Current Developments in Domestic Climate Mitigation Measures - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Current Developments in Domestic Climate Mitigation Measures PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 5658cd-MWYzM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Current Developments in Domestic Climate Mitigation Measures

Description:

Current Developments in Domestic Climate Mitigation Measures Carbon footprinting and energy efficiency labelling schemes and relevant WTO rules and activities – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:41
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 33
Provided by: McK674
Learn more at: http://ictsd.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Current Developments in Domestic Climate Mitigation Measures


1
Current Developments in Domestic Climate
Mitigation Measures
  • Carbon footprinting and energy efficiency
    labelling schemes and relevant WTO rules
    and activities

Ludivine Tamiotti, Counsellor Trade and
Environment Division, WTO ludivine.tamiotti_at_wto.o
rg
2
Outline of presentation
Relevant Activities of the WTO
Relevant WTO rules
Carbon footprinting and energy efficiency
discussions in the WTO
3
Relevant Activities of the WTO
4
(No Transcript)
5
WTO/UNEP Report on Trade and Climate Change
Key objectives
Key policy instruments
Carbon tax, emissions trading schemes
Internalize environmental costs
Economic incentives
Financial mechanisms RD, fiscal, price and
investment measures
Promote development deployment of
climate-friendly technologies
Emissions and energy performance standards and
labelling
Improve energy efficiency and reduce GHG emissions
Regulatory instrument
6
WTO/UNEP Report on Trade and Climate Change
Key objectives
Key policy instruments
Key WTO Agreement
Internalize environmental costs
Carbon tax, emissions trading schemes
GATT
Promote development deployment of
climate-friendly technologies
Financial Mechanisms RD, fiscal, price and
investment measures
SCM Agreement
Improve energy efficiency and reduce GHG emissions
Emissions standards, labelling on energy
performance
TBT Agreement
7
WTO Specialized Committees
A negotiating forum
The core functions of the WTO may have a place in
the trade and climate change debate
Specialized committees
The administration of a set of rules
8
WTO Specialized Committees
Committee on Trade and Environment (CTE)
2 WTO Committees are directly relevant to issues
related to Carbon footprinting and energy
efficiency
Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT
Committee)
9
WTO Specialized Committees
General discussions of the environmental benefits
of removing restrictions in the energy sector,
the forestry sector, the effect of energy
efficiency labelling on market access
Committee on Trade and Environment (CTE)
Specialized discussions on Carbon Footprinting in
2010 exchange of national experiences,
briefings by international institutions
10
WTO Specialized Committees
In recent years the TBT Committee discussed a
number of product standards and labelling
requirements targeted to energy efficiency or
emission control
Committee Technical Barriers to Trade (CTBT)
Fuel economy standards for cars
Eco-design requirements for energy-using products
Examples of regulations discussed so far include
Energy efficiency programmes for consumer products
Emission limit values for diesel engines
11
Relevant WTO Rules
12
Philosophy of the TBT Agreement
Right to Take Regulatory Measures
Avoid Unnecessary Obstacles to Trade
13
Key principles
Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade / GATT
Non discrimination
Key principles include
Avoidance of unnecessary trade barrier
Harmonization
14
Non-Discrimination
Treatment no Less Favourable to Like Products
Originating
15
Philosophy of the TBT Agreement
Stated Preference for
International Standards
International Conformity Assessment Procedures
16
Avoid unnecessary obstacles to trade
Article 2.2
Legitimate objectives
Article 5.1.2
17
Carbon footprinting and energy efficiency
discussions in the WTO
18
Global Proliferation of PCF Key Examples of
National Schemes
  • All follow ISO lifecycle analysis principles and
    harmonizing with ISO 14067, but with specified
    methodologies (and labels)
  • UK PAS 2050
  • Carbon Trust, Carbon Reduction Label
  • Becoming a world standard
  • used by companies in United States, China, Korea,
    Australia, etc
  • Japan TS Q0010
  • Reliance on PCR
  • July 2010 revision following road testing
  • Pilot project 2009-2011
  • France BP X30-323
  • Multi-criteria, Mandatory?
  • Road testing starting 1 July 2011
  • Multiple labelling formats will be tested by
    firms in 2011 trials

19
Other Emerging Government Schemes
  • Korea Korea Carbon Footprint Label
  • New Zealand National GHG Strategy for
    agricultural exports
  • Chile wine, agricultural goods
  • Thailand Carbon Reduction Label and Carbon
    Footprint Label
  • Chinese Taipei Carbon Label
  • Singapore Singapore Carbon Label
  • China carbon footprint label on sea scallops 24
    October 2010

20
Concerns expressed in the CTE
Lack of transparency
Cost of conformity assessment
Lack of harmonization
Harmonization is underway on methodology (for
government schemes), but labels and communication
of claims of vary greatly
21
Concerns expressed in the CTE
Market access impacts of the proliferation of
private standards
Non-neutrality of CFP methodologies
Confusion of consumers created by multiple
labelling schemes
22
Key Characteristics of Emissions/ energy
efficiency standards
Emissions/ energy efficiency standards and
regulations can be
Based on design
Based on performance
Prevalent to improve energy efficiency in
appliances and buildings ? more flexibility
Best used when few options for controlling
emissions
Japans Top Runner Program (the energy
performance of the most efficient model (e.g.
household appliances) on the market is used to
set a target for all manufacturers.
23
Key Characteristics of Emissions/ energy
efficiency standards
Emissions/ energy efficiency standards and
regulations can be
Based on design
Based on performance
Defining products
Defining processes
May result in direct environmental outcomes, as
they improve energy efficiency or limit emissions
to a certain level during production
Mainly address energy efficiency emissions
related to the use of the product
24
Key Characteristics of Emissions/ energy
efficiency standards
Emissions/ energy efficiency standards and
regulations can be
Based on design
Based on performance
Defining products
Defining processes
Mandatory
Voluntary
ENERGY STAR (United States)
Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) for
appliances (Australia)
25
Key Characteristics of Emissions/ energy
efficiency standards
Emissions/ energy efficiency standards and
regulations can be
Based on design
Based on performance
Defining products
Defining processes
Mandatory
Voluntary
Public
Private
Minimum energy-efficiency performance standards
for major domestic appliances (Canada)
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
(LEED) in the building sector (United States)
26
Key compliance tools Labelling
Most OECD countries (energy-efficiency labelling)
Scope
Many non OECD countries, e.g. South Africa,
Argentina, Sri Lanka and Tunisia
Also examples of voluntary energy labelling
programmes for household appliances (E.g.
Thailand, Hong Kong, China, India, Brazil)
27
Key compliance tools Labelling
Most OECD countries (energy-efficiency labelling)
Scope
Many non OECD countries, e.g. South Africa,
Argentina, Sri Lanka and Tunisia
Products energy performance/emissions levels
while in operation
Information covered
e.g. EU, Australia, Canada and US require
energy-efficiency labels for several household
appliances
Products entire life-cycle, including its energy
efficiency
e.g. Nordic Swan, German Blue Angel and the EUs
eco-label Flower
? The issue of food miles
28
Key compliance tools Labelling
Comparative labels ? compare performance among
similar models
Type of instrument
e.g. for household appliances in Australia, EU,
Canada, US, Brazil, Tunisia, China, Thailand and
Korea
Endorsement labels ? Seals of approval assuring
consumers that a product meets certain criteria
e.g. Energy Star label (US), Brazil, Thailand and
China (Certificate for Energy Conservation
Product)
29
Key compliance tools Conformity assessment
to determine whether the requirements in
standards regulations are fulfilled
give consumers confidence in the integrity of
products
Objectives
add value to manufacturers marketing claims
30
Key compliance tools Conformity assessment
Testing
Ex post efficiency testing on labelled appliances
(Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand)
Inspection
In the building sector, the Leadership in Energy
and Environmental Design (LEED) (US)
Type of instrument
Certification
Mark that energy performance of regulated
energy-using products has been verified (Canada)
Accreditation
Metrology
31
Environmental effectiveness
Increase in energy efficiency of products, e.g.
electrical equipment
In California, the energy use of refrigerators in
2000 was more than two-thirds lower than in 1974
(energy-efficiency standards are in place and
regularly updated since the late 1970s)
Measurement tools
Behavioural changes of consumers and manufacturers
In the United States, recognition of the Energy
Guide label was found to be quite good however
understanding was limited, with respondents
unable to determine which appliance was more
energy-efficient, based on the labels
32
Current Developments in Domestic Climate
Mitigation Measures
  • Carbon footprinting and energy efficiency
    labelling schemes and relevant WTO rules
    and activities

Ludivine Tamiotti, Counsellor Trade and
Environment Division, WTO ludivine.tamiotti_at_wto.o
rg
About PowerShow.com