An Introduction to Robotics 1)What is a robot ? 2)The historical development of robotics 3)Industrial robot systems and components 4)Industrial robot configurations 5)Kinematic classification 6)Industrial applications, usage and world - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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An Introduction to Robotics 1)What is a robot ? 2)The historical development of robotics 3)Industrial robot systems and components 4)Industrial robot configurations 5)Kinematic classification 6)Industrial applications, usage and world

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Components of an industrial robot system: ... an electrically powered manipulator and then WAVE - the first robot programming language. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: An Introduction to Robotics 1)What is a robot ? 2)The historical development of robotics 3)Industrial robot systems and components 4)Industrial robot configurations 5)Kinematic classification 6)Industrial applications, usage and world


1
An Introduction to Robotics1) What is a robot ?
2) The historical development of
robotics3) Industrial robot systems and
components4) Industrial robot configurations
5) Kinematic classification 6) Industrial
applications, usage and world markets7)
Telerobotics
2
What is a robot ?
  • A robot is a re-programmable, multifunctional
    machine designed to manipulate materials, parts,
    tools,or specialized devices, through variable
    programmed motions for the performance of a
    variety of tasks."
  • Robotics Industries
    Association
  • "A robot is an automatic device that performs
    functions normally ascribed to humans or a
    machine in the form of a human."
  • Websters Dictionary

3
  • Historical development I - the beginning
  • The word 'robot' was coined in the early 1920s
    by the Czech playwright Karel Capek (pronounced
    "chap'ek") from the Czech word for forced labor
  • The term 'robotics' refers to the study and use
    of robots and was coined and first used by the
    Russian-born American scientist and writer Isaac
    Asimov (1942). Asimov also created the Three
    Laws of Robotics.
  • in the early 1940s MIT developed a numerically
    controlled (NC) milling machine (the first NC
    machine tool)
  • In 1961 George Devol created his patent for parts
    transfer machines. Joe Engelberger teamed with
    Devol to form Unimation and was the first to
    market robots. As a result, Engelberger has been
    called the 'father of robotics.'
  • The first industrial modern robot - the Unimate -
    developed by Devol and Engelberger - was
    installed at GM (New Jersey) in 1961.

4
A Unimate employed more profitably
5
  • Historical development II - computers sensors
  • In 1964 Artficial Intelligence (AI) Labs open at
    MIT, Stanford (SRI) and University of Edinburgh
  • The mobile robot Shakey was developed at
    Stanford in the late sixties.It had a camera and
    touch sensors and could move about the lab floor
  • SRI develop the Stanford Arm - an electrically
    powered manipulator and then WAVE - the first
    robot programming language. This was subsequently
    developed into VAL for use with Unimation robots
  • In 1974 ASEA introduce the all electric drive
    IRb6. Cincinnati Milacron also introduce computer
    controlled T3 (The Tomorrow Tool) robot. Kawasaki
    use Unimation machines to weld motorbike frames.
  • In 1976 Viking I II space crafts equipped with
    robot arms land on Mars
  • Unimate PUMAs introduced in 1978. SCARAs
    (Selective Compliance Articulated Robot Arm)
    introduced in 1979.
  • Vision based workcell demonstrated at University
    of Rhode Island in 1980 (Kirsch).

6
  • Evolution of computing power

7
  • Historical development III - the latest
  • New Techniques
  • walking robots
  • co-operating arms or AGVs
  • biomedical engineering
  • teleoperation
  • Internet robotics
  • micro and nanorobotics
  • New Applications
  • teleoperated robotics (space, surgery)
  • service robots (teaching, retail, fast food
    outlets, bank tellers, garbage collection,
    security guards, cleaning vehicles etc etc)
  • UGVs and UAVs for hazardous environments

8
  • Historical development IV - science fiction
  • early perception of robots was that they were the
    tools of scientists or aliens bent on world
    domination (The Day the Earth Stood Still, The
    Forbidden Planet)
  • some robots even wanted to take over the world
    themselves (Dr. Who), or quite often went berserk
    (RUR, 2001, Westworld, Saturn 3)
  • later they were viewed in more sympathetic light
    as often humaniod-like companions (Star Wars, Dr.
    Who, Short Circuit, Hitch Hikers Guide, Red
    Dwarf).
  • we still however best enjoy the notion that
    robots are basically very scary (Terminator,
    Bladerunner, RoboCop)
  • end result is that robots and their capabilities
    are still very poorly understood by the general
    public

9
  • Robots in sci-fi seminal films I
  • 1951 - The Day the Earth Stood Still (sci-fi
    drama) Michael Rennie, Patricia Neal. Story about
    aliens who come to Earth with an all-powerful
    robot called Gort.
  • 1956 - Forbidden Planet (sci-fi drama) Leslie
    Nielsen. Classic movie robot Robby.
  • 1965 - Dr. Who and the Daleks (sci-fi drama) Dr.
    Who helps humans on a distant planet overcome
    their robot masters.
  • 1968 - 2001 A Space Odyssey (cult sci-fi drama)
    Not strictly a robot, but an intelligent computer
    who kills members of his crew.
  • 1973 - Sleeper (Comedy) - Woody Allen comedy with
    household robots of the future.
  • 1973 - Westworld (sci-fi drama) - cult story
    about an entertainment park filled with androids.
    Yul Brynner stars as an android gunslinger who
    goes berserk and starts killing the guests.

10
  • Robots in sci-fi seminal films II
  • 1977 - Star Wars (sci-fi epic)- Harrison Ford,
    Carrie Fisher. R2D2 robot C3PO android steal
    the show.
  • 1980 - Saturn 3 (sci-fi horror)- Kirk Douglas,
    Farah Fawcett, Harvey Keitel. Story about a
    couple on a space outpost who are about to be
    replaced by a robot - which predictably goes
    berserk.
  • 1982 - Blade Runner (sci-fi drama) - Harrison
    Ford is hired to track down and kill several
    androids including Rutger Hauer who steals the
    show.
  • 1984 - The Terminator (sci-fi drama) - Arnold
    Schwartzenegger. A time-travelling cyborg comes
    back from the future to kill the mother of its
    nemesis.
  • 1986 - Short Circuit (sci-fi drama) Ludicrously
    cute military robot (Johnny 5) gets hit by
    lightning and comes alive.
  • 1987 - Robocop (sci-fi drama) Poor story of a
    cyborg cop - though well worth seeing for the
    ED-209 go beserk at the beginning.
  • 1997 - Titanic (drama) Subsea ROV with stereo
    vision is overshadowed by the tragic drowning of
    Leonardo de Caprio.

11
  • Robots in sci-fi

12
  • Terminology
  • Some Definitions
  • 1) Robot An electromechanical machine with more
    than one degrees-of-freedom
  • (DOF) which is programmable to perform a variety
    of tasks.
  • 2) Anthropomorphic Similar to Humans.
  • 3) Manipulator - mechanical arm, with several
    DOF.
  • 4) Degrees-of-Freedom - the number of
    independently controllable motions in a
  • mechanical device. The number of motors in a
    serial manipulator.
  • 5) Mechanism - a 1-DOF machine element.
  • 6) Fixed Automation - designed to perform a
    single repetitive task.
  • 7) Flexible Automation - can be programmed to
    perform a variety of tasks.
  • 8) Robot system - manipulator(s), sensors,
    actuators, communication, computers,
  • interface, hand controllers to accomplish a
    programmable task.
  • 9) Actuator - motor that drives a joint
    generally rotary (revolute) or linear
    (prismatic)
  • electric, hydraulic, pneumatic, piezoelectric.
  • 10) Cartesian Coordinate frame - dextral,
    orthogonal, XYZ

13
  • Terminology
  • 11)Kinematics - the study of motion without
    regard to forces. Cartesian Pose position
  • and orientation of a coordinate frame.
  • a) Forward Kinematics - given the joint
    variables, calculate the Cartesian pose.
  • b) Inverse Kinematics - given the Cartesian
    pose, calculate the joint variables.
  • 12) Position (Translation) - measure of location
    of a body in a reference frame.
  • 13) Orientation (Rotation) - measure of attitude
    of a body (e.g. Roll, Pitch, Yaw) in a
  • reference frame.
  • 14) Singularity - a configuration where the
    manipulator momentarily loses one or more
  • degrees-of-freedom due to its geometry.
  • 15) Actuator Space - vector of actuator commands,
    connected to joint through gear train
  • or other drive.
  • 16) Joint Space - vector of joint variables
    basic control parameters.
  • 17) Cartesian Space - Position vector and
    orientation representation of end-effector
  • natural for humans.

14
  • Terminology
  • 18) End-effector - tool or hand at the end of a
    robot.
  • 19) Workspace - The volume in space that a
    robots end-effector can reach, both in
  • position and orientation.
  • 20) Dynamics - the study of motion with regard to
    forces (the study of the relationship
  • between forces/torques and motion). Composed of
    kinematics and kinetics.
  • a) Forward Dynamics (simulation) - given the
    actuator forces and torques, compute the motion.
  • b) Inverse Dynamics (control) - given the
    desired motion, calculate the actuator forces and
    torques.
  • 21) Control - causing the robot system to perform
    the desired task. Different levels.
  • a) Teleoperation - human moves master, slave
    manipulator follows.
  • b) Automation - computer controlled (using
    sensors).
  • c) Telerobotics - combination of the b) and c)
  • 22) Haptics - From the Greek, meaning to touch.
    Haptic interfaces give human
  • operators the sense of touch and forces from the
    computer, either in virtual or real,
  • remote environments. Also called force reflection.

15
  • industrial robot systems overview
  • Today 90 of all robots used are found in
    factories and they are referred to as industrial
    robots.
  • An industrial robot typically has the following
    component parts
  • controller
  • arm
  • drive
  • end-effector
  • sensors

16
  • Components of an industrial robot system
  • Controller
  • Every robot is connected to a computer
    controller, which regulates the components of the
    arm and keeps them working together.
  • The controller also allows the robot to be
    networked to other systems, so that it may work
    together with other machines, processes, or
    robots.
  • Almost all robots are pre-programmed using
    "teaching" devices or off-line software programs
    (OLP).
  • In the future, controllers with artificial
    intelligence (AI) could allow robots to think on
    their own, or even program themselves. This could
    make robots more self-reliant and independent.

17
  • Components of an industrial robot system
  • Arm
  • The arm is the part of the robot that positions
    the end-effector and sensors to do their
    pre-programmed business.
  • Many are built to resemble human arms, and have
    shoulders, elbows, wrists, even fingers.
  • Each joint is said to give the robot 1 degree of
    freedom. A simple robot arm with 3 degrees of
    freedom could move in 3 ways up and down, left
    and right, forward and backward.
  • Most working robots today have 6 degrees of
    freedom to allow them to reach any possible point
    in space within its work envelope (or working
    volume).

18
  • Components of an industrial robot system
  • Drive
  • The links (the sections between the joints) are
    moved into their desired position by the drive.
  • Typically, a drive is powered by pneumatic or
    hydraulic pressure, or, most commonly,
    electricity.
  • hydraulic drives powerful, deliver large forces,
    require pumps
  • pneumatic cheap, practical (most factories have
    air lines), safe, difficult to control.
  • electric good precision, good accuracy, stepper
    or DC servo (most common),

19
  • Components of an industrial robot system
  • End-effector (or tool)
  • The end-effector could be thought of as the
    "hand" on the end of the robotic arm.
  • There are many possible end-effectors including a
    gripper, a vacuum pump, tweezers, scalpel,
    blowtorch, welding gun, spray gun, axe, hair
    clippers, or just about anything that helps it do
    its job.
  • Some robots can change end-effectors, and be
    reprogrammed for a different set of tasks.

20
  • Components of an industrial robot system
  • Sensors
  • A sensor sends information, in the form of
    electronic signals back to the controller.
  • Sensors also give the robot controller
    information about its surroundings and lets it
    know the exact position of the arm, or the state
    of the world around it.
  • One of the more interesting areas of sensor
    development is in the field of computer vision
    and object recognition.
  • Other types of sensors include ultrasonic,
    lasers, force/touch etc.

21
  • Components of an industrial robot system
  • Classification of joint types
  • R - revolute (1 DOF)
  • P - prismatic (1 DOF)
  • helical (2 DOF)
  • cylindrical ((2 DOF)
  • universal (2 DOF)
  • spherical (3 DOF)

22
  • Kinematic Robot Arm Classifications
  • In a serial design joints disposed
    sequentially the total number of DOFs is the
    sum of the DOF of all joints
  • Parallel design a closed-loop linkage (most
    well known Stewart platform)
  • Robot arms are usually classified by the design
    of their mechanical system and by the shape of
    their working volume.
  • Generally, there are five common robot
    configurations
  • 1) Cartesian (or rectangular),
  • 2) cylindrical,
  • 3) spherical,
  • 4) jointed arm
  • 5) SCARA.
  • Robots may also be categorised as being either
    articulated (bending about an elbow to perform
    the task) or non-articulated (retracting/
    extending a boom).
  • A further way of describing a robot is by its
    number of DoF.

23
  • Cartesian coordinate robots I
  • CCRs are highly configurable, rectilinear robot
    systems which, in a basic configuration, include
    an X and Y axis.
  • Three-axis CCRs, incorporating an X, Y, and Z
    axis, are also common for positioning tools, such
    as dispensers, cutters, drivers, and routers.

24
  • Cartesian coordinate robots II
  • Each of the axis lengths are selectable
  • Payloads and speeds vary based on axis length and
    support structures.
  • CCRs are typically very repeatable, have better
    inherent accuracy than a SCARA or jointed arm,
    and perform 3D path-dependent motions with
    relative ease.
  • However,the CCRs key feature is its
    configurability the ability you have to
    configure and size the CCR to best meet your
    application needs.
  • A gantry robot is a special type of Cartesian
    robot whose structure resembles a gantry. This
    structure is used to minimize deflection along
    each axis. Many large robots are of this type.

25
  • Cylindrical Coordinate Robots
  • A cylindrical robot has two linear axes and one
    rotary axis.
  • The robot derives its name from the operating
    envelope
  • The Z axis is located inside the base, resulting
    in a compact end-of-arm design that allows the
    robot to "reach" into tight work envelopes
    without sacrificing speed or repeatability.

26
  • Spherical (or Polar) Coordinate Robots
  • A spherical robot has one linear axis and two
    rotary axes
  • Spherical robots are used in a variety of
    industrial tasks such as welding and material
    handling.

27
  • Jointed Arm Robots
  • A Jointed Arm robot has three rotational axes
    connecting three rigid links and a base.
  • An Jointed Arm robot is frequently called an
    anthropomorphic arm because it closely
    resembles a human arm. The first joint above the
    base is referred to as the shoulder. The shoulder
    joint is connected to the upper arm, which is
    connected at the elbow joint.
  • Jointed Arm robots are suitable for a wide
    variety of industrial tasks, ranging from welding
    to assembly.

28
  • SCARA Robots I
  • The acronym SCARA stands for Selective Compliance
    Assembly Robot Arm, a particular design developed
    in the late 1970's in the laboratory of Professor
    Hiroshi Makino of Yamanashi University, located
    in Kofu, Japan.
  • SCARA robots are a blend of the articulated and
    cylindrical robots, providing the benefits of
    each.
  • The basic configuration of a SCARA is a four
    degree-of-freedom robot with horizontal
    positioning accomplished much like a shoulder and
    elbow held perfectly parallel to the ground. The
    robot consists of three R and one P joints
  • The robot arm unit can move up and down, and at
    an angle around the axis of the cylinder just as
    in a cylindrical robot, but the arm itself is
    jointed like a revolute coordinate robot to allow
    precise and rapid positioning.
  • SCARAs are know for their fast cycle times,
    excellent repeatability, good payload capacity
    and a large workspace, shaped somewhat like a
    donut.
  • SCARAs can be referred to as swivel robots

29
  • SCARA Robots II
  • SCARA robots are a combination of the articulated
    arm and the cylindrical robot.
  • They are used widely in electronic assembly.
  • The rotary axes are mounted vertically rather
    than horizontally minimising the robot's
    deflection when it carries an object while moving
    at speed. The load is carried by the joint frame
    NOT the motor.

30
  • Summary of classifications in terms of joint
    types
  • Cartesian P-P-P
  • Cylindrical R-P-P
  • Spherical R-R-P
  • SCARA R-R-R-P
  • Jointed/articulated/revolute R-R-R

See Pg 73 Figure 6.2 in Lecture notes
31
Examples of robot kinematic configurations
32
Advantages and limitations of different
configs Cartesian Pros Position control is
easy. Rigid structure so high payloads are
possible Cons Occupies a large volume (low
robot to workspace ratio) All 3 axes exposed
to environment Used for pick and place,
machine tool loading, electronics Cylindrical
Pros Rigid structure and realtively easy
position control. High payloads are
possible. Cons Can only operate close to base
(or floor) Used for Pick and place,
palletizing, laboratory testing
33
Advantages and limitations of different
configs Polar Pros Versatile - large
working envelope. Cons More difficult to
control end effector position Large space near
the base that cannot be reached Used for
applications where a small number of vertical
actions is required loading a press, spot
welding etc. Articulated Pros Extremely
flexible - can reach anywhere within
workspace. Joints can be completely
sealed. Cons Difficult to program - controller
must be complex Payload can be low depending
on build Used for Almost anything - but good
in harsh or clean room conditions.
34
Advantages and limitations of different
configs SCARA Pros Fast (3 m/s), high
repeatability (0.02mm), Compact and can
operate through 360 degrees (plan). Cons Medium
to low payload Limited vertical movement Used
for Soldering, welding, drilling, electronics
assembly. Almost any table-top application.
35
  • Components of an industrial robot system
  • Classification of end effectors grippers

An end effector is the device that is fixed to
the end of the robot manipulator mounting
flange. N.B. Typically the manipulator also has
a wrist (often R-R-R).
see page 75, Fig 6.4 for gripper types.
36
  • Other types of robot
  • Stewart platforms - parallel linkages
  • Mobile vehicles
  • Crawlers
  • biologically inspired systems

A robotic camera head
Is this a robot ?
Stewart platform
A planeatry Rover vehicle
37
  • Uses of robots
  • Today 90 of all robots used are found in
    factories and they are referred to as industrial
    robots.
  • Ten years ago, 9 out of 10 robots were being
    bought by auto companies - now, only 50 of
    robots made today are bought by car
    manufacturers.
  • Robots are slowly finding their way into
    warehouses, laboratories, research and
    exploration sites, energy plants, hospitals, even
    outer space.
  • Robots are useful in industry for a variety of
    reasons. Installing robots is often a way
    business owners can be more competitive, because
    robots can do some things more efficiently than
    people.

38
Revolute and Prismatic DOF and a 6 DOF Robot Arm
39
Multiple Solutions, Singularity, and Redundant
Links
40
  • Motion Coordination using
  • The Geometric Model
  • Variational Model
  • Principle of Virtual Work

41
Principle of Robot Dynamics
42
  • Integrated robot system Hierarchy
  • Robot arm
  • Sensor
  • Motion hierarchy
  • Sensor processing hierarchy
  • Environment model
  • Motion planning
  • Collision avoidance
  • Real-time OS
  • Programming

43
  • Integrated Telerobotic System
  • Client station
  • Master arm
  • Forwarding motion commands
  • Stereo visualization
  • Haptic and force display
  • Client software
  • Real-time OS
  • Server station
  • Salve arm
  • Haptic and force sensors
  • forwarding force data
  • Stereo cameras
  • forwarding streaming
  • Client software
  • Real-time OS

44
  • Internet Telerobotic System
  • Client station
  • Master arm
  • Streaming motion commands
  • Stereo visualization
  • Haptic and force display
  • Client software
  • Real-time OS
  • Server station
  • Salve arm
  • Haptic and force sensors
  • Streaming force data
  • Stereo cameras
  • Video streaming
  • Client software
  • Real-time OS

45
Summary1) What is a robot ? 2) The historical
development of robotics3) Industrial robot
systems and components4) Industrial robot
configurations 5) Kinematic classification
6) Industrial applications, usage and world
markets7) Telerobotics
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