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Unsafe Drinking Water

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Unsafe Drinking Water By: Ann Duong Biosand Filter Removes: More than 96% of fecal coli forms 100% of protozoa and helminthes 50-90% of organic and inorganic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unsafe Drinking Water


1
Unsafe Drinking Water
  • By Ann Duong

2
Worldwide Need
  • More than 4,900 people die each day from
    waterborne illness 90 are children under the
    age of five. Over 1.1 billion people worldwide
    (20 of the world population) must walk more than
    one kilometre to find water that is often unsafe
    to drink. Poor water and sanitation leads to
    illness, keeping children from school and parents
    from work, making access to improved water and
    sanitation the first step toward sustainable
    communities and the end of poverty.

http//cawst.org/index.php?id63
3
Biosand Filter
  • Removes
  • More than 96 of fecal coli forms
  • 100 of protozoa and helminthes
  • 50-90 of organic and inorganic toxicants
  • Greater than 75 of iron and manganese 
  • Suspended sediments, in all or part

http//cawst.org/index.php?id128BSF
4
Biosand Filter
Diffuser Plate Protects the biological layer from
damage when water is poured into the
filter. Outlet Pipe 6 mm (¼) inner diameter
(I.D.) Conducts water from filter base to
outside. Biological Zone Develops at the top
5-10 cm (2-4) of the sand surface. The sand
absorbs pathogens, iron, and other small
particles. Sand Zone Contains virtually no
living microorganisms due to lack of nutrients
and oxygen. Gravel Zone Holds the sand in place
which protects the outlet pipe from clogging and
allows for the smooth flow of water.
http//www.cawst.org
5
Biosand Filter
http//www.cawst.org
6
Aluminum Potassium Sulfate
Aluminum Potassium Sulfate or Alum is a
flocculating agent that helps to clarify water by
coagulating particles or grouping together
particles in larger masses to create heavier
particles that will sink.
Raw water
7
Aluminum Potassium Sulfate
  • Questions
  • How much alum is needed to clarify the water in a
    30min or less period?
  • How much will the alum cost per year?
  • Is it possible to use the alum through two rounds
    of clarifying water? Three rounds?
  • Does the Alum have to be dissolved in distilled
    water first before adding it to the raw water?
  • Or can the Alum crystals be put straight into the
    raw water?
  • How many pathogens are being removed by the alum?

8
Aluminum Potassium Sulfate
9
Aluminum Potassium Sulfate
Raw water
The particles that have settled at the bottom.
Tap water
10
Aluminum Potassium Sulfate
Raw Water
Raw Water with Alum
11
Water Testing
  • Procedure

The first step that we took in testing water was
to take a Petri dish and put 1.7ml of broth in
it. Next, we sterilized the tweezers and the top
of the Millipore filter and took a Millipore
paper and put it on top of the filter.
Afterwards, we placed a cup over the paper on the
top and obtained 5ml of raw water using a pipette
and squeezed it out into the cup. Then we took a
syringe and sucked all the water off the top and
was left behind with bacteria on top of the
paper. After that, we took the tweezers and
carefully placed it in the Petri dish on top of
the broth. Lastly, we placed the Petri dish in
the incubator at 37C
12
Water Testing
Lake Macatawa Water
E-coli colonies
13
Water Testing
Lake Macatawa Water with Alum
No E-coli colonies
14
Acknowledgements
  • Hope College
  • Dr. Brown
  • Andy Zendler
  • Ricky Kelley
  • Dr. Moses Lee
  • Karen Nordell Pearson
  • Kara Barney
  • Alyson

                                                                     
15
THANK YOU TO OUR STUDENTS OF REACH 2008
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