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The Four Major Inventions

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Paper Making Bamboo Slips The bamboo slip has been used as a book form for the longest time in Chinese history. ... The printing skill is named the typography ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Four Major Inventions


1
A Glimpse of Chinese Traditional Culture
  • The Four Major Inventions

2
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3
The Four Major Inventions
  • Compass
  • Papermaking
  • Gunpowder
  • Printing

4
Compass
  • The compass is a device showing geographic(???)
    direction by using the earths magnetic(??)
    field. It enabled trade and exploration in whole
    new ways.

5
Compass
  • Early in the Warring States period, while mining
    ores and melting copper and iron, Chinese people
    chanced upon a natural magnetite that attracted
    iron and pointed fixedly north.
  • Referred to as a "South-pointer", the spoon or
    ladle (????) shaped compass is made of magnetic
    lodestone (????), and the plate is bronze. The
    circular center represents Heaven, and the square
    plate represents Earth.

6
  • A compass vehicle (???) was an ancient Chinese
    vehicle equipped with many gear wheels and a
    wooden figure that always pointed south no matter
    which direction the vehicle went. Its an earlier
    and more primitive form of the compass.

7
  • The Compass gives play to (??) important function
    in the navigation after introducing to Europe.

8
Paper MakingPapermaking Skill
  • Paper has been a major medium of recording,
    transmitting, and storing information in human
    civilization. The earliest characters were
    inscribed on bones, tortoise shells and bronze
    wares in the Shang Dynasty and later on silk,
    bamboo and wood.

9
Do you know the process of paper-making?
  • In the Eastern Han Dynasty (A.D.105), a court
    official named Cai Lun (??) used inexpensive
    materials such as bark, hemp (??), rags, fishnet,
    wheat stalks (??) and other materials to make
    paper, known as Cai lun Paper (???).
  • The materials were soaked, cut into pieces,
    boiled with plant ash, washed, and grounded with
    a pestle in a mortar (???). The mixture was then
    poured evenly on a flat surface to dry, or baked
    to become paper. It was relatively cheap, light,
    thin, durable and more suitable for brush
    writing.

10
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11
Paper Making
  • Bamboo Slips
  • The bamboo slip has been used as a book form for
    the longest time in Chinese history. It was the
    main writing tool before the invention of
    papermaking and the popularization of paper.

12
Gunpowder
  • Gunpowder was invented in China, not by people
    seeking better weapons or even explosives, but by
    alchemists (????) seeking the elixir (?????) of
    immortality.

13
Gunpowder
  • Gunpowder is made of niter(??), sulfur and
    charcoal three kinds of materials mixing.

14
Gunpowder
  • In the Tang Dynasty, the gunpowder begins to be
    applied to the military affairs.
  • People utilize the throwing stone machine, light
    the gunpowder bag and throw out, burn the enemy,
    this is the most primitive cannon.

15
Gunpowder
  • In the Yuan Dynasty, the method of making
    gunpowder was introduced to the Arab world and
    Europe, bringing a series of revolutions to
    weapon manufacturing, as well as to stratagem
    (??) and tactics (??) on the battlefield.

16
PrintingTypographyta?p?gr?f? (?????)
  • Printing, known as mother of civilization, was
    another great invention of the Chinese people.
  • It has a long history and includes block printing
    (????) and movable type printing (????).

17
  • Block Printing was probably invented between the
    Sui and Tang dynasties. The process of block
    printing started with the cutting of wood into
    blocks, and then characters were engraved in
    relief (??) on the blocks. Ink was brushed on the
    engraved block and a white sheet of paper was
    spread across it and then brushed with a clean
    brush on its back leaving an image when the paper
    was removed.

18
  • The woodblock printing appear in Sui Dynasty. To
    carve protruding backward Chinese character(???)
    on woodblock with knife, then brush Chinese
    ink-liquid, and print on the paper.

19
  • The worlds oldest surviving book printed on
    paper is Vajra Sutra (???).
  • It is the earliest woodcut illustration in a
    printed book.

20
  • In Song Dynasty, word worker Bi Sheng
    (A.D.1004-1048) used the clay with viscidity(??),
    made into the rectangle cube(???), carved the
    single Chinese characters on it, burned it with
    the fire, and formed the font(??). The printing
    skill is named the typography / movable type
    printing (????).

21
Printing
  • Movable Type Printing involved engraving single
    words into pieces of clay, firing them until
    hardened and using them as permanent type. The
    type was then set into printing plates.

22
Other Impressive Ancient Inventions
  • The ancient Chinese had brought many other fine
    inventions to mankind such as fireworks, the
    abacus (??) and silk.

23
  • Fireworks
  • Fireworks were probably first made by stuffing
    gunpowder into bamboo sticks. It was commonly
    thought that explosions would scare off evil
    spirits and ghosts.

24
  • The abacus was an early form of a calculator. It
    is a frame with rows of beads(??) on metal
    rods(?) that are used for calculations.
  • Usually, it can be separated into two sections
    two beads above, each representing 5 and five
    beads below, each representing 1, it was used for
    the four fundamental operations (????????) of
    arithmetic (??).

25
  • Silk A few centuries ago, European traders
    trekked along the Silk Road for Chinas exquisite
    (???) silk which only the Chinese knew how to
    make by rearing silkworms. It takes 40,000
    silkworms to make just five and a half kilograms
    of silk.
  • Silk is cool to wear in hot weather and warm in
    cold weather.

26
  • Porcelain 'p?s?len is made from coal dust and
    the fine, white clay called kaolin 'ke??l?n
    (??). It is baked at 1200 degrees centigrade
    while ordinary ceramicss?'ræm?ks(?) are baked
    at 500 degrees centigrade. The first glazing
    color(??) was blue from the mineral cobalt (?).

27
Discussion (5 minutes)
  • How do you feel about the Four Major Inventions
    in ancient China?

28
Homework
  • Discussion topic for next class
  • Tell the difference between Traditional
    Chinese Medicine and west medicine.
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