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A Brief History of Forestry Education and Forestry Collections in the U. S.

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A Brief History of Forestry Education and Forestry Collections in the U. S. The Unanswerable and Unanswered Questions What is forestry? What should a forester know? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A Brief History of Forestry Education and Forestry Collections in the U. S.


1
A Brief History of Forestry Education and
Forestry Collections in the U. S.
2
The Unanswerable and Unanswered Questions
  • What is forestry?
  • What should a forester know?
  • What should a forestry education include?
  • There has never been a time when foresters were
    free from doubt about themselves, their education
    or their mission. (Miller Lewis, 1989)

3
Influences on Forestry Education
  • Morrill Act establishing Land Grant Colleges
  • Timber Famine
  • Society of American Foresters Accreditation
    Standards
  • Employer needs
  • Regional politics and issues
  • College and University structures

4
Early Schools
  • Carl Schenck - Biltmore Forest School -1898
  • Technical, master-apprentice concept
  • Bernhard Fernow - Cornell - 1898
  • Undergraduate academic program
  • Gifford Pinchot Yale - 1900
  • Graduate program- scientific management

5
General Trends in Forestry Education
  • 1935 - curricula based on forest and timber
    management and utilization
  • 1962 - curricula not much changed
  • 1970s - consolidation of programs and name
    changes
  • 1990s integration of disciplines
  • liberal arts, technical skills, specialization

6
Forestry Schools accredited in 1935 and in 2005
  • University of California, Berkeley 1914
  • University of Idaho 1909
  • Iowa State University 1904
  • Michigan State University 1902
  • University of Michigan 1902
  • University of Minnesota 1903
  • Montana State University 1913
  • SUNY- ESF 1911
  • Oregon State University 1929
  • Pennsylvania State University 1907
  • University of Washington 1907
  • Yale University 1900

7
Name Changes
  • State University of New York
  • 1911 New York State College of Forestry
  • 1972 SUNY College of Environmental Science and
    Forestry
  • University of Minnesota (LG)
  • 1910 College of Forestry
  • 1912 College of Agriculture, Forestry and Home
    Economics
  • 1962 School of Forestry
  • 1970 College of Forestry
  • 1988 College of Natural Resources
  • 2005 merging with College of Agricultural Food
    and Environmental Sciences
  • California, Berkeley (LG)
  • 1914 Division of Forestry
  • 1946 School of Forestry
  • 1968 School of Forestry and Conservation
  • 1974 College of Natural Resources

8
Name Changes cont.
  • Oregon State University (LG)
  • 1896 First Forestry Courses
  • 1908 Department of Forestry
  • 1913 School of Forestry
  • 1984 College of Forestry
  • University of Washington
  • 1901 Department of Forestry
  • 1907 School of Forestry
  • 1910 College of Forestry
  • 1967 College of Forest Resources
  • Yale University
  • 1900 Yale Forestry School
  • 1935 School of Forestry
  • 1972 Yale School of Forestry and Environmental
    Studies

9
Status of Forestry Collections and Libraries
  • University of California, Berkeley LG branch
    merged
  • University of Idaho main
  • Iowa State University LG main
  • Michigan State University LG main
  • University of Michigan science
  • University of Minnesota LG branch
  • Montana State University LG main
  • SUNY-ESF independent
  • Oregon State University LG main
  • Pennsylvania State University LG science
  • University of Washington branch merged
  • Yale University independent

10
Case Studies
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of California, Berkeley

11
University of Minnesota
  • Land Grant University
  • 1889 Forestry coursesSchool of Agriculture
  • 1906 Forestry separates from Agriculture
  • 1908 Division of Forestry
  • 1949 School of Forestry
  • 1970 College of Forestry
  • 1988 College of Natural Resources
  • 2005 Merger with College of Agricultural, Food
    and Environmental Sciences

12
U. Minnesota, Cont.
  • Curricula 1935 (Chapman)
  • General Forestry
  • Commercial Lumbering
  • Forest Technology
  • Pulp and paper
  • Other Wood products
  • Grazing
  • Game Management
  • Forest Science
  • Curricula 1962 (Dana and Johnson)
  • Forest Resources Management
  • Building Materials Management
  • Forest Products Engineering
  • Fish and Wildlife management in Dept of
    Entomology and Economic Zoology

13
U. Minnesota, Cont.
  • 2005 College of Natural Resources
  • Department of Bio-Based Products (formerly Wood
    and Paper Science)
  • Fisheries, Wildlife and Conservation Biology
  • Forest Resources
  • Environment and Natural Resources
  • Recreation Resource Management
  • Urban and Community Forestry

14
U Minnesota Forestry Library
  • 1898 small faculty collection
  • Departmental Library for School 1935
  • .5 staff (students)
  • 900 books, 1400 pamphlets, 16 forestry
    periodicals
  • Full-time Librarian prior to 1962
  • 2005 Branch Library of University of Minnesota
    Libraries Twin Cities
  • Supports five of six curricula in CNR
  • Supports U.S. Forest Service North Central
    Research Station
  • Services state-wide

15
University of California, Berkeley
  • 1873 Efforts began for a forestry program.
  • 1914 Division of Forestry in College of
    Agriculture
  • 1946 School of Forestry
  • 1968 School of Forestry and Conservation
  • 1974 College of Natural Resources SFC merged
    with College of Agriculture
  • 1993 Consolidation of Departments within CNR

16
UC Berkeley, Cont.
  • Curricula 1935 (Chapman)
  • Forest economics, forest ecology, range
    management, wood technology, forest products and
    lumbering, forest engineering, silviculture,
    forest protection, forest menseration, and forest
    management
  • Curricula 1962 (Dana and Johnson)
  • Forestry
  • Forest Management
  • Range Management
  • Wood Utilization
  • Range Management with Ag. College.
  • Wildlife Conservation in Dept. of Zoology

17
U. C. Berkeley, Cont.
  • After 1974 College of Natural Resources
  • Department of Forestry and Range Management
  • Forestry
  • Wood Science and Technology
  • Pest Management
  • Soil Resource Management
  • Evolved into broader departments
  • Conservation and Resources Studies, Etymological
    Sciences, Forestry and Resource Management, Plant
    Pathology and Soil Science.
  • After 1993 Mergers
  • Department of Environmental Science, Policy and
    Management
  • Ecosystem Science
  • Insect Biology
  • Society Environment

18
UC Berkeley cont
  • 2005 Undergraduate Majors in College of Natural
    Resources
  • Conservation and Resources Studies
  • Environmental Economics and Policy
  • Environmental Sciences
  • Forestry and Natural Resources
  • Genetics and Plant Biology
  • Microbial Biology
  • Molecular Environmental Biology
  • Molecular, Toxicology and Nutritional Sciences

19
UC Berkeley Forestry Libraries
  • 1915 Reading Room
  • Both Departmental Library and Univ. Lib.
  • 1935 First Professional Librarian
  • Budget
  • 968 salaries
  • 725 materials
  • Collection
  • 2400 books
  • 7100 pamphlets
  • 72 forestry periodicals
  • 1943 Collection
  • 1000 volumes
  • 7000 pamphlets
  • 1948 University Branch
  • Materials from main library returned
  • 1964 Collection
  • 17,000 volumes
  • 15,000 pamphlets
  • 1988 Collection (with FPL)
  • 39,000 volumes
  • 1400 Serials
  • 1990 Full-time Librarian retired
  • 1995 Merged into Biosciences and Natural
    Resources Library

20
Significant Publications in Forest Education
  • Graves, Henry S. and Cedric H. Guise 1932. Forest
    Education
  • Chapman, H.H. 1935. Professional Forestry
    Schools Report, giving the comparative status of
    those institutions that offered instruction in
    Professional Forestry for the School Year
    1934-1935.
  • Dana, Samuel Trask and Evert W. Johnson. 1963.
    Forestry Education in America Today and Tomorrow.
  • The Literature of Forestry and Agroforestry 1996.
    eds Peter McDonald and James Lassoie.
  • Sample, V. Alaric, et. al. 2000. The Evolution of
    Forestry Education in the United States Adapting
    to the Changing Demands of Professional Forestry

21
1995 Program Trends (Sample 2000)
  • Four types of programs
  • Forestry in context of a larger whole
  • (natural resources, environmental science,
    ecosystems)
  • Multiple curricula with multiple choices
  • Totally integrated curricula
  • (new sub-divisions and disciplines)
  • New required courses in traditional programs

22
Some tentative conclusions
  • Growth of forestry within agriculture, sometime
    restricts its importance forests seen as crops
  • Accreditation standards have failed to
    accommodate new integrative ideas, in recognition
    of interdisciplinary aspects.
  • Forestry as a term has not been able to expand
    into new meanings.
  • Stereotypes have developed.
  • Forestry has become a hidden discipline which
    may affect structure of educational programs and
    libraries.
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