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Aging Electrical Systems

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Aging Electrical Systems Research Program Prepared for: EAPAS Aging Aircraft Workshop November 6, 2002 Robert A. Pappas Federal Aviation Administration – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Aging Electrical Systems


1
  • Aging Electrical Systems
  • Research Program

Prepared for EAPAS Aging Aircraft
Workshop November 6, 2002
Robert A. Pappas ? Federal Aviation
Administration Manager, Aging Electrical Systems
Research Program ? AAR-480
2
  • Arc Fault Circuit Breaker

3
Outline
  • Background
  • AFCB RD
  • Flight Test Program
  • AFCB Specification
  • Pros/Cons of AFCB Installation
  • AFCB Implementation Considerations Operational
    Issues
  • Future arc fault RD
  • Wrap-up / QA

4
  • Arc Fault Circuit Breaker Background

5
AFCB Purpose
  • Mitigate the effects of electrical arcing on
    aircraft wiring.

6
BackgroundCurrent Inspection Technology
  • Current inspection and surveillance methods for
    aircraft wiring are limited in effectiveness and
    periodic in frequency.
  • Arc fault circuit breakers provide continuous
    monitoring protection.

7
BackgroundArc Faults
  • Present aircraft circuit breakers are designed to
    protect against over loads and short circuits.
  • Arcing faults draw less current than hard faults
    and are intermittent in duration.
  • Arcing faults can cause systems failures and
    fires.

8
BackgroundTypical Arcing Fault
Arc Voltage and Current Waveform of Arcing Fault
at 10,000 Feet
9
BackgroundWire Degradation
  • Wiring insulation degradation increases with time
    do to a variety of factors such as
  • Chaffing
  • Environmental stresses
  • Maintenance.
  • Degradation varies due to design, maintenance,
    and operational differences

10
BackgroundCommercial AFCI
  • 60 Hz AFCBs are commercially available.
  • Aircraft AFCBs must
  • Be at least 50 smaller in size.
  • Operate in an aircraft environment.
  • Work in an aircraft electrical system.

Photos courtesy Eaton Corp. and Texas Instruments
11
BackgroundCommercial AFCB
Photo courtesy Eaton Corp.
12
  • AFCB
  • Research and Development

13
AFCB Progress
  • Two RD contracts awarded in December 1999
  • Eaton Aerospace Controls
  • Hendry Telephone Products
  • September 2002
  • Both contracts complete
  • 20 prototype AFCBs delivered and flight tested
  • 115V, 400 Hz
  • Smaller than the MS-24571 objective

14
AFCB Progress
15
AFCB Progress
  • Load and Power Characterization
  • Extensive load characterization
  • FAA B727 (N40)
  • Navy C-9
  • Boeing Power Lab
  • Extensive power characterization
  • FAA B727 (N40)
  • Boeing Power Lab
  • Navy C-9
  • Nuisance trip testing
  • FAA B727 (N40)
  • Boeing Power Lab

16
AFCB Progress
Typical Flight Recorder Start-up (Current)
17
  • AFCB RD Flight Test

18
RD Flight TestObjectives
  • Fly AFCBs on a variety of aircraft and
    electrical loads
  • Evaluate nuisance tripping
  • Demonstrate AFCB technology readiness for
    introduction into civilian and military transport
    aircraft.

19
AFCB Installation on Navy C-9 Aircraft (VR-56)
First Navy Flight of Eaton AFCB on August 24, 2001
20
AFCB Installation on FAA B727 (N40)
Eaton AFCBs
Data Recording
21
RD Flight TestFAA
  • B727 Flight Test Loads

NAME RATING
Oscillating Navigation Light 5A
DME-2 3A
Window Lights 10A
Landing Lights Left Inboard 7A
Passenger Cabin Ceiling Lights - Left Side 15A
PROJECT POWER (60 hz converter) 15A
AUX. PITOT HEAT 5A
WINDOW HEAT, R4,5 5A
22
AFCB Results
  • Eaton Flight Test
  • 30.9 Flight Hours
  • 228.2 Total Operational Hours
  • Hendry Flight Test
  • 99.2 Flight Hours
  • 793.6 Total Operational Hours
  • Note Does not include Navy C-9 flight test data
    or FAA ground time

23
AFCB Results
  • Flight Test Accomplishments
  • Several nuisance trip modes identified,
    corrected, and validated.
  • Several AFCB power supply problems identified,
    corrected, and validated.
  • Several AFCB hardware problems identified,
    corrected, and validated.
  • AFCB Technology ready for prime time.

24
AFCB Program Status
  • FAA has accepted and is currently processing two
    STC applications for AFCB installation
  • Limited installation
  • Non-critical circuits
  • Develop operational experience

25
  • AFCB Specification Development

26
AE-8B1 AFCB Performance Specification
  • Draft is nearly complete
  • Applicable to 115V/Single Phase devices only
  • Broad concurrence of the AE-8B1 committee members
  • AE-8B General Committee Ballot
  • SAE Council Level Ballot
  • Get the word out and support a YES vote on the
    specification ballot

27
AE-8B1 AFCB Performance Specification
  • All current requirements for thermal circuit
    breaker performance retained.
  • Arc Fault Specific Requirements
  • Extensive
  • Rigorous
  • Represent and address REAL conditions

28
AE-8B1 AFCB Performance Specification
  • Guillotine Test

29
AE-8B1 AFCB Performance Specification
  • Guillotine Test

30
AE-8B1 AFCB Performance Specification
  • Wet Arc Test
  • Hot Re-Close Wet Arc Test
  • Cold Start-Up Time Test

31
AE-8B1 AFCB Performance Specification
  • Loose Terminal Test

32
AE-8B1 AFCB Performance Specification
  • Operation Inhibition (Masking) Test

33
AE-8B1 AFCB Performance Specification
  • Nuisance Trip Immunity (Arc Fault Discrimination)

34
AE-8B1 AFCB Performance Specification
  • Cross-Talk Immunity

35
AE-8B1 AFCB Performance Specification
  • Feedback Immunity Test

36
AE-8B1 AFCB Performance Specification
  • Other Arc Fault Performance Tests
  • Arc Fault Cycling (Endurance)
  • Temperature (DO-160)
  • Altitude (DO-160)
  • EMC (DO-160)
  • Susceptability Radiated and Conducted
  • Emissions Radiated
  • Lightning Induced Transients
  • Electrostatic Discharge

37
AE-8B1 AFCB Performance Specification
  • Other Arc Fault Performance Tests (Contd)
  • Power Quality (DO-160)
  • AFCB Reverse Installation no adverse safety
    effects

38
  • AFCB Implementation Considerations and
    Operational Issues

39
AFCB Implementation
  • Prevents catastrophic damage to wiring system
  • Reduce arc energy for starting fires
  • Identifies circuits on which arc faults are
    occurring
  • Actively monitors circuits

40
AFCB Implementation
  • Determining Overload vs. Arc Fault vs. Nuisance
    Trip
  • Assurance of AFCB Functionality
  • Additional wire maintenance due to potential
    increases in trip rates from interconnect system
    degradation
  • Post trip troubleshooting, determining location
    of arc fault

41
AFCB Implementation
  • Fire and Smoke Incident Data
  • Maintenance Data
  • Reliability Data
  • Risk Analysis
  • Wiring Zones
  • SWAMP
  • Environmental Conditions
  • High Maintenance Areas
  • Avionics bay
  • Passenger Cabins
  • Cargo compartments

42
AFCB Implementation
  • Connected Equipment
  • Non-Flight Critical Equipment
  • Passenger/cargo
  • Flight Critical With Redundancy
  • Emergency Flight Loads
  • Risk Analysis
  • Functional/Physical
  • Intra-system hazards

43
  • Future AFCB RD

44
Future AFCB RD
  • Joint FAA, NAVAIRSYSCOM, ONR, USAF
  • 28VDC, 1-25A
  • Three-phase, 5-25A
  • MS3320 package
  • Communication interface
  • Remote control
  • Integration of 115V/400Hz AFCB and 28VDC into
    single breaker

45
Future AFCB RD
  • Contract Awards Pending
  • Eaton Aerospace
  • AMETEK
  • Schedule
  • Year 1 Prototype Demonstration
  • Possible Down Select
  • Years 2 3 Engineering Development, Test and
    Evaluation

46
  • AFCB Conclusions

47
AFCB Conclusions
  • Present aircraft circuit breakers are not
    designed to mitigate the effects of arcing
    faults.
  • 115V/Single-Phase AFCB development is complete.
  • Select mitigation/prevention technology
    appropriate to the hazard.

48
  • Wire Test Inspection Technology

49
Wire Test Inspection Technology
Wire Indenter
Excited Dielectric Test
Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence Reflectometry
Broadband Impedance Measurement
Terahertz Reflectometry
Smart Connectors
Neural Network Processing of TDR/FDR Waveforms
Optical Chafe Detector
Hi-Voltage Micro-Energy
Pulsed Arrested Spark Discharge
Validation Test Bed
50
  • Wire Degradation Research

51
Wire Degradation Research
  • Core Technical Team
  • Raytheon Technical Services Company, Indianapolis
  • Brookhaven National Laboratory
  • Lectromechanical Design Co. (Lectromec)
  • Sandia National Laboratory

52
Wire Degradation Research
  • Overall Goal
  • Model aging characteristics of aircraft wire
  • Establish data for predictive techniques.
  • Determine degradation relative to original
    performance specification.
  • Use data to develop more effective inspection
    technologies

53
Wire Degradation Research
  • Phase 1 Define Test Plan and QA Documentation -
    Complete
  • Phase 2 Testing of Aircraft Wire
  • October 2002 - May 2004
  • Phase 3 Analysis and Reporting
  • June 2004 January 2005

54
  • Evaluation of Performance Requirements, Test
    Criteria and Procedures, for Aircraft Wire

55
Aircraft Wire Performance
  • Contract Award March 2002
  • Raytheon Technical Services Company, Indianapolis
  • Contract Completion March 2003

56
Aircraft Wire Performance
  • Task 1 Review of Current Wire Specifications
    complete
  • Task 2 Obtain Wire Performance Field Data
    complete
  • Task 3 Evaluation/Assessment of Field Data vs.
    Performance Specifications
  • Task 4 Draft Minimum Wire Performance
    Specification

57
  • Evaluation of Aircraft Wiring Separation and
    Segregation Requirements and Practices

58
Wiring Separation and Segregation
  • Contract Award September 2002
  • Completion August 2003
  • Raytheon Technical Services Company, Indianapolis

59
Wiring Separation and Segregation
  • Objectives
  • Evaluate past and current requirements for
    separation and segregation
  • Analyze requirements relevant to service data
  • Identify potential improvements to requirements
  • Explore methods for assessing adequacy of
    separation/segregation of a particular
    installation

60
Wiring Separation and Segregation
  • Tasks
  • Obtain and analyze electrical failure data
    relevant to separation and segregation
  • Identify failure modes that render the applicable
    separation and segregation requirement
    inadequate or otherwise reducing the
    effectiveness of the safety margin.

61
Wiring Separation and Segregation
  • Tasks
  • Develop potential improvements
  • Conduct tests as necessary to investigate current
    requirements, support investigation and
    verification of potential improvements

62
  • Effects of Related Unrelated Maintenance on the
    Integrity of Aircraft Electrical Interconnect
    Systems

63
Maintenance Effects
  • Contract Award October 2002
  • Completion September 2003
  • Raytheon Technical Services Company, Indianapolis

64
Maintenance Effects
  • Objectives
  • Evaluate effects of current maintenance practices
    upon the performance of the electrical
    interconnect system

65
Maintenance Effects
  • Tasks
  • Conduct an empirical evaluation of maintenance
    processes and effects.
  • Evaluate collateral maintenance effects such as
    contamination of wire bundles, and insulation
    blankets.
  • Simulate maintenance conditions to quantify
    maintenance effects

66
Maintenance Effects
  • Tasks
  • Simulate maintenance conditions to quantify
    maintenance effects on
  • Wire degradation
  • Flammability
  • Corrosion inhibiting compounds, cleaning
    compounds, lubricants, etc.
  • Debris

67
  • Evaluation of Mixed Wire Types

68
Evaluation of Mixed Wire Types
  • Evaluation of proposals complete
  • Award process underway
  • Budget - continuing resolution may delay funds
    availability and hence award.
  • Nine month duration after award

69
  • New Projects

70
In-Service Performance Monitoring
  • Monitor in-service changes to wire performance
    and properties
  • 5-year monitoring program/20 year life window
  • Staggered aircraft ages new, 5, 10, 15 years
    old.

71
In-Service Performance Monitoring
  • Coordinate between FAA, OEM, Operator(s)
  • Locations, parameters of interest,
    instrumentation, etc.
  • Certification by FAA

72
Evaluation of Aging Components
  • Performance evaluation of aging components
  • Connectors, splices, etc.
  • Switches
  • RCCBs, Contactors, Relays, etc.

73
Advanced Circuit Protection
  • Exploration of advanced concepts for new and/or
    improved methods of circuit protection
  • Application of arc fault, ground fault, and other
    concepts

74
Questions
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