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Dealing with Casualties

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Dealing with Casualties Casualty Care Aim To make students aware of the various types of victims at incidents and the appropriate casualty care. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dealing with Casualties


1
Dealing with Casualties
  • Casualty Care

2
Aim
  • To make students aware of the various types of
    victims at incidents and the appropriate casualty
    care.

3
Learning Outcomes At the end of the session
students will be able to
  • State the various categories of victim
  • State the appropriate care for victims
  • List the risks and hazards associated with
    casualty care.

4
Casualty care
  • In the course of their duties firefighters may
    have to deal with the victims of an incident
  • It is therefore important that you are able to
    recognise the signs and symptoms associated with
    victim distress and deal with the situation
    without the distressed person(s) affecting the
    management of the incident.

5
Involvement of victims
  • Victims occur as a result of being directly or
    indirectly involved
  • Directly involved victims could be the occupiers
    of a house fire or passengers involved in a road
    traffic accident
  • Firefighters could also be direct victims if
    affected by the disturbing aspects of an incident.

6
Involvement of victims
Indirectly involved victims could be witnesses or
bystanders, or a friend or relative who arrives
after being told of the incident.
7
Categories of victims
  • Distressed persons
  • Deceased persons

There are two categories of victim
At the majority of incidents there are likely to
be both direct and indirect victims At incidents
where there are fatalities there are usually
other distressed persons.
8
Distressed persons
Distress in people is usually caused by shock and
anxiety brought about through many different
reasons at an incident
  • Vulnerability
  • Guilt
  • Blame
  • Bereavement
  • Injury
  • Financial loss
  • Sentimental loss.

9
Personal reactions
Different people react to stressful situations in
various ways
10
Personal reactions
Physical symptoms
  • Severe headache or dizziness
  • Blurred vision
  • Trouble in swallowing
  • Asthma
  • Excessive sweating
  • Skin rashes.

11
Personal reactions
Psychological or behavioural symptoms
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Outburst of temper or irritability
  • Inability to relax
  • Feelings of guilt
  • Uncontrollable outburst of emotion.

12
Managing distressed people
  • One of the fire officers main objectives is
    to reduce stress to the persons affected
  • Be sympathetic but constructive
  • Avoid inappropriate language
  • Maintain the dignity and modesty of victims
  • Take the victims to a more friendly environment
    away from the incident scene.

13
Sources of help
It is unlikely that firefighters will be able to
remain with the victim(s) and the help of others
will be needed
14
Sources of help
Short term
  • Relatives and friends
  • Neighbours
  • Police officers
  • Ambulance personnel
  • Local general practitioner.

15
Sources of help
Longer term
  • Department of Social Security
  • Council Housing
  • Red Cross Fire Victim Support
  • Citizens Advice Bureau.

16
Special needs
Firefighters will from time to time come across
distressed people who cannot easily communicate
their feelings or condition, e.g.
  • Hearing, speech or visual impairment
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Irrational behaviour

Such people may react unpredictably and
sometimes violently, where there is any doubt
about an individuals personal safety the police
should be requested.
17
Deceased persons
Firefighters may discover the bodies of victims,
burnt and often part buried in debris, that are
difficult to recognise
  • Action to be taken
  • If there is any possibility that the victim is
    still alive
  • Request an ambulance, if not in attendance
  • Provide first aid until ambulance arrives.

18
Deceased persons
If the victim is obviously dead the Police must
be informed
  • Action to be taken
  • Leave the body and surrounding debris undisturbed

unless
  • It is hindering firefighting operations
  • Or may be destroyed or further damaged by fire.

19
Deceased persons
Important
If the body has to be removed details of where
and how the victim was lying must be
recorded Information about the circumstances in
which the body was discovered will be required
for a coroners inquest Any damage caused to the
body while moving must be recorded immediately
and the police informed
20
Deceased persons
Responsibility for removing victims
  • Prior to certification of death
  • After certification of death
  • Ambulance Service
  • Police.

21
Deceased persons
  • Bodies must be moved with dignity and respect
  • Minimise further distress to family and friends
  • Use an appropriate method, e.g. body bag
  • Consider sheeting off the area
  • Clear the area of bystanders.

22
Animals
Firefighters may also have to deal with dead or
traumatised animals and must bear in mind the
fondness most owners have for their pets.
23
Animals
  • Further distress to the owner or injured animal
    should be minimised by careful handling
  • Bodies should be removed and placed in a garden,
    yard or other convenient place
  • Cover with a sheet before handing over care to
    the owner, occupant or a neighbour
  • If an animal is injured, agreement of the owner
    should be obtained wherever possible before
    requesting a vet to attend.

24
Confirmation Assessments will be
based on this lesson and the corresponding study
note
  • Learning Outcomes
  • State the various categories of victim
  • State the appropriate care for victims
  • List the risks and hazards associated with
    casualty care.

25
THE END
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