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AP WORLD HISTORY Period 1, 2, & 3 8000BCE 1400CE Major transitions Development & expansion of Islam Expanding zones of trade/expanding networks Spread of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Period 1, 2, 3
  • 8000BCE 1400CE

Period 1 8000 BCE 600 CE 5 of Test
The Paleolithic Age
  • Most of human pre-history Paleolithic (old
    stone age)
  • Small-scale groups 30 w/ yearly 500
  • Gathering as important (or more) than hunting
  • Human impact on environment minimal
  • Human migrations and settlement influenced by
    disease vectors
  • Warfare, but rarely
  • Women equal (or nearly so) sometimes deified
  • Religion animistic or totemistic
  • Egalitarianism

The Neolithic Transition
  • Melting of ice sheets (Holocene epoch) opened
    fields, reduced game
  • Haphazard then deliberate cultivation led to
    domestication of grains and legumes
  • Stationary food supply meant permanent
  • Early Neolithic villages populations 500-1000
  • Large settlements not possible through dry
  • A few larger towns like Jericho and Catal Huyuk
  • Copper metallurgy, but most tools stone

  • Areas of world with most domesticable plants and
    animals got jump-start
  • Animals, starting with dogs, domesticated to
    become docile, easily controlled, more
    nutritious, and unintelligent
  • Plants underwent un-natural selection
    non-useful plants extinct while useful given
    advantage took over ecosystems

The Urban Revolution
  • Settlement around river valleys
  • Much higher population density, which brought
  • Diseases (esp. through livestock)
  • Social stratification (even slavery)
  • Increased warfare w/nomadic peoples
  • Polytheistic religions, sometimes anthropomorphic
  • Lower status of women
  • Lower nutrition, average height, and life
  • More complex forms of state
  • Direct manipulation of environment intensive
  • Specialization, leading to technological advances

  • Metallurgy from copper to Bronze, which created
    an elite warrior class in some societies
  • Hydro technologies dikes, dams, irrigation
  • Astronomical observation and recording
  • Writing the beginning of history
  • The wheel, levers and pulleys, the chariot

The concept of Civilization
  • Civilization associated with settled agriculture,
    esp. urban areas
  • Associations are good, i.e. civilized vs.
  • Nomadic peoples dont count
  • Arguments against
  • Civilizations caused chronic problems
  • -- Nomads played crucial roles

Four major river valley civilizations
  • Mesopotamia Tigris Euphrates rivers
  • Egypt Nile River
  • India Indus river
  • China Yellow River
  • Mesopotamia, Egypt, and India were influenced by
    each other China was relatively independent

Independent Invention v. Diffusion
  • Technologies spread through trade, warfare,
    migration, etc.
  • Many are acquired whole from other
    civilizations sometimes modified
  • Others are invented independently sometimes
    resulting in better technology
  • Process of diffusion and syncretism essential to
    Afro-Eurasian patterns

Mesopotamia vs. Egypt
  • -- Regular, predictable flooding of Nile
  • -- Hot region, but not as hot as Mesopotamia
  • -- Valley surrounded by desert meant isolation
    (initially), low danger of attack
  • -- Irregular, unpredictable flooding of Tigris
    and Euphrates
  • -- Hot, dry region
  • -- Open plains location meant frequent invasion

Influence of Geography
  • Geographic circumstances heavily influenced early
    river valley civilizations
  • Geographic Determinism
  • Influence is reciprocal Cultures are influenced
    by nature but in turn influence nature

Mesopotamia v. Egypt Religion
  • Egypt
  • Gods as benevolent and predictable
  • Rituals stressing regularity and cyclical nature
    of life
  • Afterlife orderly, predictable, pleasant
  • Mesopotamia
  • Gods as violent, unpredictable
  • Ritual stressing sacrifice to appease gods
  • Afterlife dark, dusty, and unpleasant

Mesopotamia v. Egypt -- PFOS
  • Egypt
  • Local kingdoms unified in 3100 BCE by MENES
  • Centralized government
  • Few cities mostly ritual centers
  • Rulership shifted from upper to lower Egypt
    (Thebes Memphis)
  • Law word of Pharaoh
  • Mesopotamia
  • City-states unified by Sargon of Akkad, but
    unstable unity
  • Imperial rule
  • Cities focus of civilization large, urban
  • Rulership shifted from city-state to city-state
    through conquest
  • First written law

The Indus Valley
  • Script not translated so little info
  • Had bronze metallurgy
  • Uniform weights measures indicate centralized
  • Urban culture w/ infrastructure (e.g. waste
    disposal, public baths, etc.)
  • Cotton cultivation for textiles legumes for food
  • Traded with Mesopotamia Egypt
  • Yogic, pre-Aryan religion
  • Collapse result of catastrophic environmental
    events leading to SYSTEMS FAILURE

The Yellow River
  • Developed independently of other river-valley
    civs no evidence of trade
  • Focus of early civ was control of Yellow River
    earliest hero Duke of Zhou
  • Cast Bronze metallurgy
  • Cultivation of millet in north, rice in south
  • Decentralized politically divine kingship w/
  • Writing system oracle bones

Bronze-Age Empires
  • Possession of bronze allowed military innovators
    to conquer others
  • Empire area of centralized control over diverse
  • Land Empires, e.g. Assyrian
  • Maritime Empires, e.g. Phoenician
  • Developed new ways of ruling, etc.
  • Empires pass through stages

Bronze Age Empires
  • Extensive trading networks allowed empires to
    exist without river-valleys
  • Marked social stratification possession of
    Bronze by elite
  • Chariot warfare and other innovations siege

Fall of the Bronze Age
  • Starting in 1200 BCE, most Bronze Age
    civilizations fell
  • Invasion by nomadic peoples (e.g. Aryans from
    central Asia)
  • Invasion by diverse groups (e.g. Sea Peoples)
  • Systems failure followed defeats and in-fighting
    (e.g. Trojan War)

Period 2 600 BCE 600 CE 20 of Test
Rise of Classical Period Civilizations
  • Nomadic invaders assimilated into local culture,
    creating syncretic cultures
  • Influence of river-valley cultures continued,
    e.g. Egyptian and Mycenaean on Greek, became
    Cultural Hearths

Political Forms of State
  • An Empire or Civilization can have any of the
    following political forms of state
  • Monarch Rule by one person (e.g. King)
  • Theocracy Rule by priests
  • Oligarchy Rule by a small group of elite
  • Aristocracy Rule by a traditional elite class
  • Democracy Rule by vote of citizens

Common themes of Classical Civilizations
  • New patterns of social inequality
  • Sophisticated Bureaucracy
  • Formalized cultural systems
  • Universal religions
  • A Lingua Franca
  • Internal and external trade
  • Infrastructure
  • Rigid gender roles
  • Iron metallurgy
  • Large populations

Case Studies - Greece
  • Greek city-states not unified until threatened by
    Persian Empire (dry-farmers)
  • Some poliis (city-states) democratic
  • Influenced by Mediterranean cultural hearth
    Greek is cultural not political
  • Traded wine, olives, pottery in Mediterranean
  • Women had lower status worst in Athens
  • Rationalism under Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
  • Architecture Parthenon
  • Fall Fighting between city-states made
    vulnerable to Macedonians (Phillip II

Case Studies Rome
  • Developed around Tiber river Latins enslaved by
  • Ca. 500 BCE broke free, established Republic
    (democratic government)
  • Conquered Italy, then the Eastern Western
    Mediterranean (conflict w/Carthage Punic Wars)
  • Fought to expand empire into Gaul and beyond

Case Study-Rome
  • Traded with China along silk road, dominated
    Mediterranean trade, traded with Coastal Africa
    India through IO Saharan networks
  • Developed written law code (12 tablets),
    concrete, the Roman Arch (improved), road system
  • Co-opted Greek culture revered ( stole)
  • C. 30 BCE Civil conflict leads to EMPIRE
  • Empire lasted until c. 400 CE moved to

Case Study Rome
  • Fall result of several interrelated factors
  • Decline of small farmers and subsequent
  • Nomadic migration and invasions (German and
    Central Asian peoples)
  • Expense of maintaining extensive borders
  • Decadence of wealthy loss of civitas
  • Disease and environmental problems

Case Study Gupta Maurya India
  • Limited political centralization
  • High taxes 25 50
  • Religions of state Buddhism under Ashoka,
    Hinduism under later rulers
  • Status of women higher than Rome or China, but
    still not equal (e.g. Sati)
  • Theater-state and use of rituals extensive
  • Traded with Africa, Europe, Asia
  • Important innovations 0, fractions, inoculation
  • Fall result of overspending on military

Case Study China
  • Kingdoms unified by Chin Shihuangdi
  • Great Wall, coinage, weights measures
  • Development of Daoism and Confucianism
  • Legalistic policies led to fall after death
  • Han Empire (200 BCE 200 CE)
  • Lingua Franca Mandarin Chinese
  • Han ethnic group dominant over others
  • Constant threat from central asian nomads
  • Trade with Rome and India through Silk Route and
    IO Trade Network

Case Study China
  • Confucian Exam System used for some positions
  • Synthesis of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism
    developed Han Synthesis
  • Fall of Han due to several factors
  • Invasion by nomadic peoples on horseback
  • Corruption cabalism in government
  • Natural disasters, disease, drought
  • Infrastructural failure (esp. Yellow River)

Case Study Mayan Culture
  • Had roots in older hearth of Olmec Toltec
  • De-centralized city states MAYAN is a culture
    like GREEK
  • Social stratification urban elite
  • Trade limited for light, high-value objects
  • Reverence of Jaguar
  • Primary crop Corn but also beans
  • Conquest of Aztec (c. 1200 CE) resulted in
    Imperial Control
  • Systems failure for some states environmentally
    unsound practices
  • Astronomical science, zero

Fall of Classical Period Civs
  • Commonalities
  • Nomadic invasions
  • Loss of trade contacts
  • Disease natural disasters
  • Loss of civic impulse governmental corruption
  • Transition from centralized to decentralized
    (sometimes feudalistic) PFOS

Period 3 600-1450 20 of Test
  • Major transitions
  • Development expansion of Islam
  • Expanding zones of trade/expanding networks
  • Spread of religions
  • Mongol empire
  • Chinese renaissance
  • European middle ages renaissance
  • Plague pandemics
  • Growth role of cities

Development expansion of Islam
  • Impact on economy trade
  • As a business law
  • Impact on culture
  • Sharia the five pillars
  • gender
  • Political structures
  • The Caliphate Sultanates
  • Mali
  • Arts, sciences, technologies

Expanding zones of trade/expanding networks
  • Growth expansion of major trade routes
  • Impact of Islam
  • Impact of technology
  • Camels
  • Dhows
  • Nature of trade
  • Indian Ocean basin
  • Trans-Saharan
  • Silk Road

Spread of religions
  • Christianity
  • Schism East vs. West
  • Buddhism
  • Trade routes
  • Order of diffusion
  • syncretism
  • Islam
  • By conquest
  • By trade

Mongol empire
  • Political Impacts
  • China
  • Russia
  • Middle East
  • Economic impacts
  • Trade
  • Tax farming
  • Military impacts
  • Diffusion of military technologies
  • Social Impact
  • Spread of plague
  • China

Chinese renaissance
  • Sui-Tang-Song
  • Commercial revolution
  • Maritime trade
  • Invention innovation
  • Urbanization
  • Impact on East Asia
  • Zheng He
  • Compared to European Renaissance

European middle ages renaissance
  • Political, Economic, and Social form of Middle
  • Restructuring Rise of cities, national kingdoms,
    decline of church power
  • Impact of Crusades on trade
  • Rise of city-states
  • Impact of plague commerce on serfdom
  • Reformation

Growth role of cities
  • Cities as centers of innovation
  • Rise of city-states
  • Urban vs. Rural
  • Influence of cities on politics
  • Roles of cities
  • As trade centers
  • As religious centers
  • As political capitals

Rise of Islam
  • Sassanid Byzantine (Roman) Empires w/ state
  • Arabs as intermediaries
  • Trade caravans oasis cities
  • Prior exposure to Judaism, Christianity,
    Zoroastrianism (of Persia)
  • Oral culture
  • Clans Tribes constant warfare

Why were the Muslims successful?
  • Byzantine Sassanid empires weak
  • Motivation of Muslim
  • Brilliance of commanders
  • Combination multiple causation

Dar-Al Islam
  • Spread through conquest and trade
  • Indian Ocean Network provided common culture and
    legal code, increasing trade spread into Fuxian
    province of China
  • Silk Road Influenced central Asians, did not get
    into China (Battle of Talus River)
  • Trans-Saharan network Spread across e-w axis,
    first Muslim influenced kingdom Ghana (800 CE)
  • Spread of Islamic architecture, law (Sharia), and
    education (madrasas)

Womens rights under Islam and elsewhere
  • Women under Islam had more rights than others
    (e.g. Divorce, property ownership)
  • Adopted head covering like European and Persians
  • Muhammads first wife older (causation?)
  • Women participated in Muslim civil war
  • Europe, East Asia more repressive Christianity
  • Americas More roles and rights for women

Sunni vs. Shiite split
  • Death of Caliph Uthman led to conflict over
  • Muslim community Umma wanted to vote
  • Shia wanted bloodline of Muhammad Ali
  • Civil war followed schism
  • Today Iran is Shia, most of rest mixed or Sunni

Highlights of Caliphate
  • Abbasid caliphate height of expansion and
  • Baghdad population over 1 million, center of
    artistic and intellectual activity
  • Water sources brought to most areas
  • Eventually hired Turkish soldiers (Mamluks) to
    fight for them later taken over
  • Ended with execution of last Caliph by Mongols
    (except in Egypt)
  • Conflict with Western Europe over access to holy
    sites, trade The Crusades

Coda The World by 1000CE
  • Europe decentralized, feudalistic, heavily
    influenced by Christianity, economically cut off
    Iberia ruled by Moors (Muslims)
  • East Asia (China) centralized c. 600 CE under
    Sui-Tang-Song active trade, initial influence of
    Buddhism followed by persecution influence of
    China on Korea, Vietnam, and Japan great

Coda The World at 1000 CE
  • Central Asia Decentralized and tribal, but
    caravan cities trade entrepots along Silk Road
  • North Africa Islam spreading, Ummayad Caliphate
    in N. Africa Iberia Trans-Saharan trade
    healthy Muslim states (e.g. Mali)
  • Sub-Saharan Africa trading on Swahili coast
    (east) Great Zimbabwe in-land much untouched by
    outsiders b/c geographic micro-parasitic
    obstacles Bantu Migration provided cultural

Coda The World In 1000 CE
  • The Americas
  • Central America Pre-Aztec Mayan Classical Age
  • South American (Peru) Pre-Incan Moche culture
  • North America Hopewell Anasazi cultures
    decentralized tribal otherwise
  • South Asia (India)
  • --Delhi Sultanate in N. India, Rajputs in
    Himalayan foothills
  • -- Decentralized otherwise, with trade zones on
    coasts and Gujarat
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