Chapter 8 Cell Growth - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 8 Cell Growth

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Overview of DNA Replication: ... Chapter 8 Cell Growth Author: Brandon Spencer Last modified by: Box Elder School District Created Date: 12/15/2000 6:51:12 AM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 8 Cell Growth


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Hershey-Chase Experiment
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  • Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin used X-ray
    crystallography to study the structure of DNA
  • James Watson and Francis Crick used
    this information to deduce the
    double helical structure of DNA

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Nucleotide
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Chargaffs Rule
  • of As of Ts
  • of Cs of Gs
  • If its determined that a sample of DNA consists
    of 23 Adenine, how much of the sample is Guanine?

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  • DNA strands are antiparallel

Numbering of strands is based on position of
deoxyribose sugars
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  • DNA is wrapped tightly around proteins folded
  • DNA must unwind for replication to occur

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  • DNA Replication
  • occurs during the S phase of Interphase
  • is semi-conservative (Meselson Stahl)
  • Used 14N and 15N different densities

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  • Overview of DNA Replication

? Unreplicated DNA. ? Strands unzip at several
points creating replication forks. ? Each strand
serves as template for complementary nucleotides
to H-bond. ? New nucleotides of each daughter
strand are linked.
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  • Steps in DNA Replication

?Helicase breaks hydrogen bonds. ?Binding
proteins stabilize strands prevent them from
rejoining. ?Primase makes an RNA primer.
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?Free nucleotides move in H-bond DNA
polymerase links nucleotides to each other
starting at primer working in the 5 to 3
direction ?DNA polymerase proofreads new strand
(replaces incorrect bases) leaves errors
1/1,000,000,000 base pairings
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?DNA replication is continuous on one strand
(leading strand) ?DNA replication is
discontinuous on other strand (lagging strand),
producing Okazaki fragments
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Ligase
?Repair enzymes remove RNA primers Ligase
connects Okazaki fragments.
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  • Origin of replication
  • Replication forks
  • Replication bubbles

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  • Okazaki fragments
  • Leading vs. Lagging strands

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  • The rate of elongation is about 500 nucleotides
    per second in bacteria and 50 per second in human
    cells
  • 1/10,000 base pairings is an error only
    1/1,000,000,000 errors left after proofreading

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