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Periodic Trends (p. 342 - 363)

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Ch. 4 & 11 - The Periodic Table Periodic Trends (p. 342 - 363) A. Chemical Reactivity Similar Properties in Groups/Families Similar valence e- within a group result ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Periodic Trends (p. 342 - 363)


1
Periodic Trends(p. 342 - 363)
  • Ch. 4 11 - The Periodic Table

2
A. Chemical Reactivity
  • Similar Properties in Groups/Families
  • Similar valence e- within a group result in
    similar chemical properties

3
A. Chemical Reactivity
  • Alkali Metals
  • Alkaline Earth Metals
  • Transition Metals
  • Halogens
  • Noble Gases

4
B. Other Periodic Properties
  • Atomic Radius
  • size of atom
  • First Ionization Energy
  • Energy required to remove one e- from a neutral
    atom.
  • Melting/Boiling Point
  • Density
  • Electronegativity
  • Ability of one atom to attract another atoms
    electrons

5
C. Atomic Radius - Trends
  • Atomic Radius

K
Na
Li
6
C. Atomic Radius
  • Atomic Radius
  • Increases to the LEFT and DOWN

7
C. Atomic Radius
  • Why larger going down (in a group)?
  • Shells - Higher energy levels have larger
    orbitals
  • Shielding - core e- block the attraction between
    the nucleus and the valence e-
  • Why smaller to the right (across a period)?
  • Increased nuclear charge without additional
    shielding pulls e- in tighter

8
D. Ionization Energy - Trends
  • First Ionization Energy the energy required to
    remove one e- from a neutral atom.

9
D. Ionization Energy
  • First Ionization Energy
  • Increases UP and to the RIGHT

10
D. Ionization Energy
  • Why opposite of atomic radius?
  • In a group In small atoms, e- are close to the
    nucleus where the attraction is stronger. In
    larger atoms, e- are farther away from nucleus.
  • Across a period, increased nuclear charge
    (protons) tugs harder on e-

11
E. Melting/Boiling Pt. Density- Trends
  • Melting/Boiling Point and Density
  • Generally highest in the middle of a period and
    highest at the bottom of a group

12
F. Electronegativity - Trends
  • Electronegativity
  • A measure of the ability of an atom to attract
    electrons a tug-of-war when bonding with
    other elements.

13
F. Electronegativity
  • Electronegativity

14
F. Electronegativity
  • Decreases as you move down a group.
  • Shielding Though there are more protons as you
    move down group, the core e- block the possible
    attraction bet. the nucleus and the e-
  • Shells The outer energy level is farther away,
    so attractive force of nucleus is smaller
  • Increases (generally) as you move across a
    period.
  • More protons in nucleus with the same sheilding
    attractive force is greater

15
G. Ionic Radius
  • Ionic Radius
  • Cations ()
  • lose e-
  • smaller
  • Anions ()
  • gain e-
  • larger

16
H. Summary Predicting Trends
  • Three characteristics explain trends
  • Shells
  • Shielding e-
  • Protons

Group
Period
17
Examples
  • Which atom has the larger radius?
  • Be or Ba
  • Ca or Br

Ba Ca
18
Examples
  • Which atom has the higher 1st I.E.?
  • N or Bi
  • Ba or Rn

N Rn
19
Examples
  • Which atom has the higher melting/boiling point?
  • Li or C
  • Cr or Kr

C Cr
20
Examples
  • Which atom has the higher density?
  • Be or C
  • Cr or W

C W
21
Examples
  • Which particle has the larger radius?
  • S or S2-
  • Al or Al3

S2- Al
22
Examples
  • Which atom has the larger electronegativity?
  • Li or F
  • Be or Ra

F Be
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