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Title: Literacy in Action Module 5 Reading Fluency and


1
Literacy in Action Module 5 Reading Fluency and
  • Reflections on Module 4
  • Close and Critical Reading

2
CCR Reflection
  • Share with your table partners the result of
    your work with close and critical reading.
  • What did you notice about the students while
    employing close and critical reading?
  • engagement
  • thinking
  • sharing

3
Revisiting Fluency in Adolescent Literacy
  • Literacy in Action
  • Module 5

4
  • Goals for Module 5
  • You will
  • Understand the importance of focusing on reading
    fluency
  • Experience fluency instructional strategies and
    fluency assessment
  • Develop a plan for supporting fluency development
    in MS and HS content area courses
  • National Institute for Literacy, What Content
    Area Teachers Should Know about Literacy, p. 11

5
  • Fluency
  • the ability to read text accurately and smoothly
    with little conscious attention to the mechanics
    of reading.
  • Fluent readers read text with appropriate
  • automaticity
  • rate/speed
  • accuracy
  • prosody
  • proper intonation and expression
  • variation in rhythmic and tonal aspects of speech
    (pitch, loudness, speed, rhythm, and pause),
    which provide the spoken equivalent of written
    text
  • National Institute for Literacy, What Content
    Area Teachers Should Know about Literacy, p. 11

6
Reading Fluency A Bridge Between Decoding and
Text Comprehension Readers must decode and
comprehend to gather information from text. If
the speed and accuracy of decoding words are
hindered, comprehension is compromised.
National Institute for Literacy, What Content
Area Teachers Should Know about Literacy, p. 11
7
  • As fluent oral readers, we
  • chunk words into meaningful groups
  • vary the pitch and the intonation patterns of our
    voice
  • place stress on some words but not on others
  • punctuate our speech with pauses and rising
    inflections to indicate thought breaks or
    questions
  • Effective oral readers can also transfer these
    skills to silent reading.
  • Literacy Strategies for Grades 4 12, Karen
    Tankersley ASCD 2005

8
Participant Engagement
  • Read a challenging (dense, unfamiliar) text
  • Write a short summary
  • Discuss challenges and fluency issues

9
Participant Engagement
  • Identify position on Fluency Continuum Transition
    Chart

Important Transitions Ch. 7 Recognizing Change
over Time in Fluent Reading in Teaching for
Comprehending and Fluency, Fountas and Pinnell
(2006)
10
Important Transitions Ch. 7 Recognizing Change
over Time in Fluent Reading in Teaching for
Comprehending and Fluency, Fountas and Pinnell
(2006)
11
Fluency Discussion
  • Discuss the idea that fluency is not a stage.
    When have you been a less-than-fluent reader
    yourself? What strategies did you use to get
    through the difficult material?
  • In what ways do you provide modeling and feedback
    to your students?
  • Consider at least two strategies that you could
    use with students to provide modeling or
    feedback.
  • To improve reading, students have to read more.
    How might you increase the amount of time that
    students actually spend reading in your classroom
    or school?
  • Where do most of your students fall on the
    fluency rubric? What strategies are you using to
    ensure fluency development?

12
  • Fluency Challenges for Adolescent Readers
  • Struggling readers
  • lack fluency, read slowly, and often stop to
    sound out words.
  • may reread sections of texts to gain
    comprehension.
  • may spend so much time and cognitive energy
    decoding individual words that their focus is
    drawn away from comprehension.
  • Important Transitions Handout

13
  • Factors Influencing Fluency
  • the level of text difficulty
  • the degree of familiarity the reader has with the
    words, content, and genre of the text
  • the amount of practice with the text
  • the readers metacognitive abilities
  • the readers motivation and engagement

14
  • Why should middle school teachers focus on
    fluency?
  • Bridge between word recognition and comprehension
  • Fluent readers at MS
  • Read 100-160 wpm
  • Have automatic word recognition skills
  • Group words into meaningful phrases or chunks
  • Read with expression
  • Make few word identification errors and usually
    self-correct when they do make errors
  • Understand what they read
  • - Train students to read effortlessly free
    to focus on comprehension
  • Notes from Reading Teachers Sourcebook (Chapter
    8 Fluency)
  • http//www.meadowscenter.org/vgc/downloads/middle_
    school_instruction/RTS_Ch8.pdf

15
Building Reading Stamina Increased reading
volume ? CCR Being able to read complex text
independently and proficiently is essential for
high achievement in college and the workplace and
important in numerous life tasks if students
cannot read challenging texts with understanding
if they have not developed the skill,
concentration, and stamina to read such texts
they will read less in general. To grow, our
students must read lots, and more specifically
they must read lots of complex textstexts that
offer them new language, new knowledge, and new
modes of thought(Adams) CCSS Appendix A,
p. 4
16
  • Six Dimensions of Fluency
  • Pausing the way readers voice is guided by
    punctuation
  • Phrasing the way readers put words together in
    groups to represent the meaningful units of
    language
  • Stress emphasis readers place on particular words
    (louder tone) to reflect the meaning as speakers
    would do in oral language
  • Intonation way reader varies the voice in tone,
    pitch, and volume to reflect the meaning of the
    text (expression)
  • Rate pace at which the reader moves through the
    text
  • Integration the way reader consistently
    orchestrates pausing, phrasing, stress,
    intonation, and rate
  • (Fountas and Pinnell Teaching for Comprehending
    and Fluency, p. 69)

17
  • Reflection
  • What conclusions can you make regarding the focus
    of fluency instruction in your building,
    department/grade level, and classroom?
  • What activities do you include in your
    instruction that assist students in becoming
    fluent readers? Do I provide time for fluency
    instruction?
  • In your building, department/grade level, and
    classroom, how do you monitor students fluency?
  • From News you Can Use - Reading Fluency What,
    Why, and How?
  • by Mike Dunn

18
  • Perspectives on Fluency Instruction
  • Developmental View focuses on acquisition of
    basic constituents of reading fluency
  • - accuracy, pace, reading with
    expression
  • - students develop fluency along with
    comprehension
  • Linguistic View focuses on how language works,
    including phrasing and intonation
  • How phrases and sentences influence meaning
  • Increased reading prosody
  • Automaticity View role of automaticity of basic
    component skills, and how students can
    instinctively associate what words look like with
    what they mean
  • Reading Fluency Revisited (Fluency Instruction
    Research-Based Best Practices, Pt. I Fluency
    Theory, Fluency Research, Ch. 5, B. Walker, K.
    Mokhtari, S. Sargent) p. 76-86

19
  • Perspectives on Fluency Instruction
  • Note Bolded strategies included in Module 5
  • Developmental View
  • - Shared Reading Model Fluent Reading
  • Fluency Development Lesson (FDL) focuses on
    improving comprehension
  • Focuses on performance and word study
  • Reread short passage several times
  • Guided Reading -- Wide and Deep Reading
    Responsive Reading
  • Linguistic View
  • Deep Reading
  • Marking and Modeling Phrase Boundaries
  • Sentence Combining
  • Performance Reading (Readers Theatre, Choral,
    Recitation)
  • Automaticity View
  • - Repeated Readings
  • Paired Reading
  • Assisted Reading (Teacher, Tape, Peer)

20
  • Assessing Reading Fluency
  • Monitoring Fluency Development
  • Three components of fluency
  • Accuracy - accurate decoding of words in text
  • Automaticity - decoding words with minimal use of
    attentional resources
  • Prosody - the appropriate use of phrasing and
    expression to convey meaning.

21
  • Assessment of Reading Fluency
  • Developmental View
  • - Multidimensional Fluency Scale (NAEP)
  • Linguistic View
  • Cloze Procedure
  • NAEP Fluency Scale
  • Automaticity View
  • - Rate and Accuracy Assessment (CBM/ORF)
  • Reading Fluency Revisited (Ch. 5, Fluency Theory,
    Fluency Research) p. 76-86

22
  • Model Fluent Oral Reading Shared Reading
    (Handout)
  • Pale Blue Dot (Excerpt) by Carl Sagan
  • Read by Carl Sagan
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vnl5dlbCh8lY
  • Just listen to first reading
  • Note inflections, pauses, phrasing, emphasis
  • For second reading, follow along with transcript
  • (slightly different than GHR text)

23
Guided Highlighted Reading http//www.readingtoth
ecore.com/ghr.html
  • Guided highlighted reading for
  • Summary
  • Authors craft text features
  • Vocabulary
  • Critical Analysis
  • Addressed in Modules 2, 3, and 4
  • GHR prompts and activities included for some
    texts used for fluency development in Module 5
  • Texts will be used again in Module 6 Beyond CCR
    and Assessment

24
  • Modeling and Repeated Reading
  • Students need to hear explicit models of fluent
    reading.
  • Kelly Gallaghers Reading Minute
  • Teacher (later in year, student) shares an
    interesting short text (poetry, newspaper,
    magazine, excerpt from current novel)
  • Models fluent reading
  • Students listen, then write a one-sentence
    summary or thesis statement for the Reading
    Minute selection
  • http//www.stenhouse.com/assets/PDFs/0356ho.pdf
  •  
  • as described in Reading Reasons Motivational
    Mini-Lessons for Middle and High School by Kelly
    Gallagher

25
  • Modeling and Repeated Reading
  • Students need to hear explicit models of fluent
    reading.
  • Adapted Reading Minute Activity for Module 5
  • Collect readings appropriate to your content area
  • Read orally to students one to five minutes every
    day
  • Provide copies for students to follow along
  • In pairs, students re-read the selection aloud
    (paired repeated reading)
  • Students time paired reading (note mistakes)
  • Note number of words read in one minute on first
    and second reads (see example)
  • Record WCPM on Fluency chart
  • (Each student writes a one-sentence summary)

26
  • Partner Reading (as described in Reading Teachers
    Sourcebook)
  • Students read and reread text with partners.
  • Assign partners.
  • Assign text on the instructional level of the
    lower-level reader.
  • Teach partner reading routine.
  • Partner 1 reads first paragraph. Partner follows
    along.
  • Partner 2 reads the same paragraph.
  • Students briefly discuss what they just read by
    retelling what happened or by identifying the
    main idea of the paragraph.
  • Repeat steps 1-3 until passage is complete.
  • Model
  • Provide guided practice
  • Provide independent practice
  • Notes from Reading Teachers Sourcebook (Chapter
    8 Fluency)

27
  • Adapted Reading Minute Activity for Module 5
  • Questions for student reflection of repeated or
    partner reading (in reading journal)
  • Why do you think you made this mistake?
  • Did it affect your understanding?
  • Do you know what the word means?
  • Does the word you said look like the one in the
    text?
  • Did you correct the rough area?
  • What could you do next time?
  • From Retrospective Miscue Analysis, Gretchen
    Owocki Common Core Lesson Book, p. 363-64

28
Practice Paired Reading
  • Select from one of the texts in your handout.
    Practice reading your text silently for one
    minute.
  • Find a reading buddy and take turns reading
    your selection. (one minute each)
  • Provide feedback to one another (using
    student reflection questions)

29
  • Assessment of Reading Fluency
  • Developmental View
  • - Multidimensional Fluency Scale (NAEP)
  • Linguistic View
  • Cloze Procedure (deletions)
  • Maze Procedure (choices)
  • http//www.interventioncentral.org/tools/maze-pass
    age-generator
  • Maze Passage Generator, cut and paste content
    text)
  • NAEP Fluency Scale
  • Automaticity View
  • - Rate and Accuracy Assessment (CBM/ORF)
  • Reading Fluency Revisited (Ch. 5, Fluency Theory,
    Fluency Research) p. 76-86

30
Reading Rates End of Grade Oral Reading
Silent Reading
Rates (WPM) Rates (WPM) 1
50-80 55-80 2 80 -100
80-110 3 100-120 110-135 4
120-145 135-165 5 145-170
165-190 6 170-190
190-210 7-8 190-225
210-230 Figure 6-8, Oral Reading Rates, Ch. 6
Understanding the Fluent Reader
Teaching for Comprehending and
Fluency, Fountas and Pinnell (2006)
31
  • Progress Monitoring
  • Curriculum-Based Measurement Oral Reading Fluency
    Assessment (CBM/ORF)
  • Student reads passage for one minute while
    teacher or partner marks mistakes (or records
    reading for later teacher analysis)
  • Determine WCPM
  • Student Charts WCPM on Fluency Chart
  • Accuracy WCPM/WPM
  • Notes from Reading Teachers Sourcebook (Chapter
    8 Fluency)

32
100
90        
80        
70        
60        
50        
WCPM 60 70 80 90 100
Errors 4 4 5 4 5
Title xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx
Date 9/7 9/21 10/5 10/19 11/2
33
  • Measuring Accuracy and Rate in CBM/ORF
  • Select passage(s) 250 words at students grade
    placement. Check using text readability formula.
  • Student reads passage for one minute, aloud in
    normal way tape-record the reading.
  • Mark uncorrected errors (mispronunciations,
    substitutions, reversals, omissions, or words
    pronounced by the examiner after a wait of 2-3
    seconds without an attempt or response from the
    student). Mark point in the text after one minute
    of reading.
  • Repeat steps 1 and 2 with two different passages
    (optional) use the median or middle score for
    analysis.
  • Determine accuracy by dividing WCPM by the total
    number of words read). Compare the students
    performance against the target norms in Table 1.
  • Determine rate by calculating the total number of
    WCPM and comparing the students performance
    against the target norms in Table 2.

34
Florida Oral Reading Fluency and MAZE
Assessments (Grade-Level Resources)
http//www.fcrr.org/forf_mazes/forf10-11.shtml
Grades 6, 7, 8, HS MAZE Risk Levels
http//www.fcrr.org/assessment/pdf/forf-maze/Risk
_Levels_Maze_6-8_1011.pdf http//www.fcrr.org/ass
essment/pdf/forf-maze/Risk_Levels_Maze_9-12_1011.p
df ORF Risk Levels http//www.fcrr.org/assessment
/pdf/forf-maze/Risk_Levels_FORF_6-8_1011.pdf http
//www.fcrr.org/assessment/pdf/forf-maze/Risk_Leve
ls_FORF_9-12_1011.pdf
35
Is Fluent Expressive Reading Important for HS
Readers? David Paige, Timothy Rasinski, Theresa
Magpuri-Pavell
  • Skim the article
  • Note recommendations
  • Homework Carefully read this article

36
Is Fluent Expressive Reading Important for HS
Readers? David Paige, Timothy Rasinski, Theresa
Magpuri-Pavell, 2012
  • Dispelling misconceptions about fluency
  • Multidimensional Fluency Scale
  • Prosody and Silent Reading Comprehension scores
  • Choosing materials for prosodic reading
  • Wide and Deep Reading
  • Assisted Reading
  • Take Action Choral Reading
  • Oral reading prosody is related to silent
    reading comprehension for secondary students

37
Is Fluent Expressive Reading Important for HS
Readers? Take Action Choral Reading
  • Choose a short text (100-150 words)
  • Provide a copy
  • Teacher reads with expression
  • Students join in choral reading
  • Listen for rough spots
  • (Audio record first and last reading)
  • Choral Reading of Compassion and the World
  • (Handout)

38
  • Assessment of Reading Fluency
  • - Multidimensional Fluency Scale (NAEP)
  • NAEP Fluency Scale
  • Use of each rubric assumes that teachers rating
    students reading have a good sense of
    grade-appropriate expression, volume, phrasing,
    smoothness, and pace in reading.

  • - Tim Rasinski
  • Assessing Reading Fluency, Educational Service
    Material, ES 0414

39
  • Multidimensional Fluency Scale (Handout)
  • Students read grade-level passage (250 words)
  • Record reading teacher later scores reading
  • Assign a score (1 to 4 points) on each of 4
    dimensions of fluency
  • Expression and Volume
  • Phrasing
  • Smoothness
  • Pace
  • A score of 10 making good progress in fluency
  • A score of 8 may need additional instruction
    in fluency
  • Oral reading prosody is related to silent
    reading comprehension for secondary students

  • Paige, Rasinski, Magpuri-Pavell, 2012

40
  • NAEP Fluency Scale (Handout)
  • Holistic scoring
  • Goal score of 4
  • Assesses more than one dimension
  • Phrasing
  • Syntax preservation
  • Expression

41
NAEP Fluency Scale
  • NAEP Fluency Scale
  • Level 4 Reads primarily in larger, meaningful
    phrase groups. Although some regressions,
    repetitions, and deviations from text may be
    present, these do not appear to detract from the
    overall structure of the story. Preservation of
    the author's syntax is consistent. Some or most
    of the story is read with expressive
    interpretation.
  • Level 3 Reads primarily in three- or
    four-word phrase groups. Some smaller groupings
    may be present. However, the majority of phrasing
    seems appropriate and preserves the syntax of the
    author. Little or no expressive interpretation is
    present.
  • Level 2 Reads primarily in two-word phrases
    with some three-or four-word groupings. Some
    word-by-word reading may be present. Word
    groupings may seem awkward and unrelated to
    larger context of sentence or passage.
  • Level 1 Reads primarily word-by-word.
    Occasional two-word or three-word phrases may
    occur, but these are infrequent and/or they do
    not preserve meaningful syntax.

42
  • Features of Fluency
  • Prosodic Features
  • Pitch (high or low tone)
  • Loudness (soft of loud voice)
  • Speed (fast of slow)
  • Pause (short or long)
  • Paralinguistic Features
  • Whisper, breathiness, huskies, nasality, over
    articulation
  • Examples of Prosodic and Paralinguistic Features
  • Clipped, elongated, louder, softer pause, even
    pitch, high pitch, low pitch, whisper, nasality,
    breathiness, lip rounding
  • The Reading Teachers Book of Lists, Fry and
    Kress (2006), List122

43
  • Additional Oral Reading Activities
  • Sentence Tunes (List 125)
  • Change the way we say something to change the
    meaning
  • Multi-tuned sentences
  • Supersegmental phonemes
  • Shift emphasis
  • Example sentences
  • I did not say you stole my red hat. (Handout)
  • Tom didnt push George first.
  • I didnt tell Mom you spent the dollar.
  • Other Oral Reading Activities (List 126)
  • The Reading Teachers Book of Lists , Fry and
    Kress (2006), List125

44
Change Punctuation and Emphasis for Different
Meaning
  • Save soap and waste paper.
  • Woman without her man is helpless.
  • Why did YOU drive to the store?
  • Why did you DRIVE to the store?
  • Why did you drive to the STORE?

45
  • Fluency as Addressed in
  • MI Comprehensive Literacy Profile/Plan
  • http//comprehensiveliteracy.weebly.com/reading-fl
    uency.html
  • Assessments
  • NAEP Oral Reading Fluency Scale
  • Multi-Dimensional Fluency Rubric
  • Oral/Silent Reading Fluency CBM
  • Strategies
  • Guided Highlighted Reading
  • Choral Reading
  • Readers Theatre (Theater)
  • Repeated Readings
  • Is Fluent, Expressive Reading Important for High
    School Readers?
  • Paige, Rasinski, Magpuri-Lavell
  • Interventions role of automaticity of basic
    component skills, and how students can
    instinctively associate what words look like with
    what they mean
  • Repeated Readings for Juncture and Phrasing

46
  • Caveats about oral reading fluency in MS students
  • The most important outcome for students is that
    they understand and learn from the texts they
    read. If students have below-average fluency but
    demonstrate average or above comprehension, it
    may not be appropriate to spend considerable time
    on improving their rate of reading.
  • Students who read above 90-100 WCPM with 90
    percent accuracy in grade-level text may benefit
    from time spent on enhancing their background
    knowledge, vocabulary, and/or comprehension
    rather than on fluency instruction.
  • Notes from Reading Teachers Sourcebook (Chapter
    8 Fluency)

47
  • Readers Theatre
  • Readers speak clearly, use appropriate volume,
    read the text accurately and with expression.
  • Members of the group cooperate use rehearsal
    time wisely.
  • Procedure
  • Select materials to read.
  • Develop the script.
  • Assign roles.
  • Practice, practice, practice
  • Perform
  • Discuss
  • Readers Theater Resources http//www.literacyconn
    ections.com/ReadersTheater.php
  • Notes from Reading Teachers Sourcebook (Chapter
    8 Fluency)

48
Readers Theatre
  • Engage students in Readers Theatre or plays
    where the teacher is the coach and provides
    feedback on how the lines are delivered.
  • Resources
  • Chris Gustafsons Acting Cool! Using Readers
    Theater to Teach Language Arts and Social Studies
    in Your Classroom Grades 5 -7
  • http//www.playsmag.com

49
Additional Fluency Resources Literacy Leader
Fluency Resources http//www.literacyleader.com/?
qfluency
Add slides to describe passport requirements
Assignments Read to students ______
(modeling) Vary the student practice (reading
minute with summary, repeated paired reading,
choral reading, _____) Chart with _____ entries
representing Accuracy /Rate and journal
entries with metacognitive log entries
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