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Medical Informatics Basics

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Title: Medical Informatics Basics


1
Medical Informatics Basics
Lection 1
2
Basic Questions
  • Medical Informatics Definition
  • Medical Informatics as the Scientific Area
  • Medical Informatics Areas
  • Aspects of the Medical Informatics fields
  • Clinical informatics
  • Biomedical informatics
  • Bioinformatics
  • Public health informatics
  • Nursing informatics
  • Dental informatics
  • Medical Cybernetics
  • Information Systems examples

3
1. Medical Informatics (A)
  • Medical information science is the science of
    using system-analytic tools . . . to develop
    procedures (algorithms) for management, process
    control, decision making and scientific analysis
    of medical knowledge.
  • (E.H. Shortliffe, The science of biomedical
    computing. Medical Informatics 19849185-93.)

4
1. Medical Informatics (B)
  • Medical Informatics comprises the theoretical
    and practical aspects of information processing
    and communication, based on knowledge and
    experience derived from processes in medicine and
    health care.
  • (J.H. van Bemmel, The structure of medical
    informatics. Medical Informatics 19849175-80.)

5
1. Medical Informatics (C)
  • In medical informatics we develop and assess
    methods and systems for the acquisition,
    processing, and interpretation of patient data
    with the help of knowledge that is obtained in
    scientific research.
  • (J.H. van Bemmel and M.A. Musen, Handbook of
    Medical Informatics, Springer Verlag, 1997.)

6
1. Medical Informatics (D)
  • It is the intersection of information science,
    computer science and health care. It deals with
    the resources, devices and methods required to
    optimize the acquisition, storage, retrieval and
    use of information in health and biomedicine.
  • (Wikipedia, 2008.)

7
1. The Informatics
  • Informatics (academic field), a broad academic
    field encompassing human-computer interaction,
    information science, information technology,
    algorithms, and social science
  • Computer science, the study of complex systems,
    information and computation using applied
    mathematics, electrical engineering and software
    engineering techniques.
  • Information science, the study of the processing,
    management, and retrieval of information
  • Information technology, the study, design,
    development, implementation, support, or
    management of computer-based information systems

8
1. Medical Informatics is Multidisciplinary
  • It is applies methodologies developed in multiple
    areas of scientific endeavor to many different
    tasks
  • In turn, it often gives rise to new, more general
    methodologies that enrich these scientific
    disciplines

9
1. Medical Informatics is Multidisciplinary
10
2. Example of Scientific Areas Relevant to
Medical Informatics
  • Medicine/ Biology
  • Mathematics
  • Information Systems
  • Computer Science
  • Statistics
  • Decision Analysis
  • Economics/Health Care Policy
  • Psychology

11
2. Example of Scientific Areas Relevant to
Medical Informatics
12
2. The Diagnostic-Therapeutic Cycle, Simplified
View
13
2. Levels of Automated Support
14
3. Examples of Medical Informatics Areas
  • Hospital information systems
  • Electronic medical records medical vocabularies
  • Laboratory information systems
  • Pharmaceutical information systems
  • Radiological (imaging) information systems
  • Patient monitoring systems
  • Clinical decision-support systems
  • Diagnosis/interpretation
  • Therapy/management
  • Bioinformatics Closely related tasks/methods

15
3. Examples of Medical Informatics Areas
16
4. Aspects of the Medical Informatics fields
  • Architectures for electronic medical records and
    other health information systems
  • Decision support systems in healthcare, including
    clinical decision support systems
  • Standards (e.g. DICOM, HL7) and integration
    profiles to facilitate the exchange of
    information between healthcare information
    systems
  • Controlled medical vocabularies (CMVs) such as
    the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine,
    Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), used to allow a
    standard, accurate exchange of data content
    between systems

17
4. Aspects of the Medical Informatics fields
18
5. Clinical informatics
  • It is a sub-field of medical informatics.
  • It is a combination of information science,
    computer science, and clinical science designed
    to assist in the management and processing of
    data, information and knowledge to support the
    practice and delivery of clinical care.
  • (Shortliffe and Perreault, Medical
    Informatics Computing applications in health
    care and biomedicine)

19
6. Biomedical informatics
  • It is concerned with the study and application
    of information technology and computer science as
    well as decision making, human problem solving,
    cognitive science, standards, policies, and human
    factors in the practice of biomedical science,
    medicine and healthcare and is most commonly used
    in this way in the USA.

20
7. Bioinformatics
  • Bioinformatics and computational biology
    involve the use of techniques including applied
    mathematics, informatics, statistics, computer
    science, artificial intelligence, chemistry, and
    biochemistry to solve biological problems usually
    on the molecular level.

21
8. Public Health Informatics
  • Public Health Informatics has been defined as the
    systematic application of information and
    computer science and technology to public health
    practice, research, and learning.
  • Major tasks
  • Collection of public health data.
  • Storage of public health data.
  • Analysis of public health data.

22
9. Nursing informatics (A)
  • It is a specialty of Health care informatics
    which deals with the support of nursing by
    information systems in delivery, documentation,
    administration and evaluation of patient care and
    prevention of diseases.
  • (Wikipedia, 2008)

23
9. Nursing informatics (B)
  • It is a specialty that integrates nursing
    science, computer science, and information
    science to manage and communicate data,
    information, and knowledge in nursing practice.
  • (American Nurses Association's Scope and
    Standards for Nursing Informatics Practice, 2006)

24
10. Dental informatics
  • Dental informatics is the application of computer
    and information science to improve dental
    practice, research, education and management.
  • It can be considered a subset of medical
    informatics and biomedical informatics.
  • It improves patient care by improving efficiency
    and effectiveness in different areas of a common
    dental practice
  • administration
  • clinical care
  • charting records
  • patient education.

25
11. Medical Cybernetics
  • Cybernetics is the interdisciplinary study of the
    structure of complex systems, especially
    communication processes, control mechanisms and
    feedback principles. Cybernetics is closely
    related to control theory and systems theory.
  • Concepts studied by cyberneticists include, but
    are not limited to learning, cognition,
    adaption, social control, emergence,
    communication, efficiency, efficacy and
    interconnectivity. These concepts are studied by
    other subjects such as engineering and biology,
    but in cybernetics these are removed from the
    context of the individual organism or device.

26
11. Medical Cybernetics
  • Pure cybernetics studies systems of control as a
    concept, attempting to discover the basic
    principles underlying such things as
  • Artificial intelligence
  • Robotics
  • Computer Vision
  • Control systems
  • Emergence
  • Learning organization
  • Computer science directly applies the concepts of
    cybernetics to the control of devices and the
    analysis of information.
  • Decision support system
  • Cellular automaton
  • Simulation

27
11. Medical Cybernetics
  • Cybernetics in biology is the study of cybernetic
    systems present in biological organisms,
    primarily focusing on how animals adapt to their
    environment, and how information in the form of
    genes is passed from generation to generation
  • Bioengineering
  • Biocybernetics
  • Bionics
  • Homeostasis
  • Medical cybernetics
  • Synthetic Biology

28
11. Medical Cybernetics
  • Medical Cybernetics is a field of applied
    cybernetics which utilizes the concepts of
    cybernetics to medical research and practice. It
    covers an emerging working program for the
    application of systems- and communications-theory,
    connectionism and decision theory on biomedical
    research and health related questions. Topics
  • Systems Theory in medical sciences (searching for
    and modelling of physiological dynamics).
  • Medical information and Communication Theory
    (mathematically describe signalling processes and
    information storage in different physiological
    layers)
  • Connectionism (describe information processing in
    neural networks)
  • Medical Decision Theory (gather evidence based
    foundations for decision making in the clinical
    setting )

29
12. Information systems example
  • Electronic health record (EHR) with image and
    document links.

30
12. Information systems example
  • Sample patient record view from an image-based
    electronic health record (VistA).

31
12. Information systems example
32
12. Information systems example
  • A PACS allows to store volumic exams and to
    reconstruct 3D images

33
Conclusion
  • Medical Informatics Definition
  • Medical Informatics as the Scientific Area
  • Medical Informatics Areas
  • Aspects of the Medical Informatics fields
  • Clinical informatics
  • Biomedical informatics
  • Bioinformatics
  • Public health informatics
  • Nursing informatics
  • Dental informatics
  • Medical Cybernetics
  • Information Systems examples
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