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Integrity Testing / Drug Testing


Integrity Testing / Drug Testing Staffing and Performance Management Fall 2007 Group Members Rebecca Cosper Lennie Griffin John Jenkins Matt Hendricks – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Integrity Testing / Drug Testing

Integrity Testing / Drug Testing
  • Staffing and Performance Management
  • Fall 2007

Group Members
Rebecca Cosper Lennie Griffin John Jenkins Matt
Hendricks Kevin Houston Throy Campbell
The Dark Side of Selection
  • Characteristics applicants should not have and
    the risk involve in administering integrity and
    drug test for employment purposes

Integrity Testing
  • 15 billion to 25 billion per year from Employee
  • Used in Retail and Financial Industry
  • Polygraph Test
  • Paper and Pencil Integrity Test

Polygraph Testing
  • Procedures
  • Designed to read physiological responses
  • Exemptions
  • Limitations
  • False Positive
  • False Negatives
  • Distractive Physical Activities

Paper and Pencil Integrity Test
  • Overt Integrity Test
  • Personality-Based Measures

Usefulness and Validity of Integrity Test
  • False Positives
  • Validity
  • Integrity Tests ad Big Five Personality
  • Relationship between Integrity Tests
  • Other relationships
  • Faking
  • Legal Issues

Drug Testing
  • Major concern to organizations since 1960.
  • Mandatory for many safety sensitive jobs and
    organizations receiving government contracts
  • Research has found drug use is negatively
    associated with job performance, accidents,
    injuries, absences, involuntary turnover, and job
    withdrawal behaviors.
  • Measuring the deterioration in work performance
    is difficult due to individual differences in
    reactions to amounts and types of drugs.
  • The only sure way to measure deterioration is to
    measure job performance of an individual when
    he/she is free from drugs and when he/she has
    consumed drugs

Drug Tests
  • Paper and Pencil Tests simplest, least
    controversial. Directly asks about drug usage.
  • There is almost no public literature that
    evaluates the reliability or validity of this
    type of test
  • Unconstitutional based on the Fifth Amendment.
  • Urine Tests used most often
  • The urine is divided in two parts for a screening
    test and a confirmation test, both have to match
  • Testing procedures differ for the different drug
    families and thresholds are set
  • Hair Analysis basis is similar to urine
  • drugs leave chemical traces in human hair
  • drug use can be detected after a long period of

Drug Tests
  • Fitness for Duty Tests (competency test)
    relatively new
  • one form resembles a computer game and is a test
    of hand-eye coordination.
  • more information is needed about contamination
    factors to determine validity.
  • Oral Fluid Test
  • an oral swab is rubbed on the inside of the
    mouth, then placed in a vial
  • the liquid is analyzed and barring any lab
    error, the test is always accurate

Accuracy of Chemical Tests
  • Because the physical properties of each drug are
    invariant, the chemical test should be completely
  • A positive result means a presence of the drug
    above the threshold set for detection
  • The result does not allow for the determination
    of how much of the drug was used, how long ago,
    how frequently, the circumstances or the level of
  • Individuals differ, drugs differ and indication
    of ability to perform is fallible

Legal Issues of Employment Drug Testing
The legal status of employment drug testing is
unclear in the United States. Employers risk
using such test for preemployment selection of
individuals, but significantly more for
promotion of existing employees, to detect usage
for disciplinary and counseling purposes, because
of collective bargaining among co-workers.
Legal Arguments
  • Invasion of Privacy
  • Unreasonable search or seizure
  • Violation of due process
  • Protection under Americans with Disabilities Act
  • Violation of Civil Rights Act Title VII
  • Violation of National Labor Relations

Important Features
  • Limit testing to positions with major safety
  • Flexibility with applicants versus current
  • Written consent
  • Review program periodically
  • Part of a larger program

Drug Testing
  • Outside source information

Drug Testing
  • According to the American Management Association,
    81 of companies in America drug test their
    employees, and 83 of them believe that testing
    deters drug use.
  • The main reasons cited for drug testing are that
    drug abusers are
  • 10 times more likely to miss work
  • 3.6 times more likely to be involved in an
    on-the-job accident
  • 5 times more likely to file a workers comp claim
  • 33 less productive

Urine Testing
  • Urine testing is the most common and least
    expensive type of testing
  • Used to test recent drug or alcohol use only
  • Typically costs between 35 and 50 an employee
  • Only shows limited success with finding harder
  • Easiest to manipulate
  • Dilution
  • Fake urine
  • The Whizzinator (only 149.95 online)

Hair, Blood, and Saliva Testing
  • Much more expensive than urine testing
  • Hair and saliva tests can determine a history of
    drug use
  • Up to 90 days or more
  • Highly controversial
  • More likely to show false negatives and false
  • Hair testing has been shown to have an ethnic
  • Can be manipulated with shampoos or mouth washes

The Real Story
  • There continues to be a lot of controversy
    surrounding drug testing in general
  • Privacy concerns
  • Necessity (many companies report doing it for
    image reasons)
  • Cost (the US Govt spends 77,000 on each
    positive test result)
  • Morale (tends to hurt morale by creating a
    climate of distrust)
  • Lack of results (lowers efficiency and has next
    to no effect on absenteeism or accidents)
  • For real results, you must combine proactive
    education with testing. Testing alone does very