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The Essentials of Manuscript Preparation

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... e.g. dog (or canine) Organ: e.g. skin Disease: e.g. atopy, pemphigus Category: e.g. pathogenesis, treatment, ... disease Importance, prevalence, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Essentials of Manuscript Preparation


1
The Essentials of Manuscript Preparation
Thierry Olivry, DrVet, PhD, DipECVD, DipACVD
2
Scientific Article Writing Some Questions to be
Addressed
  • Where should I publish my article?
  • Who should be an author, in what order?
  • How to make my abstract effective?
  • How long should my introduction be?
  • How detailed should the methods be?
  • Presenting results tables, figures or text?
  • How should I structure my discussion?
  • How can I deal with so many references?

3
Scientific Article Writing Where Should I
Publish?
  • What is the impact factor?
  • IF average number of times articles from the
    journal published in the past two years have been
    cited in the journal citation report year
  • IF 1.0 means that, on average, the articles
    published one or two years ago have been cited
    one time
  • What is most important? impact factor or most
    relevant readership?

4
Scientific Article Writing Impact Factor / Ranks
NE J Med 53.486 3 Nature 36.104 9 Vet
Microbiol 3.256 1,211 Vet Immunol 2.176 2,319
5
Scientific Article Writing Where Should I
Publish?
  • Maximizing publication effectiveness
  • Citation databases Medline (Pubmed), Web of
    Science, CAB abstracts
  • Favor journals with rapid publication
  • Journals with e-pubs ahead of print
  • Open access journals
  • PLoS One 2010 IF 4.411 after 5 years
  • BMC Vet Res 2010 IF 2.371 after 5 yrs

6
Scientific Article Writing Authorship
  • Who should be an author?
  • Uniform requirements for publication in
    biomedical journals (www.icmje.org)
  • Authorship qualifications 1 2 3
  • substantial contributions to conception and
    design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and
    interpretation of data
  • drafting the article or revising it critically
    for important intellectual content
  • final approval of the version to be published

7
Scientific Article Writing Authorship
  • Important considerations (ICMJE)
  • Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or
    general supervision of the research group, alone,
    does not justify authorship
  • All persons designated as authors should qualify
    for authorship, and all those who qualify should
    be listed
  • Each author should have participated sufficiently
    in the work to take public responsibility for
    appropriate portions of the content

8
Scientific Article Writing Title and Key-Words
  • Title
  • Must be informative about the study
  • Consider using hot words that may be searched
    often
  • Key-words
  • Consider homonym variation between title and
    key-words to enhance retrieval chances
  • Examples
  • Discipline e.g. immunology, allergy
  • Species e.g. dog (or canine)
  • Organ e.g. skin
  • Disease e.g. atopy, pemphigus
  • Category e.g. pathogenesis, treatment, clinical
    signs

9
Scientific Article Writing Abstract
  • Important points
  • Balanced, precise, relevant, accessible
  • Follow journal guidelines!
  • Structured versus narrative
  • Example of abstract structure
  • Background statement 1-2 sentences
  • Objectives 1 sentence
  • Method summary short and to the point!
  • Results major points
  • Conclusions implication for research, practice

10
Scientific Article Writing Unbalanced Abstract
11
Scientific Article Writing Balanced Abstract
12
Scientific Article Writing Introduction
  • Important points
  • Short, relevant, informative, enticing
  • Hourglass concept
  • Sinusoid, not reverse sigmoid!
  • Start with an outline!

13
Scientific Article Writing Introduction
  • Example of introduction structure
  • Definition of the problem, disease
  • Importance, prevalence, relevance
  • Areas of controversies
  • Missing information
  • Study objectives
  • Short teaser?

14
Scientific Article Writing Material Methods
  • Important points
  • Short, clear, informative, structured
  • How much detail? Enough to permit the
    reproduction of experiments
  • Online supplements
  • Example of Material Methods structure
  • Study subjects, tissues, cells
  • (Main reagents)
  • Techniques 1, 2, 3.
  • Statistical analyses

15
Scientific Article Writing Results
  • Important points
  • Short, clear, informative, structured
  • Text, figures or tables?
  • Avoid duplication of information between text
    tables and figures
  • Avoid discrepancies between text, tables and
    figures
  • Dont discuss the findings yet!
  • Example of results structure
  • Same headings as in material methods

16
Scientific Article Writing Tables
  • Main objectives
  • Should complement the text
  • Should be short and not too wide
  • Not too much information (i.e. not too tight)
  • Not too many abbreviations
  • Clear, easily read
  • Should stand alone for comprehension
  • Dont forget title, caption or abbreviation
    explanation (separate section)

17
Tables Which One is Better?
18
Tables Which One is Better?
19
Scientific Article Writing Figures
  • Main objectives
  • Should complement the text
  • Clear, easily read and understood
  • Should stand alone for comprehension
  • Be artistic! play with composite figures
  • Judicious use of color, grayscale
  • Beware of ethical enhancements
  • Minimum resolution 300 dpi (6-8 wide)
  • Dont forget title, caption or abbreviation
    explanation (separate section)!

20
Scientific Article Writing Figures
21
Scientific Article Writing Discussion
  • Important points
  • Short, focused, relevant, structured
  • Dont stray away from your main objectives!
  • Sterile versus emphatic style
  • Use the richness of the English language!
  • Hourglass concept
  • Sinusoid, not reverse sigmoid!
  • Make an outline!

22
Scientific Article Writing Discussion
  • Example of discussion structure
  • Introductory statement main results (?)
  • Paragraphs corresponding to sections similar to
    those of material methods and results
  • Implication for research
  • Implication for practice
  • Concluding statement

23
Scientific Article Writing References
  • Important points
  • Follow journal guidelines for reference format!!!
  • Verify that all in text citations have matching
    references!
  • Attempt to use primary citations except for
    common knowledge (e.g. reviewed in 17)
  • Use reference management software RefWorks,
    Endnote, Reference Manager
  • Other alternative Words endnote function

24
Scientific Article Writing Other Important Items
  • Acknowledgements
  • For reagent gifts
  • For technical help
  • For funding source
  • For advice on content or manuscript
  • Conflict of interest
  • May be required
  • List any consulting/lecture honoraria or research
    funding that could have any direct or indirect
    link with the current study

25
Scientific Article Writing Conclusions
  • A published article should be the final outcome
    of all (most) research projects
  • Excellent time to gather all results and digest
    them for others
  • Peer-review assessment of your work
  • Availability for present and future generations
  • Important outcome measure for obtaining a faculty
    position and for promotion
  • Excellent exercise in penmanship, logic,
    organization and artistry be creative!
  • Follow journal guidelines!!!
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