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LIFE AT THE TURN OF THE 20TH CENTURY

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LIFE AT THE TURN OF THE 20TH CENTURY THE EMERGENCE OF MODERN AMERICA Characteristics of Yellow Journalism included huge, sensational, exaggerated headlines Some ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: LIFE AT THE TURN OF THE 20TH CENTURY


1
LIFE AT THE TURN OF THE 20TH CENTURY
  • THE EMERGENCE OF MODERN AMERICA

2
SCIENCE AND URBAN LIFE
  • By the turn of the 20th century, four out of ten
    Americans lived in cities
  • In response to urbanization, technological
    advances began to meet communication,
    transportation, and space demands

Artist Annie Bandez
3
SKYSCRAPERS
  • Skyscrapers emerged after two critical
    inventions elevators steel skeletons that bear
    weight
  • Famous examples include Daniel Burnhams
    Flatiron Building in NYC, Louis Sullivans
    Wainwright Building in St. Louis
  • The skyscraper was Americas greatest
    contribution to architecture and solved the issue
    of how to best use limited and expensive space

Flatiron Building - 1902
4
Another view of Burnhams Flatiron Building
5
ELECTRIC TRANSIT
  • Changes in transportation allowed cities to
    spread outward
  • By the turn of the century, intricate networks of
    electric streetcars also called trolley cars
    ran from outlying neighborhoods to downtown
    offices stores

6
ELS AND SUBWAYS
  • A few large cities moved their streetcars far
    above street level, creating elevated or el
    trains
  • Other cities built subways by moving their rail
    lines underground

7
BRIDGES PARKS
  • Steel-cable suspension bridges, like the Brooklyn
    Bridge, also brought cities sections closer
  • Some urban planners sought to include landscaped
    areas parks
  • Frederick Law Olmsted was instrumental in drawing
    up plans for Central park, NYC

Central Park is an oasis among Manhattans
skyscrapers
8
CITY PLANNING CHICAGO
  • Daniel Burnham oversaw the transformation of
    Chicagos lakefront from swampy wasteland to
    elegant parks strung along Lake Michigan
  • Today Chicagos lakefront is one of the most
    beautiful shorelines in North America

9
NEW TECHNOLOGIES
  • New developments in communication brought the
    nation closer
  • Advances in printing, aviation, and photography
    helped speed the transfer of information

10
A REVOLUTION IN PRINTING
  • By 1890, the literacy rate in the U.S. was nearly
    90
  • American mills began to produce huge quantities
    of cheap paper from wood pulp
  • Electrical web-perfecting presses printed on both
    sides of paper at the same time
  • Faster production and lower costs made newspapers
    and magazines more affordable (most papers sold
    for 1 cent)

11
AIRPLANES
  • In the early 20th century, brothers Orville and
    Wilbur Wright, experimented with engines and
    aircrafts
  • They commissioned a four-cylinder internal
    combustion engine, chose a propeller, and built a
    biplane
  • On December 17, 1903 they flew their plane for 12
    seconds covering 120 feet
  • Within two years the brothers were making 30
    minute flights
  • By 1920, the U.S. was using airmail flights
    regularly

Actual photo of Wright Brothers first flight
12/17/03
12
PHOTOGRAPHY EXPLOSION
  • Before 1880, photography was a professional
    activity
  • Subjects could not move and the film had to be
    developed immediately
  • George Eastman invented lighter weight equipment
    and more versatile film
  • In 1888, Eastman introduced his Kodak Camera
  • The 25 camera came with 100-picture roll of film

1888 Kodak
13
SECTION 2 EXPANDING PUBLIC EDUCATION
  • Between 1865 and 1895, states passed laws
    requiring 12 to 16 weeks of annual education for
    students ages 8-14, but the curriculum was poor
    and the teachers were usually not qualified
  • However, the number of kindergartens expanded
    from 200 in 1880 to 3,000 in 1900

14
HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENT SOARS
  • High schools expanded their curriculum to include
    science, civics and social studies
  • By 1900 500,000 teen-agers were enrolled in high
    schools

Elroy High School Photo 1906
15
RACIAL DISCRIMINATION
  • African Americans were mostly excluded from
    secondary education
  • In 1890 less than 1 attended high school
  • By 1910 that figured had reached only 3

African American school in the south about 1920
16
EDUCATION FOR IMMIGRANTS
  • Unlike African Americans, immigrants were
    encouraged to go to school
  • Most immigrants sent their children to public
    schools
  • Also, thousands of adult immigrants attended
    night schools to learn English

17
EXPANDING HIGHER ED
  • In 1900, less than 3 of Americas youth attended
    college
  • Between 1880 and 1920 college enrollments more
    than quadrupled
  • Professional schools were established for law and
    medicine

18
AFRICAN AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES FORMED
  • After the Civil War, thousands of African
    Americans pursued higher education despite being
    excluded from white institutions
  • Blacks founded Howard, Fisk, and Tuskegee
    Universities (founded by Booker T. Washington)
  • W.E.B. Dubois founded the Niagara Movement, which
    sought liberal arts educations for all blacks

W.E.B. Dubois
19
SECTION 3 SEGREGATION AND DISCRIMINATION
  • By the turn of the 20th century, Southern States
    had adopted a broad system of legal
    discrimination
  • Blacks had to deal with voting restrictions, Jim
    Crow laws, Supreme Court set-backs, and physical
    violence

20
WHAT IS DISCRIMINATION?
  • Discrimination involves
  • Beliefs "This group of people is inferior
    because"
  • Emotions "I hate this group of people."
  • Actions "I will deny opportunity/hurt/kill
    members of this group."

21
VOTING RESTRICTIONS
  • All Southern states imposed new voting
    restrictions and denied legal equality to African
    Americans
  • Some states limited the vote to those who could
    read, other states had a poll tax which had to be
    paid prior to voting

22
JIM CROW LAWS
  • Southern states passed segregation laws to
    separate white and black people in public and
    private facilities
  • These laws came to be known as Jim Crow Laws,
    named after an old minstrel song
  • Racial segregation was put into effect in
    schools, hospitals, parks, and transportation
    systems throughout the South

23
PLESSY v. FERGUSON
  • Eventually a legal case reached the U.S. Supreme
    Court to test the constitutionality of
    segregation
  • In 1896, in Plessy v. Ferguson the Supreme Court
    ruled that the segregation of races was legal and
    did not violate the 14th Amendment

24
RACE RELATIONS - 1900
  • Blacks faced legal discrimination as well as
    informal rules and customs
  • Meant to humiliate these rules included whites
    never shaking the hand of an African America,
    blacks had to yield the sidewalk to whites,
    blacks also had to remove their hats in the
    presence of whites

25
VIOLENCE
  • African Americans who did not follow the racial
    etiquette could face severe punishment or death
  • Between 1882-1892, more than 1,400 black men and
    women were shot, burned, or lynched
  • Lynching peaked in the 1880s and 90s but
    continued well into the 20th century

26
MAJOR AREAS OF LYNCHING
27
DISCRIMINATION IN THE NORTH
  • While most African Americans lived in the
    segregated South, many blacks had migrated to the
    North in hopes of better jobs equality
  • However, the North had its own brand of racism as
    blacks got low paying jobs and lived in
    segregated neighborhoods

28
DISCRIMINATION IN THE WEST
  • Discrimination in the west was most often
    directed against Mexican and Asian immigrants
  • Mexicans were often forced in Debt Peonage a
    system of forced labor due to debt
  • Asians were increasingly excluded from mainstream
    society

Anti-Asian Cartoon
29
SECTION 4 DAWN OF A MASS CULTURE
  • Many middle class Americans fought off city
    congestion and dull industrial work by enjoying
    amusement parks, bicycling, tennis and spectator
    sports
  • American leisure was developing into a
    multi-million dollar industry

30
AMUSEMENT PARKS
  • To meet the recreational needs of city dwellers,
    Chicago, NYC and other cities began setting aside
    land for parks
  • Amusement parks were constructed on the outskirts
    of cities
  • These parks had picnic grounds and a variety of
    rides

Coney Island was Americas most famous amusement
park in the late 19th century
31
BICYCLING TENNIS
  • After the introduction of the safety bike in
    1885, Americans increasingly enjoyed biking
  • By 1890, 312 companies made over 10,000,000 bikes
  • Tennis also was very popular in the late 19th
    century

On the right is the safety bike much easier
and safer to ride
32
SPECTATOR SPORTS
  • Americans not only participated in new sports,
    but became avid fans of spectator sports
  • Baseball and boxing became profitable businesses
  • Mark Twain called baseball, the very symbol of
    the booming 19th century

1897 Baseball team picture Kansas State University
33
NEWSPAPERS
  • Mass-production printing techniques led to the
    publication of millions of books, magazines, and
    newspapers
  • Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst were
    two leading publishers whose competition led to
    more and more sensational newspaper reporting

Hearst (above) and Pulitzer initiated what was
known as Yellow Journalism
34
Characteristics of Yellow Journalism included
huge, sensational, exaggerated headlines
35
Some contend that Hearst and Pulitzers Yellow
Journalism was responsible for the
Spanish-American War in 1898
36
PROMOTING FINE ARTS
  • By 1900, free circulating Public libraries
    numbered in the thousands
  • By 1900, most major cities had art galleries
  • In the early 20th century, the Ashcan School of
    American Art painted urban life

This portrait was done by Robert Henri, who led
the Ashcan School
37
ASHCAN SCHOOL
Title Dempsey and Firpo, 1924 Artist George
Wesley Bellows
38
ASHCAN SCHOOL
Unsigned work, 1930
39
POPULAR FICTION
  • Dime novels were popular inexpensive
  • Most of these focused on adventure tales and
    heroes of the west
  • Some readers preferred a more realistic portrayal
    from authors Mark Twain, Jack London, and Willa
    Cather

40
GROWING CONSUMERISM
  • The turn of the century witnessed the beginnings
    of the shopping center, department and chain
    stores, and the birth of modern advertising

41
THE DEPARTMENT STORE
  • Marshall Field of Chicago brought the first
    department store to America
  • Fields motto was Give the lady what she wants
  • Field also pioneered the bargain basement
    concept

Marshall Fields has been around for almost 150
years
42
CHAIN STORES
  • In the 1870s, F.W. Woolworth found that if he
    offered an item at a low price, the consumer
    would purchase it on the spur of the moment
  • By 1911, the Woolworth chain had 596 stores and
    sold 1,000,000 per week

43
ADVERTISING
  • Expenditures for advertising was under 10
    million a year in 1865, but increased to 95
    million by 1900
  • Ads appeared in newspapers, magazines and on
    billboards

44
CATALOGS AND RFD
  • Montgomery Ward and Sears were two pioneers in
    catalog sales
  • By 1910, 10 million Americans shopped by mail
  • In 1896 the Post Office introduced a rural free
    delivery (RFD) system that brought packages
    directly to every home
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