the poverty of
    the Irish working classes in the 1700s. He
    ironically suggests that the poor give up their
    babies to be eaten by the rich, producing income
    for the parents and ridding society of unwanted
    children.

16
Hyperbole
  • Hyperbole is exaggeration to emphasize an idea.
  • Consider this example "Release of chemicals from
    factories has caused deaths in nearby cities. The
    factory owners are murdering these people."
    Calling the owners murderers is an overstatement
    designed to have an emotional effect. 

17
Rhetorical Question
  • A rhetorical question is one asked merely for
    effect, with no answer expected.
  • For example, a politician might ask, "My opponent
    promised prosperity, and what do we have?"
  • Rhetorical questions assume the audience agrees,
    without requiring proof. 

18
Emotionally Charged Words
  • Emotionally charged, or "loaded," words are words
    that carry strong positive or negative
    associations to get a reaction from the audience.
    I
  • In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, Mark Antony's
    speech after Caesar's murder effectively uses
    these techniques to sway emotions. 

19
Methods of Appealing to Emotion
  • Before using appeals to emotion, consider the
    possible effects.
  • Irony may backfire if your audience thinks you
    mean what you say.
  • Hyperbole may make you appear unreasonable.
  • Overuse of rhetorical questions may annoy your
    audience.
  • Use emotional appeals sparingly.

20
Varying Sentence Length and Using Repetition
  • Whether your argument is to be read or listened
    to, its effectiveness depends not only on the
    meaning of your sentences but also on their
    length and rhythm. A good argument may be
    weakened if it is written in a dull manner. 

21
Varying Sentence Length and Using Repetition
  • Mixing short sentences with long ones can help
    keep your audience's attention and emphasize your
    main points.
  • Developing an idea into a long sentence can raise
    expectations of what is to come and give extra
    power to the idea. This technique becomes even
    more powerful if you follow a long sentence with
    a short one.
  • Repetition is another tool to highlight your main
    ideas.
  • If your sentences flow smoothly and stress your
    key points, your argument will have more impact. 

22
Varying Sentence Length and Using Repetition
  • The "I Have a Dream" speech by Martin Luther
    King, Jr., is an excellent example of varying
    sentence length and using repetition to great
    effect. The most memorable part of his speech is
    the repetition of "I Have a Dream," underscoring
    his hopes for racial harmony. Those words
    continue to echo today.

23
Varying Sentence Length and Using Repetition
  • Winston Churchill used repetition and sentence
    variety effectively in his famous "We Shall Never
    Surrender" rallying speech during World War II.
  • He repeated the pronoun we to emphasize the
    nation's unity in a common purpose.
  • The clause "we shall fight" is used seven times
    in this short speech.
  • Starting the last sentence with "we shall" sets
    up the expectation for another front to fight on.
    Then the switch to "We shall never surrender," a
    short sentence after a long one, gives even more
    force to the message.  

24
Planning for your Essay
  • Planning is the KEY to anything involved with
    writing. Even the most experienced writers must
    develop a plan before they sit down and write
    anything. Think about what teachers have to do
    before they come and stand in front of you. We
    would be completely ineffective if we didnt
    PLAN.
  • The same strategy applies to you as a writer.

25
The 5-25-5 Plan
  • Hint Once the essay prompt has been passed out
    to you, go ahead and start reading through the
    prompt immediately. Why?
  • Your brain is a complex and wonderful muscle.
    Without your permission or say so, by reading the
    prompt, your brain will start generating ideas
    for you to write about. Then, when the teacher
    reads the prompt to you, you will have a better
    understanding of the topic.

26
The 5-25-5 Plan
  • Once your time starts, take no more than 5
    minutes to brainstorm ideas on your prompt
    sheetwriting down everything that comes to
    mindand organizing your thoughts in a logical
    way that makes sense. Make an outline, list,
    Venn diagram, cluster, or other technique.
  • Persuasive Essay Choose your position and come
    up with a minimum of three supporting arguments.

27
Outlining Your Argument
  • After you are comfortable with your position, you
    are ready to outline your argument. Effective
    organization helps you to structure your ideas
    and avoid later problems.  
  • State at least three reasons for your argument.
    Each should be distinct from the others and
    should support, rather than repeat, the thesis
    statement. A reason can defend your position, or
    it can refute an opposing reason. 
  • Place your reasons in a logical order. Order of
    importance is often most effective, ending with
    the most important reason. 
  • Plan to devote one paragraph to each reason,
    explaining and supporting each reason with
    relevant and specific evidence.

28
The 5-25-5 Plan
  • After you have used no more than 5 minutes to
    brainstorm and organize, use the largest portion
    of your time writing your essay. This should
    take about 25 minutes. Make sure that you are
    utilizing a different supporting argument in each
    body paragraph.

29
The 5-25-5 Plan
  • We are now up to 30 minutes. What should you do?
  • Proofread and edit your work! Always leave a
    little bit of time to read over what you wrote.
    This way you can make changes or corrections
    before the time is called.
  • Do not get a lower score on the essay due to
    careless mistakes. Always proofread and edit
    your essay.

30
Paragraph 1
  • The introductory paragraph sets the tone and
    should capture your audience's interest
  • SENTENCE 1HOOK
  • Restate prompt in form of a question, scenario
    (Imagine), anecdote, or strong introductory
    statement.
  • Example Are school uniforms beneficial, or do
    the place unnecessary restrictions on students?
  • Example Imagine a school environment where
    every student looks the same and students are
    unable to express themselves.
  • Example Imagine what it would be like to sleep
    later every morning because there is no need to
    find something to wear to school.
  • SENTENCE 2RESTATE PROMPT
  • ---Whatever the topic, state it here and whether
    you agree or disagree!
  • Example School uniforms are unnecessary for
    several reasons.

31
Paragraph 1
  • Sentence 3 Thesis Statement
  • One sentence that gives your three (3) reasons
    for OR against the topic!
  • A thesis statement for a persuasive essay is also
    called a position statement, proposition, claim,
    or contention. 
  • Example Uniforms are uncomfortable, expensive,
    and inconvenient for students.
  • Example Uniforms promote safety, prevent
    stereotyping, and prepare students for a work
    environment.

32
Paragraph 1
  • Read the example that follows.
  • Hook, restate prompt, and give three reasons!

33
EXAMPLE of Paragraph 1
  • Do speed limits prevent accidents or are they
    unnecessary deterrents? The posted speed signs in
    the student lot must be obeyed. Following the
    speed limit keeps students safe, prevents student
    car accidents, and allows everyone to leave
    school expediently.

34
Writing the Body Paragraphs
  • The body of your argument should contain at least
    three clear and distinct reasons that make your
    opinion the correct one.
  • Each reason should be explained clearly and be
    supported with evidence.
  • It is better to develop a small number of reasons
    in depth than to skim many reasons
    superficially. 
  • Reasons are typically opinions, beliefs that can
    neither be proved nor disproved. Therefore, they
    cannot stand on their own but should be supported
    by statements of fact, statements that can be
    proved or disproved.
  • If you have accurate statements of fact as
    supporting evidence, your argument will be more
    convincing.

35
Paragraph 2 5-7 sentences
  • Begin with a transitional word.
  • -Primarily,
  • -First,
  • -One reason/instance
  • Then, state your first reason.

36
Paragraph 2 5-7 sentences
  • Sentences 2, 3, and 4.
  • Give three (3) good, concrete examples to
    support your first reason from your thesis
    statement.
  • Use a combination of the four types of persuasion
    (an appeal to emotion and an appeal to authority,
    for example).

37
Paragraph 2 5-7 sentences
  • Sum up the paragraph.
  • You need a good, concluding sentence to end your
    2nd paragraph.
  • Remember to limit your linking verbs (is, are,
    was, were, etc.) Use action verbs.

38
Review Paragraph 2 5-7 sentences
  • Transitional word intro sentence
  • 3 good examples
  • Concluding sentence

39
Example of Paragraph 2
  • Primarily, a posted speed limit keeps students
    safe. If a student ignores the speed limit in a
    parking lot, he/she might hit another student
    walking to a car. Other cars may also be damaged
    by a speeding student. Damaging another car
    might hurt your pocketbook, but injuring another
    student could cause irreparable psychological
    damage. Students protect themselves and others
    when they follow the speed limit.

40
Paragraph 3 5-7 sentences
  • Start with another transitional word
  • --Second,
  • --Moreover,
  • --Also,
  • --Furthermore,
  • Then, start the introductory sentence.

41
Paragraph 3
  • Again, give 3 really good, concrete examples.
  • Watch those linking verbs (is, are, am ,was,
    were)
  • Concluding sentence

42
Paragraph 3
  • Furthermore, following the speed limit
    prevents car accidents. Hitting another car can
    cause a big traffic jam. Then, the police arrive
    and write a ticket to the person at fault. The
    offender ends up in court and may lose his or her
    license. Additionally, insurance costs often go
    up for the responsible party. Keeping your car
    at the posted speed limit prevents many traffic
    and financial headaches.

43
Paragraph 45-7 sentences
  • Transitional word
  • -Third,
  • -In addition,
  • -Finally,
  • -A final reason
  • Vary your transitions dont use the same
    transitions in every paragraph.
  • Introductory sentence with last reason in thesis
    statement.

44
Paragraph 4
  • Sentences 2, 3, and 4 should again be good,
    concrete examples to support your reason.
  • Watch linking verbs
  • Sentence 5 concludes this paragraph.

45
Example of Paragraph 4
  • Finally, adhering to the speed limit allows
    everyone to leave the parking lot safely and
    efficiently. If students follow each other out
    of the lot slowly, it takes approximately 10
    minutes for the lot to clear. A student may save
    only a minute or two by cutting in front of
    others or speeding to or from the parking spaces.
    Getting to work one to two minutes earlier does
    not necessitate the risk inherent in speeding.
    If everyone heeds the speed limit, everyone gets
    home in a timely, orderly fashion.

46
Writing the Conclusion
  • A closing paragraph should not simply restate
    your reasons.
  • Effective conclusions wrap up your main points
    and link them together.
  • They help to put your argument into perspective
    and let the reader know that you have finished. 
  • The introduction and conclusion should fit
    together because they emphasize your line of
    reasoning. The reader should have the feeling of
    coming full circle.

47
Paragraph 5-Conclusion3 sentences
  • Transitional words meaning conclusion
  • --In conclusion,
  • --Ultimately,
  • --Overall,
  • --Consequently,
  • --Therefore,
  • --Accordingly,
  • --Thus,

48
Paragraph 5 Conclusion 3 sentences
  • List three (3) reasons again with attention to
    the prompt.
  • Conclude with a strong sentence that leaves the
    reader with a good overall impression of your
    essay.

49
Conclusion Example
  • In conclusion, all students should follow the
    posted signs when entering or leaving the school
    parking lot. Student safety, prevention of
    accidents, and orderly traffic flow occur when
    students obey the speed limit. Students who
    endanger others by not complying with the rules
    should lose parking privileges.

50
Five Paragraph Essay
  • 21-27 Total sentences (MINIMUM)
  • 3 sentences in intro and conclusion paragraphs
  • 5-7 sentences in body paragraphs
  • Discuss a different supporting argument in each
    body paragraph. Use specific, persuasive
    arguments!
  • Limit linking verbs
  • Support your reasons with good examples.
  • May mention a new argument in conclusion but do
    not forget to summarize your other arguments

51
Proofreading
  • When proofreading your essay, check the content.
  • Have you used the same argument in more than one
    body paragraph?
  • Does each body paragraph include specific
    examples?
  • Does each paragraph use transitions?
  • Do you have the appropriate number of sentences
    in every paragraph?
  • Is the essay interesting and thought-provoking?

52
Editing
  • When editing the essay, check for careless errors
    such as
  • Commonly confused words (its vs. its your vs.
    youre affect vs. effect).
  • Punctuation mistakes
  • Fragments
  • Run-on sentences
  • Capitalization mistakes
  • Errors in subject/verb agreement or
    pronoun/antecedent agreement
  • Abbreviations and contractions (including etc).
    Avoid these entirely.
  • Avoid second person point of view as much as
    possible (you, your).

53
Scoring
  • The TCAP Writing Assessment is graded
    holistically, which means that the scorer
    evaluates the overall effectiveness of the essay.
  • The grade scale is 1-6, and scores of 4-6 are
    considered proficient.
  • 4 competent
  • 5 strong
  • 6 outstanding
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