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Cities in the Third Wave: The Technological Transformation of Urban America Leonard I. Ruchelman

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Title: Cities in the Third Wave: The Technological Transformation of Urban America Leonard I. Ruchelman


1
Cities in the Third Wave The Technological
Transformation of Urban AmericaLeonard I.
Ruchelman
  • Group
  • Peter Heller
  • Kate McCauley
  • Adam Neumeyer

2
The Transformation of Urban America
  • Preindustrial
  • Industrial
  • Postindustrial

3
Preindustrial Cities
  • Small populations (typically less than 30,000
    people)
  • Small size allowed for personal networks between
    friends, family and businesses
  • Small scale manufacturing limited by hand tools,
    hydraulic power, and the use of animals
  • Located on waterfronts/ mill sites (functioned as
    market centers)

4
Industrial Cities
  • Sudden rapid increase in the population of cities
  • Growth in Western cities
  • Railroad
  • Rail Mileage Grew Rapidly
  • Steam-powered locomotive Western development
  • Connected the East and West coast
  • Mass Production
  • Huge new factories
  • Steam Power
  • Provider of industrial power
  • Steel
  • Upgrade from iron
  • Inventions telephone, light bulb, refrigerated
    rail cars
  • Improvements - Street surfacing, public lighting,
    water and sewerage systems

5
From Urban Concentration to Suburban
Deconcentration
  • In 1950 23 of Population in United States lived
    in suburbs
  • In 1960 31 of Population in United States lived
    in suburbs
  • In 1990 46 of Population in United States lived
    in suburbs

6
The Great Migration Population Decline of Ten
Major Old-Line Cities
7
Other Changes in the Metropolis
  • Decline in Central City Employment
  • Jobs move to the suburbs
  • Those that need jobs the most do not have them
  • Metropolis changes to Megalopolis

8
Megalopolis
  • Large urbanized area around a certain city
  • Boston to Washington, D.C.
  • Florida peninsula
  • Northern California
  • Southern California

9
Global Restructuring
  • Geographic location means nothing
  • Manufacturing jobs leave United States
  • Advanced technology helps regions grow

10
Ten Metropolitan Regional Economies with the
Highest growth
Region Rate of Expansion 1980-1991()
Austin, TX 22.9
West Palm Beach, FL 155.0
Raleigh-Durham, NC 140.2
Orlando, FL 95.8
Tucson, AZ 95.2
Phoenix, AZ 90.0
San Diego, CA 83.4
Augusta, GA 83.1
Sacramento, Ca 79.0
Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN 68.7
United States 31.1
11
Ten Metropolitan Regional Economies with the
Lowest growth Rates (ranked by change in rate of
output
Region Rate of Expansion 1980-1991()
Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX -17.5
Peoria, IL .13.7
Davenport-Bettendorf, IA-Rock Island-Moline IL -9.4
Flint, MI -7.0
New Orleans, LA -5.9
Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley, PA -3.3
Youngstown-Warren, OH -2.9
Shreveport, LA 0.7
Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY 1.8
Corpus Christi, TX 3.7
United States 31.1
12
Key Characteristics of Cities in the
Preindustrial, Industrial, and Postindustrial
Stages
Characteristic Preindustrial Industrial Postindustrial
Time Frame 17th and 18th century 1830s plus 1950s plus
Power Sources Wind, Water, Animate Steam/Internal Combustion Superconductivity
Technological Advancement Agricultural Tools (Plow) Energy Information
Role of Technology Extraction Fabrication Process
Main Product Food Commodities Knowledge
Social Institution Family Farm Mills, Factories RD Centers
Main Labor Force Farmers Factory Workers Information Workers
Main Mode of Movement Pedestrian, Horse, and Carriage Rail, Automobile Telecommuting
Division of Labor (Skills) Simple Highly Specialized (Routine) Very Highly Specialized (Customization)
Division of Labor (Geographical) City Regional International
Market Place Commons CBD/Mall Electronic Network
Urban Pattern Human Network Monocentric Global Networks
Social Pattern Integrated Segregated Highly Segregated
13
Third Wave Technologies
  • Telecommunication Systems
  • Wireless Communications
  • Internet and the Worldwide Information Explosion
  • Electronic Applications
  • Technological Reshaping of Work
  • Information Technology and the Emergence of New
    Spatial Patterns

14
Telecommunication Systems
  • Foundations
  • Telegraph
  • Telephone
  • Methods of Communications
  • Analog
  • Digital
  • Computers
  • Vacuum tubes
  • Transistor Circuits
  • Computer chips

15
Wireless Communications
  • Invented in 1896 by Guglielmo Marconi
  • Four types one-way receiver, two-way dispatch,
    two-way mobile/portable phones, and two-way data
  • Many uses tracking, communications
  • 22,000 transmission sites in U.S., with 100,000
    more in next ten years

16
The Internet is Born
  • Prior to its introduction, there were only small
    islands of communication
  • Introduction in 1969 limited use to four sites
    that possessed text based computerized switches
    (ARPANET)
  • Enormous growth (1990- 313,000 users/ 1992- lt
    1,000,000)
  • Multiple benefits
  • Allows anyone to transmit any message to millions
    of recipients
  • Quick and easy global communication
  • Large stores of information

17
Electronic Applications
  • Virtual Museums
  • Libraries connected to the Internet
  • Electronic College Campuses
  • Telemedicine
  • Electronic Banking/Financial Services
  • Smart Cards
  • Teleshopping

18
Transformation of Jobs
  • Increasing computers increasing downsizing
  • Disappearance of the traditional job
    (agriculture, services, ect.)
  • Changing job locations
  • Expanding the range of services

19
Information Technology and the Emergence of New
Spatial Patterns
  • Front Office Functions
  • Routine Back-Office Functions
  • Goods and Distribution
  • Complex Office Work

20
Types Of Cities
  • Headquarters Cities
  • Innovation Centers
  • Module Production Places
  • Border Cities
  • Retirement Centers
  • Leisure-Tourism Playgrounds
  • Edge Cities

21
Headquarters Cities
  • Also known as World, Global, or Capital Cities
  • Characteristics of Headquarter Cities
  • Leaders in global markets for commodities and
    investment capital, foreign exchange, equities,
    and bonds
  • High concentration of corporate headquarters
  • Locations of national and international
    headquarters of trade and professional
    associations
  • Locations for national and international media
    organizations, news and information services
  • Major cultural capitals

22
New York
  • Financial Capital
  • Leads in advertising and law
  • Computer and engineering services are drawn to
    the suburbs
  • Wall Street prospers New York prospers
  • Site of a new high tech sector
  • Silicon Alley
  • Cultural Capital
  • Popular destination for tourist
  • Immigrants

23
Los Angeles
  • Military defense expenditures
  • High-technology telecommunications center
  • Manage military
  • Location on Pacific Rim
  • Trade between the West and the East
  • Diversity of ethnic groups
  • Rapid growth of foreign trade
  • Financial hub of the Western U.S.

24
Innovation Centers
  • RD Centers are self-sustaining
  • Key Sectors electronics and telematics,
    biotechnology, aerospace, nuclear technology,
    medical technology, environmental technology and
    space.
  • Examples Silicon Valley, Route 128

25
Modular Production Places
  • Places where routine tasks are preformed
  • Examples production of cars and processing of
    magazine subscriptions
  • Places Detroit and Newark

26
Border Cities
  • Labor Centers
  • Large Immigrant Populations
  • Undocumented Workers low wages
  • Trade and financial centers
  • Importing, marketing, and distributing goods
  • Utilized by the very wealthy Latin Americans
  • Shopping
  • Recreation
  • Wealth Security

27
Miami
  • Strategically positioned between North and South
    America and the Caribbean
  • Leading gateway to Latin America and the
    Caribbean
  • Immigration of large numbers of Latin Americans
  • Bilingual Spanish speaking residents
  • Globalization of the world economy
  • Eliminated Trade Barriers
  • Tourism
  • Foreign Banking

28
Retirement Centers
  • Increasing numbers of people (b/c growth and life
    expectancy)
  • Relocation
  • Consequences
  • - communities have to deal with
    changes in pensions, social security and
    medicare
  • - lower industrial development

29
Leisure-Tourism Playgrounds
  • One of the largest industries in the United
    States
  • The United States is the second most popular
    travel destination in the world
  • Consist of theme parks, gambling casinos,
    consumer shopping centers, sports arenas, and
    exhibition centers

30
Las Vegas
  • Developed gambling as a major industry
  • Spurs growth and lower unemployment
  • Economic backbone of Las Vegas
  • 30 of all jobs are in hotels, gaming, and
    recreation
  • Fastest growing metropolitan area in the nation
  • For every 100,000 people who come to play, 250
    stay
  • Adds up to 75,000 new residents every year
  • There is no corporate or personal income tax

31
Edge Cities
  • Defined as high-order multifunctional centers
    which have emerged in the outer suburban areas
  • Appeared in the 1950s b/c of automobiles and
    communication technology
  • Three types
  • Uptowns
  • Boomers
  • Greenfields
  • Are they real communities?

32
Cities in the Third Wave
  • The Role of Growth Coalitions in Cities
  • Citistates in the Global Economy
  • Cities as Entertainment Centers
  • Suburban Sprawl and Political Fragmentation
  • The Prognosis for Core Cities and Older Metros

33
The Role of Growth Coalitions in Cities
  • Urban restructuring is shaped by continuously
    changing economic conditions
  • Issue of domination results in an uneven capacity
    to attract growth, which in turn provides
    advantages and disadvantages to groups

34
Citistates in the Global Economy
  • A metropolitan area
  • Stimulated by advancements in telecommunications,
    trade agreements
  • Source of entrepreneurial leadership

35
Cities in Pursuit of Niche Markets
  • Cities create a certain draw
  • Examples gambling, tourism, convention centers,
    back-office operations
  • Problems get dumped on poor cities

36
Cities as Entertainment Centers
  • High-tech fun
  • Sports arenas, cultural centers,
    entertainment-enhanced retailing, and urban theme
    parks
  • Restore central cities
  • Bring back what they have been losing to the
    suburbs

37
Suburban Sprawl and Political Fragmentation
  • Suburbs healthiest parts of the metropolitan
    economy
  • Technology makes possible a spatial leapfrogging
    pattern












  • Edge cities and Industrial Parks
  • Segregation of income groups
  • Gated Communities

38
Are Core Cities Doomed?
  • While futurists are skeptical, their success
    depends on many variables.
  • Negative Pulls
  • Business relocation
  • Technological advances
  • Social problems
  • Declining economy
  • Growth of diverging jobs/ job skills
  • Positive Pulls
  • Central business locations
  • Population lifestyles
  • Environmental factors
  • Environment for innovation
  • Urbanized economies

39
Conclusion
  • All cities must be able to adapt to change in
    order to progress.
  • Remember that the measure of a civilization is
    not the tools it owns, but the use it makes of
    them.
  • L. Ruchelman
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