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Ch 500 Lecture 9 Theological Developments 900 - 1303


Ch 500 Lecture 9 Theological Developments 900 - 1303 Ann T. Orlando 22 March 2011 Lecture 9 ATO * Lecture 9 ATO * Introduction Review History 900 -1303 Monastic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ch 500 Lecture 9 Theological Developments 900 - 1303

Ch 500 Lecture 9Theological Developments900 -
  • Ann T. Orlando
  • 22 March 2011

  • Review History 900 -1303
  • Monastic Revivals
  • New Orders
  • Universities
  • Key Figures
  • Artistic Movements
  • Readings

Four Themes in Politics
  • 1. European Developments
  • Normans
  • England
  • France
  • Holy Roman Empire (Germany)
  • 2. Pope-King relations summarized throughout this
    period as Whos in charge, Pope or King?
  • 3. Western Christendom attempts to recapture Holy
    Land from the Muslims to guarantee safety of
    Christian pilgrimages (Crusades)
  • 4. Eastern and Western Christianity become
    increasingly at odds with each other

Medieval Catholicism
  • Importance of Incarnation God in the world
  • Importance of Jesus sacrifice on cross
  • Mass as bloodless sacrifice
  • Monastery as place to follow in footsteps of
  • Importance of Mary and saints
  • Part of a persons world in ways we can hardly
    imagine today
  • Relics
  • Importance of making faith visible and
    understandable to everyone
  • Monastic Education
  • Cathedrals
  • Society deeply tied to and dependent on the
  • Calendar
  • Monastic economies
  • Civil administration
  • Example The Medieval Catholic imagination would
    be especially active when feast of Annunciation
    and Good Friday coincided

Monasticism Cluny
  • Charter for Foundation of Cluny, 910
  • Return to Benedicts Rule especially reading of
    Divine Office
  • But encouraged prayer and study over physical
  • Established a series of daughter monasteries
    under the direction of the abbot of Cluny
  • While monks were poor, monasteries became wealthy
  • Encouraged development of visual arts in service
    of religion
  • Abbot Suger (1081-1151) Man rises to God
    through beauty

Monasticism Citeaux
  • Reform of Cluny Cistercians
  • Founded by St. Robert Molesme at Citeaux 1098 on
    Feast of St. Benedict (21 March)
  • Return to strict adherence to Benedicts Rule
  • Work equal with prayer and study
  • Each monastery independent that is, each had its
    own abbot
  • More severe artistic style
  • Bernard of Clairvaux most famous Cistercian
  • Modern day Trappists Spencer, MA.

Early Medieval Art, Romanesque
  • Abbot Suger with Stained Glass
  • Abbey at Citeaux

New Spiritual and Intellectual Movements New
  • Franciscans
  • Founded by St. Francis
  • Mendicants
  • Womans order Poor Clares
  • Order recognized by Pope Innocent III
  • Writes his own rule
  • Dominicans
  • Founded by St. Dominic
  • Order of Preachers
  • Womans order founded before mens
  • Order commissioned by Innocent III
  • Uses Augustines Rule

Medieval Education
  • Monasteries
  • Under authority of abbot
  • Scholarship, libraries
  • Education primarily for members of monastic
  • Deeply linked to ancient monastic rules
  • Cathedral schools
  • Under authority of bishop
  • Law, administration, practical theology
  • Education primarily for diocesan clergy and those
    going into civil administration
  • Becomes training ground for new orders and new
    orders dominate universities

  • Locus for learning Universities
  • Grew out of Cathedral Schools
  • Training of diocesan clergy and civil
  • Displaced monasteries as centers of learning
  • Development of the academic professional
  • Most famous, Paris (Sorbonne) others include
    Oxford and Bologna
  • Very international
  • Universities and the Church were very
    democratic any man with ability could rise
    very high
  • Universities not independent of Church rather
    universities prestigious centers for theological
    research and teaching
  • Aquinas and Bonaventure at Sorbonne at same time

Key Figures
  • St. Anselm, 1033 -1109 Archbishop of Canterbury
    (after Norman invasion)
  • St. Bernard, 1090-1153, Cistercian
  • Peter Lombard, 1100 1160, Archbishop of Paris
  • St. Dominic, 1170-1221, Dominican
  • St. Francis, 1182-1226, Franciscan
  • St. Bonaventure, 1221-1274, Franciscan
  • St. Thomas Aquinas, 1225-1274, Dominican
  • All of these (except Francis) rely heavily on the
    Church Fathers, especially Augustine, to
    justify their theological investigations

Anselm (1033 -1109)
  • Archbishop of Canterbury
  • Fides Quaerens Intellectum (Faith seeking
    understanding, which he gets from Augustine)
  • Ontological argument for existence of God, that
    than which no greater can be thought
  • Cur Deus Homo (Why God became man)
  • Advanced theory of satisfaction for Jesus death
  • Based on feudal notion of honor, justice and
    social status
  • Only God-man can satisfy the affront to Gods
    honor due to original sin as man he has the
    obligation to satisfy as God he is able to

Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153)
  • Established Cistercian monastery at Clairvaux
  • Opposed Peter Abelard (1078-1142) I must
    understand in order that I might believe
  • Opposed Cluny-type monasticism as being too
    interested in worldly beauty and pleasure
  • Preached the Second Crusade (1144)
  • Wrote very length commentary on Song of Songs in
    which he refers to both Gregory of Nyssa and
    Origen highly allegorical
  • Special devotion to Mary
  • Encouraged mysticism that moved away from
    physical apophatic

Peter Lombard (1100-1160)
  • Professor of theology of Cathedral School of
    Notre Dame and Archbishop of Paris
  • Wrote Sentences (1150) as a way to organize
    teaching of the Church Fathers to explicate
    Catholic teaching
  • Most influential text in Middle Ages
  • Required that all Masters of Theology write a
    commentary on Sentences
  • Lombard became was known as the Magister

  • Organized in four Books
  • God and the Trinity
  • Creation
  • Incarnation and Redemption
  • Sacraments
  • In 13th C Books subdivided into distinctiones
    (breaks in reading)

Dominic (1170-1221)
  • Born in Spain he traveled to southern France to
    preach against the Albingensians
  • Founded a school for noble, well educated French
    women converted from Albingensianism
  • Received permission from Innocent III to found an
    order of preachers to preach Catholic orthodoxy
  • Rule based on Augustines Rule clergy who lived
    together but worked among lay people
  • Dominican Rule emphasized study and preaching,
    based on Augustines Rule
  • Dominicans became centered in Paris and Oxford

Francis of Assisi (1182-1226)
  • Total embrace of Lady Poverty, not Lady
    Wisdom as way of life
  • Francis Rule emphasizes walking in poverty in
    the footsteps of Jesus
  • mendicants approved by Pope Innocent III
  • Pilgrimage to Holy Land
  • Met the sultan
  • Rules for Franciscans to live in Holy Land with
  • Emphasis on sensual religious experience
  • Christmas crib
  • Stigmata as a sign of Francis identification
    with Jesus
  • Deeply kataphatic mysticism
  • Francis was most famous man in Europe in his
    lifetime his order grew explosively
  • Established a Franciscan order for women with St.
  • Even before Francis dies, control of Franciscans
    is given to others
  • Franciscans become more organized, intellectual,

Bonaventure (1221-1274)
  • Student and professor at University of Paris when
    Aquinas was there
  • Becomes head of Franciscans shortly after Francis
  • Describes Franciscan way of life in philosophical
  • Very dependent on Augustine
  • Itinerarium or Journey of the Mind to God
  • Mimics pilgrimage itinerary
  • Approach God by leaving world behind
  • Franciscan spirituality in an apophatic key

Thomas AquinasAngelic Doctor
  • Developed systematic approach to theology using
    Aristotelian methods (Aristotle as the
    Philosopher in the Summa)
  • Relied on newly available Greek works from Jewish
    and Moslem sources Moses Maimonides, Averrhoes
  • Very different from theological approach
    Aristotelian rather than neo-Platonic
  • Emphasis on causes
  • Emphasis on categories
  • Needed to show that his theological conclusions
    were consistent with Augustine until he did so
    he was considered radical and suspect
  • Two great works Summa Theologica (theological)
    or Theologiae (theology) Summa Contra Gentiles
  • But he also wrote beautiful songs, especially in
    praise of Eucharist (one of which we sing at
    Benediction, and another during Holy Thursday)

Example Virtue
  • Reconcile two very different definitions of
  • But both Aristotle and Augustine start their
    discussion of virtue with how man can be happy
  • Aristotle Virtue then is a settled disposition
    of the mind determining the choice of actions and
    emotions, consisting essentially in the
    observance of the mean relative to us, this being
    determined by principle, that is, as the prudent
    man would determine it. Nicomachean Ethics
  • Virtue is a balance, as determined by a prudent
  • Virtues divided into intellectual and moral
  • Virtue can (with difficulty) be acquired through
    the practice of good habits
  • Augustine Virtue is a good quality of the mind,
    by which we live righteously, of which no one can
    make bad use, which God brings about in us,
    without us. On Free Will
  • Virtue is a gift of God (grace)
  • All virtues are derived from Christian charity

Example TransubstantiationST IIIa Q75 a 1-8
  • Relies on Aristotles The Categories
  • Philosophical idea of substance, accidents
  • Substance what things really are, their essence
  • Accidents how they appear to senses, properties
    that are incidental, weight, color, taste
  • Augustine has bad things to say about The
    Categories in Confessions (IV.28-31)
  • According to Aquinas Christ becomes fully present
    in the Eucharist when
  • the material substance of bread and wine is
    transformed into His own spiritual substance
  • only the accidents (color, texture, taste) of the
    bread and wine remain
  • Explains doctrine of transubstantiation from
    Lateran IV (1215)

Adoro Te Devoteby Thomas Aquinas
  • Godhead here in hiding, whom I do adore
  • Masked by these bare shadows, shape and nothing
  • See, Lord, at thy service low lies here a heart
  • Lost, all lost in wonder at the God thou art.
  • Seeing, touching, tasting are in thee deceived
  • How says trusty hearing? that shall be believed
  • What God's Son has told me, take for truth I do
  • Truth himself speaks truly or there's nothing
  • From CCC translated by Gerard Manley Hopkins

Catholic Art Movements
  • Romanesque 10 - 11th C
  • Gothic 12 - 14 th C
  • Renaissance 15 16 th C
  • Baroque 17 th C

Romanesque 10, 11th C
  • Impact of Cluny
  • Example Vezelay (where Bernard preached 2nd
    Crusade) http//

Gothic 12, 13, 14th C
  • Impact of Devotion to Mary
  • Example Chartres http//

Renaissance 15, 16th C
  • Epicenter Florence
  • http//

Baroque 17th C
  • Epicenter Renewed, reinvigorated Papal Rome
  • http//

  • McManners Ch. 6, 196-232 (Morris)
  • Read all, pay special attention to discussion of
    popular piety and devotions
  • Carefully review map on page 198
  • Charter of Cluny, read all
  • Francis of Assisi, Rule, read all
  • Bonaventure, Itinerarium, read all, Prolog
  • Note influence of neo-Platonic philosophy
  • Aquinas, read on the contrary and I answer
  • Note use of Augustine and Aristotle
  • Note that Aquinas on Law and Virtue are two of
    the most important parts of Summa
  • CCC 1803-1809