USDA Genetic Evaluation Program for Dairy Goats - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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USDA Genetic Evaluation Program for Dairy Goats

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USDA Genetic Evaluation Program for Dairy Goats Why Genetic Evaluations? A valuable tool for genetic selection Allows for comparison of animals in different ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: USDA Genetic Evaluation Program for Dairy Goats


1
USDA Genetic Evaluation Program for Dairy Goats
2
Why Genetic Evaluations?
  • A valuable tool for genetic selection
  • Allows for comparison of animals in different
    environments
  • Can include all of the information available for
    each animal
  • Greatest impact on progress is from selection for
    males

3
Why Genetic Selection?
  • Genetic selection can improve fitness, utility,
    and profitability
  • Females must be bred to provide replacements and
    initiate milk production
  • Mate selection is an opportunity to make genetic
    change

4
Selection is a Continuous Process
  • Decisions
  • Which females to breed
  • Which males to use
  • Which specific matings to make
  • Which progeny to raise
  • Which females to keep and breed
  • Goals
  • Improve production and efficiency
  • Avoiding inbreeding
  • Correct faults

5
Genetic Improvement Program
  • Phenotype Genotype Environment
  • Genetic improvement programs only change genotype
  • Rate of genetic improvement determined by
  • Generation interval
  • Selection intensity
  • Heritability
  • Heritability is the portion of total variation
    due to genetics

6
Steps in Genetic Evaluation
  • Define a breeding goal
  • Measure traits related to the goal
  • Record pedigree to allow detection of
    relationships across generations
  • Identify non-genetic factors that affect records
    and could bias evaluations
  • Make adjustments
  • Include in the model
  • Define an evaluation model

7
Examples of Breeding Goals
  • Increased milk, fat, or protein yield
  • Increased longevity
  • Optimal number of kids born
  • Improved conformation score (overall and linear)
  • Increased profitability

8
Examples of Non-genetic Factors
  • Age
  • Lactation
  • Season
  • Litter size
  • Milking frequency
  • Herd

9
Data Flow
Milk Data collected monthly
COMPONENT TEST LAB
FARM
DHIA
Center Data Sent to AIPL
DRMS
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