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Biology: Exploring Life

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Biology: Exploring Life The scope of biology Evolution, unity, and diversity The process of science Biology and everyday life Properties of Living Things Order ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biology: Exploring Life


1
Biology Exploring Life
  • The scope of biology
  • Evolution, unity, and diversity
  • The process of science
  • Biology and everyday life

2
Properties of Living Things
  • Order
  • Reproduction
  • Growth and development
  • Energy processing
  • Response to the environment
  • Regulation
  • Evolutionary adaptation

3
Levels of Organization
  • Biosphere
  • Ecosystem
  • Community
  • Population
  • Organism
  • Organ System
  • Organs
  • Tissues
  • Cell
  • Organelle
  • Molecule

4
Examples
  • Ecosystem
  • All living and non-living components in an area
    (water, air, etc.)
  • Community
  • Entire array of organisms in an area
  • Population
  • Interacting group of individuals of one species

5
Cells are the structural and functional units of
life
  • Lowest level of organization that can perform all
    the activities required of life
  • Emergent properties novel properties that emerge
    with each step up in the levels of organization
  • Demonstrate the correlation of structure and
    function

6
Cell Types
  • Prokaryotic
  • Simple
  • Small
  • No organelles
  • Enclosed by a membrane that regulates traffic
  • Use DNA as code for genetic info
  • Example Bacteria
  • Eukaryotic
  • Complex
  • Large
  • Contain membrane bound organelles
  • Enclosed by a membrane that regulates traffic
  • Use DNA as code for genetic info
  • Examples plants, fungi, animals

7
Organisms and the Environment
  • Producers
  • Plants, photosynthetic organisms
  • Produce sugar from sunlight
  • Consumers
  • Eat plants, other organisms
  • Use energy from consumed foods

8
The Unity of Life
  • Foundation for unity of life DNA
  • Each molecule 2 long chains coiled into a
    double helix
  • There are only 4 chemical building blocks
    (bases) A, T, G, C
  • Sequence of the bases is critical to the message
  • rat, tar, art all have the same letters,
    different meaning

9
Organizing the Organisms
  • Taxonomy names and classifies species
  • Species a particular type of organism (stay
    tuned for a more precise definition)
  • Several levels of taxonomic organization
    domain?kingdom?phylum?class?order?family?genus?spe
    cies

10
The Levels of Organization
  • Domain highest level of taxonomic organization
    (think continent)
  • Kingdom (think country)
  • Phylum (think state)
  • Class (think county)
  • Order (think city)
  • Family (think street)
  • Genus (think house)
  • Species (think room)
  • We can now get even more specific (area within
    the room, chair within that area, etc.)

11
The Three Domains
  • Bacteria
  • Prokaryotic, most are unicellular and
    microscopic, contains kingdom Bacteria
  • Archaea
  • Prokaryotic, most are unicellular and
    microscopic, contains kingdom Archaea
  • Some unique environmental tolerances

12
The Three Domains, cont.
  • Eukarya
  • Eukaryotic, many
    multicellular, 4 kingdoms

13
Evolution Explains the Unity and Diversity of Life
  • November 1859, Charles Robert Darwin published On
    the Origin of Species by Means of Natural
    Selection
  • Presented evidence that support the view that
    modern species are descended from ancestral
    species (descent with modification)
  • Proposed natural selection as the
    mechanism of change

14
How Does it Work?
  • Unequal reproductive success results in a greater
    abundance of some traits (those that make
    reproduction more likely), and lesser abundance
    of some traits (those that do not favor
    reproduction)
  • Natural selection isnt a creative mechanism- it
    can only edit what is there!

15
How Do Scientists Do Science?
  • Discovery Science
  • Involves verifiable observations and measurements
  • Relies on inductive reasoning (derives principles
    from many specific observations)
  • Hypothesis-Based Science
  • Involves hypotheses (tentative answer to a
    question) and rigorous testing
  • Relies on deductive reasoning (from a general
    premise, we can extrapolate to the specific
    results we expect)

16
Whats the Process?
  • Make an observation
  • Ask a question based on the observation
  • Develop an hypothesis (tentative answer to your
    question)
  • Test your hypothesis
  • Did you accept or reject your hypothesis?

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