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Authorship, plagiarism, preventing and resolving conflicts: Ethical issues in the research arena

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Authorship, plagiarism, preventing and resolving conflicts: Ethical issues in the research arena Jay Heinecke 9-28-2006 Resolving Conflict Identify Issues before they ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Authorship, plagiarism, preventing and resolving conflicts: Ethical issues in the research arena


1
Authorship, plagiarism, preventing and resolving
conflicts Ethical issues in the research arena
  • Jay Heinecke
  • 9-28-2006

2
Resolving Conflict
  • Identify Issues before they arise
  • Clear understanding of arrangements
  • Collaborative studies and establishing an
    independent research program
  • An ounce of prevention...

3
Plagiarism?
4
  • Rosalind Franklin's 1952 X-ray crystallography
    picture of B-DNA.
  • Watson was shown this picture by Wilkins in early
    1953.
  • From the picture it was possible to calculate
       
  • 1) the distance between bases (3.4A)
  • 2) the length of the period (34A)
  • 3) the rise of the helix (36 degrees)

5
  • The Double Helix A Personal Account of the
    Discovery of the Structure of DNA James D.
    Watson

6
Why are issues related to authorship, plagiarism
and preventing and resolving conflicts critical
to the scientific enterprise?
  • Myths
  • Science is driven by the quest for knowledge
  • self-less
  • cooperative
  • truth
  • Realities
  • Science is driven by scientists
  • ego
  • credit
  • cultural relativism

7
  • Papers Currency of Science
  • Grants
  • Promotions
  • Peer recognition
  • Major Credit First and Last Author
  • First Person who did the work
  • Last Person who paid for the work
  • Biological Science is Becoming Big Science

8
Scenario Ethics of Resource Sharing
  • Transgenic mouse project
  • Graduate student
  • 2 years of work
  • Interesting phenotype
  • Major competitor requests mouse
  • How long do you wait?
  • Until publication of initial paper?
  • 2 years?

9
Scenario Authorship Issues
  • Transgenic mouse project
  • graduate student project
  • initial description of model published
  • PI shares mouse with other investigators
  • PI listed as author on paper
  • graduate student is not acknowledged

10
Scenario Authorship Issues
  • Project
  • Complex translational study
  • Requires major effort
  • Clinician
  • Basic Scientist
  • Exciting results with major findings
  • Authorship?

11
Scenario Authorship Issues
  • Project
  • Post-doc 1 begins project
  • Makes initial key observations
  • Follow-up
  • Post-doc 1 leaves to become faculty
  • Post-doc 2 spends two years finishing paper
  • Authorship?

12
Scenario Authorship Issues
  • Paper
  • Post-doc 1 makes significant contribution
  • Data included in original submission of paper
  • Review
  • Reviewer hates data of Post-doc 1
  • Results removed from revised paper
  • Authorship?

13
Resolving Conflict
  • Identify Issues
  • Design Options
  • Cooperative Response
  • Manage Emotions
  • Willingness to Resolve
  • Negotiate
  • Mediation
  • Broaden Perspectives

THE CONFLICT RESOLUTION NETWORK crnhq.org/
14
Fraud?
  • Two different figures
  • Lab meeting note wide range of data points
  • Results convincing
  • Paper less convincing points removed from
    figure
  • Conclusion not changed
  • What do you do?

15
Fraud?
  • the Representative Micrograph
  • in other words the best result you got

16
Fraud?
  • Issues
  • Cultural relativism
  • Be prepared to defend your stand in public
  • When in doubt, consult a colleague
  • Approaches
  • Cut and run
  • Defend the truth
  • Consequences
  • Destruction of scientific careers
  • Maintain your perspective
  • Science is self correcting

17
Data Manipulation
  • Immunoblot analysis
  • Photoshop manipulation
  • Enhance bands
  • Edit out smears
  • Combine lanes from different regions of gel
  • Combine lanes from different gels
  • Fraud or part of scientific process?

18
Rockefeller University Journals
  • Routinely check images for manipulation
  • All images must be
  • Originals
  • Non-manipulated
  • Dates of image acquisition must match date of
    experiment

Ushma SN. Stop misbehaving! J. Clin. Invest.,
Jul 2006 116 1740 - 1741.
19
Who Owns the Idea?
Laboratory Long history of interest in DNA
repair Post-doc Discovers a new repair
enzyme Publishes seminal article Post-doc
becomes a junior faculty member at another
institution Who owns the project?
20
Conflict of Interest?
Drug company talks Financial interest in
product diagnostic test therapeutic
intervention Want to crush the senior author of
the paper
21
Resolving Conflict
  • Identify Issues before they arise
  • Clear understanding of arrangements
  • Collaborative studies and establishing an
    independent research program
  • An ounce of prevention...
  • Maintain your perspective
  • Science is a marathon, not a sprint
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