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The Scientific Revolution

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The Scientific Revolution 9th Grade World History What exactly is a Revolution? A revolution is an event that demonstrates a change. Think of it this way . – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Scientific Revolution


1
The Scientific Revolution
  • 9th Grade World History

2
What exactly is a Revolution?
  • A revolution is an event that demonstrates a
    change.
  • Think of it this way.
  • The Earth Revolves around the sun.
  • As it does throughout the year, the seasons
    Change.
  • The Scientific Revolution was a change in the way
    of human thinking.

3
When did this change occur?
  • Following the Renaissance, from roughly
    1550-1700.
  • During the Renaissance, the philosophy of
    Humanism encouraged philosophers and artists to
    study the physical, natural world around them.
  • This study of natural philosophy became a focus
    on sciences such as physics, astronomy and
    biology.

4
How was this a scientific revolution?
  • During the Middle Ages and Renaissance,
    philosophers had studied the classical thinkers
    (Aristotle, Socrates, etc.) and accepted their
    ideas without questioning them.
  • Philosophers and Scientists decided to break away
    from classical ideas, and use their own
    observations and experiments to understand the
    world.

5
It all starts with astronomy
  • Before the Scientific Revolution, the accepted
    theory about the universe was the Ptolemaic
    Universe.
  • Ptolemy was an ancient philosopher who theorized
    that the earth was the center of the universe.
    (Geocentric)
  • The universe is a series of concentric spheres
    (same center) one inside the other with the Earth
    at the center.

6
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7
Contradictions from Copernicus
  • Believed Ptolemy was wrong.
  • Studied an ancient Greek theory that the SUN was
    the center of the universe. Heliocentric THEORY
  • He even dedicated the book to the Pope. ?

8
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9
Questions from Copernicus
  • So if Copernicus was right that would mean.
  • 1. The universe was much larger than originally
    believed.
  • 2. The earth was just another planet.
  • 3. We had NO idea where heaven is! (gasp!)
  • Copernicus ideas made everyone stop and
    think.maybe they were wrong..maybe the church
    was wrong!

10
Kicking off with Kepler
  • Very good at math, he believed the key to
    understanding the universe was to use
    mathematics.
  • Believed there was a mathematical relationship
    between everything in space.

11
Keplers 3 laws
  • 1. All planets travel in an elliptical orbit.
    (egg-shaped)
  • 2. A planet gains speed as it gets closer to the
    sun.
  • 3. There is a connection between the distance a
    planet is from the sun and the time it takes to
    orbit the sun (pluto takes longer than earth)
  • All of these mathematical conclusions proved
    Ptolemy wrong.

12
Getting in trouble with Galileo
  • Galileo decided to explore ideas about motion.
  • Rather than speculating (guessing or theorizing)
    about his ideas, he actually experimented with
    them.
  • For example Galileo would roll balls down pieces
    of wood to show that an object in motion stays in
    motion until acted upon by a force. (Law of
    Inertia)

13
Inspiring the Inquisition
  • Galileo used the telescope to observe several new
    phenomena in space
  • 1. That the moon is cratered and uneven, not
    perfect. Material substance not just pure orbs of
    light.
  • 2. Moons were orbiting Jupiter This meant that
    there was more than one center of motion in the
    universe.
  • 3. Venus went through phases just like the moon,
    which meant it went around the sun.
  • All these discoveries contradicted the
    Aristotelian and Ptolemaic ideas, angering the
    church.

14
Fun facts about Galileo
  • Author of a book that was banned by the church as
    heretical.
  • Placed on house arrest for his teachings.
  • Still considered the most successful scientist of
    the Revolution.
  • Named the moons of Jupiter after the Medici
    family.

15
Y.T.T.W.
  • Do you feel Galileo should have taken his words
    back or not?
  • How would you have acted in his situation? Is
    your life more important than your beliefs?

16
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17
If I have seen further, it is by standing on the
shoulders of giants.
  • Isaac Newton was inspired by the work of
    Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler and Galileo.
  • The printing press allowed Newton access to the
    ideas of these thinkers and the classics.
  • Newton used their many philosophies to create a
    major work on physics.

18
Sir Isaac Newton
  • English scientist, very advanced in math and
    physics.
  • Believed the universe operated on a set of
    mathematical principals (facts) that could also
    prove the existence of God.
  • Believed God was rational, therefore humans were
    also rational (able to make sense of the world).

19
Gravity
  • Law of Gravitation- Every object in the universe
    is attracted to every other object by a force
    called gravity.
  • Gravity- Could explain all motion in the
    universe.
  • God created the universe but other factors
    controlled it.gravity

20
The Religious Reaction
  • New scientific ideas were a challenge to the
    authority of the church.
  • They used the Bible to prove their points and
    ideas.
  • Many scientists were considered heretics, and
    many became atheists because of this.
  • Galileo, for example, was put on house arrest for
    his ideas.

21
Banning the Books
  • In 1616, the Catholic Church created a list or
    Index of banned books that contradicted the
    ideas of the church.
  • Those written by Newton, Copernicus, and Galileo
    were included in the list.

22
Botany and Biology
  • Many other sciences experienced scientific
    revolutions.
  • Before the S.R, Galen, an ancient Greek
    physician, was the believed authority on human
    anatomy.
  • Dissection and experimentation by people like
    Leonardo Da Vinci (to create more lifelike work)
    and Andrea Vesalius proved much of his work
    wrong.
  • Vesalius book, On the Fabric of Human Anatomy
    became the main book on the human body.

23
Royal Support
  • Many kings and queens became patrons of the
    scientific revolution. Why?
  • 1. To lower the authority of the church, which
    monarchs struggled against.
  • 2. To aid in things like exploration and
    navigation to find new lands.
  • Queen Elizabeth of England established a school
    at Oxford for the study of math and navigation.

24
Scientific Philosophers
  • The scientific revolution didnt just change
    knowledge, it changed how people gained their
    knowledge.
  • Rather than just accept ideas and create
    theories, the S.R. was about testing,
    experimenting and proving ideas.

25
Rene Descarte
  • Considered to be the first modern philosopher.
  • Thinking and writing about doubt and uncertainty
  • Accepted only those things his reason said were
    true.

26
Sense over Senses
  • Descarte believed that human senses used in
    observation can be tricked or deceived.
  • Believed that God was good and NOT trying to
    trick us so therefore the world could be
    understood through logic.
  • Rationalism-system of thought is based on the
    belief that reason is the chief source of
    knowledge.

27
I think (doubt) therefore I am
  • Cogito ergo sum
  • This is how Descarte used reasoning/logic to
    explain his existence and that of God.
  • For example if he doubts that there is a god, he
    is acknowledging that god does exist if he can
    actually doubt him! ?

28
Sir Francis Bacon
  • Different from Descarte
  • Believed that to gain knowledge you need
    empirical evidence (proof).
  • Believed human reasoning without proof could be
    flawed because many different things could affect
    or taint human knowledge.
  • A good scientist would study, record data,
    analyze it and make observations. Inductive
    Reasoning This became the scientific method.

29
The Scientific Method
  • Observation
  • Create a hypothesis or theory
  • Make a prediction about a test
  • Experiment to prove your theory.
  • Science became the new worldview during the S.R.

30
Effects of the Scientific Revolution
  • Knowledge was no longer based on the past, but
    was moving forward.
  • Systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing
    evidence.
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