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Factors that Shape Nationalism First Nations and Metis Nationalism

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Title: Factors that Shape Nationalism First Nations and Metis Nationalism


1
Factors that Shape NationalismFirst Nations and
Metis Nationalism
  • In 1968, Pierre Trudeau wanted to create a fair
    and equal Canada, so he proposed The White
    Paper policy to help create a Just Society
  • The White Paper Proposal would essentially mark
    the end of all treaty rights, reserves, and
    resource rights from Aboriginal people.
  • Aboriginal people would have the same rights and
    status as the rest of Canadians.
  • The Aboriginal community was outraged at the
    proposal, many First Nations leaders viewed the
    White Paper Proposal as a method for the
    government to get out of treaty obligations and
    to force assimilation on the Aboriginal people

2
Factors that Shape NationalismFirst Nations and
Metis Nationalism
  • The book The Unjust Society by Harold Cardinal
    became a bestseller and inspired heated debates
    and the Red Paper Proposal
  • Cardinal argues that taking away First Nations
    rights would be taking away from their National
    Identity
  • It reflected on the growing political strengths
    and desires for self-determination and
    self-governance of all Aboriginal people
  • The Book inspired a new determination to promote
    FNMI national identities

3
Factors that Shape NationalismInuit Perspectives
on Nationalism
  • The political experience of the Inuit people of
    Canada is different from the rest of the First
    Nations people.
  • The Inuit never signed Federal Treaties and were
    free to follow their traditional ways of life
    well into the 20th century
  • However, by the 1930s the animal populations in
    the North were diminishing and the Federal
    Government was forced to relocate many Inuit
    people to central communities
  • This created many social problems for the Inuit
    as they attempted to adapt their traditional ways
    of life to a modern situation
  • The desire for self-government was one way the
    Inuit thought they could fix many of their social
    problems.
  • 1999, The Nunavut Land Claim was settled and the
    new Canadian territory of Nunavut was established
    for the Inuit as a form of self-governance.

4
Factors that Shape NationalismQuebecois
Nationalism
  • 1759 The French lose the Battle of the Plains
    of Abraham
  • 1763 Britain assumes control over Frances
    North American colonies
  • Since then, the Francophone community has
    struggled to maintain its language and culture
    with the increasing arrival of English settlers.
  • The French, even today, struggle with their
    national identity in an English dominant society.

5
Shaping NationalismChapter 2 Understanding
NationalismTo What Extent Should We Embrace
Nationalism
  • Many historians believe that the French
    Revolution marked the birth of European
    Nationalism
  • The French attempted and successfully
    accomplished a complete change in the way their
    society worked
  • They beheaded their monarch and many of the
    nobility because they enjoyed luxuries and
    wealth, while the poor starved and went without
    the basics
  • Revolutionaries changed France from an absolute
    monarchy to a republic
  • Peoples general loyalties shifted from a focus
    on the King to a focus on the nation
  • The French Revolution showed that Nationalism can
    be affected by external factors including
    historical, social, economic, geographical, and
    political factors that often overlap and feed one
    another.

6
Factors that Shape NationalismHistorical Factors
From Revolution to Republic
  • Louis XVI ruled France with absolute power over
    the people
  • He would often punish, imprison, or even execute
    those who spoke out against him
  • The Bastille was a fortress prison that was a
    symbol of Louis power and authority over the
    people
  • On July 14, 1789, 600 angry Frenchmen stormed and
    captured the Bastille marking the start of the
    French Revolution and the inevitable end of
    Absolutism in France.
  • The capture of the Bastille, inspired people of
    all classes to take action against the king
  • Even today, the Storming of the Bastille is
    ingrained in the French Collective Identity. It
    is a symbol that reminds people that even
    ordinary citizens can effect change.

7
Factors that Shape NationalismSocial Factors
  • Social factors refer to the relationships among
    people in a given society
  • In some societies, peoples roles are decided
    before they are born, as it was in
    Pre-Revolutionary France
  • If you were born a peasant, worker, or a
    commoner, you would remain a commoner for your
    whole life. If you were born into nobility, you
    enjoyed wealth and privilege. The king and the
    aristocrats, including high ranking officials in
    the Catholic Church held the majority of the
    power in France.
  • The King made and enforced laws, and cared little
    for the common people

8
Factors that Shape NationalismSocial Factors
  • The aristocrats (nobility), collected taxes from
    the commoners, yet paid very little themselves.
    This allowed the ruling elite to grow extremely
    wealthy.
  • If a commoner lived and worked on the land owned
    by one of the ruling elite, they were required to
    work for free, and often pay rent to the land
    owners.
  • In 1789, 96 of the population of France was
    considered a commoner.

9
Factors that Shape NationalismSocial Factors
Changes in Ideas about Society
  • During the 1700s, France was one of the cultural
    centers of the world
  • People of a variety of classes (social groups)
    met in cafes and in salons (places where people
    would meet and discuss important matters of
    society)
  • During the meetings, they would discuss matters
    such as, the days events and the meaning of
    those events in the light of a changing set of
    ideas about individual rights and freedoms
  • They discuss the monarch and the treatment of the
    common people by the nobility, clergy, and
    royalty
  • They resented not having a say in their
    government, unlike Britain who had an elected
    parliament and a monarch (who held little
    authoritative power).
  • They watched and discussed the American
    Revolution in 1783, where the British colonies
    rebelled and declared independence from Britain.
  • They regularly discussed what was wrong with
    society and tried to think of ways that society
    could be improved.

10
Factors that Shape NationalismSocial Factors
Speaking Out
  • Freedom of speech was not guaranteed in
    Pre-Revolutionary France.
  • The royal police regularly threw people in prison
    for speaking out against the nobility and the
    king. To speak out against the king, was to
    speak out against the nation.
  • Despite this, people still published their
    opinions in books, pamphlets, and newspapers (the
    times mass media)
  • Voltaire once wrote In general, the art of
    government consists in taking as much money as
    possible from one class of citizens to give to
    another.

Man is free at the moment he wishes to be. Is
this true? Voltaire
11
Factors that Shape NationalismSocial Factors A
Growing Middle Class
  • The common people of France included a growing
    middle class called the Bourgeoisie.
  • The Bourgeoisie included factory owners, doctors,
    lawyers, writers, philosophers, and other highly
    skilled workers like clockmakers and artists.
  • Not only was the class growing, but they were
    developing the ability to grow wealthy using
    their skills.
  • As they became wealthier, they invested in
    education, and welcomed ideas of equality and
    freedom.
  • They also became more aware that they were being
    forced to pay the majority of the taxes which
    enabled the aristocrats to live in opulent luxury.

12
Factors that Shape NationalismEconomic Factors
  • During the 1700s the French Monarchy was
    constantly at war with other nations.
  • These wars were very costly for France, and
    combined with extreme spending habits of the
    Kings, France was nearly bankrupt by the 1780s
    and in a serious economic crisis.
  • To combat this, Louis XVI decided that he would
    raise the taxes of everyone in France, including
    the nobility and aristocrats. They denied him
    his taxation.
  • Out of desperation, Louis XVI called the Estates
    General in 1789 (a parliament type group made up
    of representatives from the different classes in
    France)

13
Factors that Shape NationalismEconomic Factors
The Estates General
  • The Estates General was comprised of
    representatives from the 3 different social
    classes in France.
  • First Estate The Clergy (high ranking members
    of the Church)
  • Second Estate Aristocrats and Nobility
  • Third Estate Commoners and Peasants
  • The 3 estates would meet and vote on issues
    separately, the votes would then be combined and
    a majority vote would decide the outcomes. This
    meant that the first 2 estates could always
    outvote the third estate.
  • On June 20th 1789, the third estate demanded that
    votes count by representation, the king denied
    the demand and locked them out of the meeting.
  • They met at a Tennis Court and swore an Oath that
    they would remain there until they had
    established a constitution, and called themselves
    the National Assembly

14
Factors that Shape NationalismGeographic Factors
  • In the summer of 1789, the King was worried about
    paying for his luxurious lifestyle, the
    bourgeoisie were after more power, the clergy was
    worried about losing land and privilege, the
    commoners were worried about the weather.
  • As a result of a culmination of bad winters, poor
    crops, floods, and droughts, there was barely
    enough grain supply to feed the nation.
  • This resulted in a huge increase in the price of
    bread, a necessary staple food for the commoners,
    and they could not afford to purchase it.

Figure 2-8 On October 5, 1789, many Parisian
women walked 25 kilometers to Versailles and
arrived there early in the evening. They carried
whatever weapons they could find and dragged
along a cannon. What caption would you write for
this picture?
15
Factors that Shape NationalismGeographic Factors
Bread Revolutions
  • As the price of bread rises, it was not uncommon
    for the peasants and laborers to spend up to 90
    of their wages on a single loaf of bread.
  • There were several riots over the price of bread
    in the past (1768, 1770, 1775), and as a result a
    good supply of affordable bread was necessary to
    maintain public order in France.
  • The general public believed that those who
    governed were responsible for maintaining the
    bread supply.
  • On October 5, 1789, a crowd of women marched on
    the Palace at Versailles and demanded that Louis
    XVI return to Paris with them and supply them
    with the much needed food supply that they felt
    was his responsibility. He agreed and by the
    time they returned to Paris, the crowd totaled
    close to 60,000 people.

16
Factors that Shape NationalismPolitical Factors
  • Many French people did not feel any sort of
    National Identity
  • Members of the Third Estate were frustrated by
    their lack of political power
  • The Third Estate began to thing of the King, the
    clergy, and the aristocrats as them
  • By late 1789, the newly formed National Assembly
    created a document entitled The Declaration of
    the Rights of Man and of the Citizen which
    removed the traditional power of the king, clergy
    and the aristocrats, and it stated that the role
    of government is to preserve the rights of its
    people.

17
Factors that Shape NationalismExternal Threats
to French Nationalism
  • After the revolution in France, many other
    European leaders feared that the ideas of the
    French Revolution would spread to their own
    countries.
  • In an attempt to prevent those ideas from taking
    root in their countries, many nations raised
    armies and invaded France in an attempt to
    restore Louis XVI to the throne and to power in
    France.
  • However, Frances revolutionary army prevailed
    and prevented the reinstatement of Louis XVI to
    power.
  • This external threat led to the eventual
    execution of Louis XVI to finally end the
    attempts to restore the monarchy in France.
  • This execution did not have the desired effect on
    the French population, who were shocked and
    horrified that the revolutionary leaders would do
    this.
  • As a result, the French people began to speak out
    against the Revolutionary leaders.

18
Factors that Shape NationalismPolitics of Fear
and Terror
  • To crack down on the public outcry against the
    revolutionary leaders, they began what would
    become known as The Reign of Terror
  • The Reign of Terror lasted for 11 months,
    during which time 200,000 people were arrested
    for various crimes, and 17,000 people were
    executed. One of the first executions was Marie
    Antoinette.
  • Some were arrested for speaking in favor of the
    king, others for speaking out against the
    revolution
  • Olympe de Gouges, a female activist, was executed
    because she spoke out against the Declaration of
    the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. She viewed
    it as an injustice to exclude women from it. She
    then wrote The Declaration of the Rights of
    Women and of the Female Citizen. This was
    enough to warrant an execution.
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