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Global Climate Change Breaking Down the Carbon Issue Shirin Belur, Brooke Golden, Elizabeth Lombardi, Jennifer Malkin, Iris Rave

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Global Climate Change Breaking Down the Carbon Issue Shirin Belur, Brooke Golden, Elizabeth Lombardi, Jennifer Malkin, Iris Rave Climate Change: Causes Over the past ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Global Climate Change Breaking Down the Carbon Issue Shirin Belur, Brooke Golden, Elizabeth Lombardi, Jennifer Malkin, Iris Rave


1
Global Climate ChangeBreaking Down the Carbon
IssueShirin Belur, Brooke Golden, Elizabeth
Lombardi, Jennifer Malkin, Iris Rave
2
Climate Change Causes
  • Over the past century, the Earth has increased in
    temperature by about .5 degrees Celsius
  • Scientists believe this is because of an increase
    in concentration of the main greenhouse gases
    carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and
    fluorocarbons
  • Carbon dioxide is undoubtedly the most important
    greenhouse gas in the atmosphere

3
The Climate Change Debate Carbon
  • U.S. greenhouse gas emissions come mostly from
    energy use.
  • Fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas
    supply most of the energy needed for industries
    households.

Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions,
resulting from petroleum and natural gas,
represent 82 percent of total U.S. human-made
greenhouse gas emissions.
4
The Climate Change Debate Carbon
  • U.S. greenhouse gas emissions come mostly from
    energy use.
  • Fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas
    supply most of the energy needed for industries
    households.

Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions represent
82 of total U.S. human-made greenhouse gas
emissions.
5
Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Sector
  • Largest Contributors
  • Power stations
  • Industrial Processes
  • Transportation Fuels

6
Key Stakeholder Groups
  • Advocacy
  • For Conservation Fund
  • Against Carbon Trading Watch
  • Trading Markets
  • CCX, EU
  • Offset Providers
  • Non-Profit Carbonfund.org
  • For-Profit Climate Care
  • Business
  • Highly Regulated Energy
  • Voluntary Food Retail
  • Government
  • International, U.S., State
  • Consumers
  • Engaging in offsets of personal behavior
  • Impacted Communities
  • Offset programs built in the community (wind,
    solar and reforestation)

7
Ways to Reduce Carbon
  • Constrain use (efficiency)
  • Carbon offsetting
  • Use of renewable energy sources as substitutes in
    operations

8
What are Carbon Offsets?
  • The process of reducing a ton of carbon dioxide
    emissions in another location for the emissions
    you cause in either your home, office, commute,
    travel or other activities that use energy and
    cause emissions.
  • Enable anyone to reduce their climate footprint
    by supporting projects, typically energy
    efficiency, renewable energy, sequestration,
    biomass, etc. that reduce carbon dioxide
    emissions to offset ones own climate footprint.

9
Offsets- How they Work

Power Pool
Generic Electricity Purchase
Green Tags Emissions Reductions Rights

Households/ Businesses
payment to project for Green Tag futures
to purchase CO2 offsets for household emissions

PA Biomass Marketing Partners Program sponsor,
marketing support no purchase obligations
BROKERS Contracts for Green Tags,
provides program design fulfillment
certification

Tax Deduction
Donated Green Tags
Non-Profit Accepts Green Tag Donations Retires
Emission Reductions
10
Carbon Trading
  • Carbon Emissions Trading is the trading of
    permits to emit carbon dioxide
  • Provides an incentive for firms to reduce
    emissions they profit from selling credits to
    less efficient firms
  • Worlds only mandatory trading program is
    European Union Emissions Trading Scheme, (Kyoto
    Protocol) which caps emissions that EU countries
    can emit.
  • Trading has increased by nearly 300 in recent
    years

11
Carbon Trading- How it works
  1. A country caps emissions at a certain level
  2. Issues permits to firms and industries to emit a
    stated amount of carbon dioxide over a time
    period
  3. Firms trade these credits in a free market.
  4. Firms whose emissions exceed the amount of
    credits they possess are heavily penalized.

12
The Debate Pros and Cons
  • Pros
  • Helps to maintain current or slowly reduce GHG
    emissions to historic levels.
  • Forestry projects can have additional
    socio-economic and environmental benefits, such
    as biodiversity.
  • Promotes voluntary enactment (by states and
    cities) of the Kyoto Protocol.
  • Raises visibility of Climate Change issue.
  • Cons
  • Does not promote energy conservation, allows
    companies and individuals to take a business as
    usual approach.
  • Key offenders profiting most from trading scheme
  • Not scientifically possible to equate the
    atmospheric absorption CO2 by trees with CO2
    emissions from fossil fuels.
  • And, trees may burn or be destroyed, thereby
    releasing CO2 back into the atmosphere.
  • Lack of regulations for voluntary offset
    programs, no systemic framework or guidelines to
    ensure programs are credible.

13
Role of Business on this Issue
  • Businesses of all sizes and types play a role in
    climate change.
  • More than a quarter of U.S. GHG emissions are
    from transportation, a component to nearly all
    businesses.
  • According to the U.S. Department of Energy,
    office buildings account for 19 of all
    commercial energy consumption.
  • In the U.S., about two-thirds of electricity
    results from the burning of emissions producing
    fossil fuels.

14
Operational Exposure Brand Value at Risk Due to
Climate Change by Sector
15
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Linked Directly to
Sector Operations
16
HIGH Carbon Sectors
  • Airline
  • International aviation emissions are currently
    not covered by the Kyoto Protocol
  • Despite their high exposure to climate change,
    their tangible value at risk depends on the
    format and timing of future regulation
  • Fuel is high cost (represents 15 of revenues),
    but maximizing engine efficiency doesnt
    necessarily mean minimizing CO2 emissions
  • No airline has sought to take leadership position
    on carbon responsibility
  • Brand value at potential risk from climate change
    is 50 of market value
  • Oil Gas
  • Energy intensive manufacturing sector
  • Shell and BP are well known for embracing climate
    change as CSR issue
  • Little consumer interest in companys own
    emissions
  • Brand value at potential risk from climate change
    is 2-3 of market value

17
HIGH Carbon Sector Case Study Oil Gas
  • BP
  • Leads energy sector with its commitment to
    climate change
  • Pursuing efficiency in our own operations through
    wind and solar projects
  • Creating cleaner products for customers
  • Contributing to an informed debate through policy
    initiatives
  • Innovative internal carbon trading scheme that
    resulted in a 20 emissions reduction between
    1998-2001
  • BP Global Choice scheme in Australia customers
    can purchase offsets for their vehicle fuel use

18
MEDIUM Carbon Sectors
  • Food Beverage Production
  • Long term potential supply chain risk due to
    weather disruptions
  • Brand value at potential risk from climate change
    is 50 of market value
  • Food Retail
  • Exposed to rising costs of transportation and
    heating, refrigerating and lighting their
    premises
  • Growth in demand for fresh and exotic products
    all year round requires increased refrigeration
    of the supply chain and greater proportion of
    products being flown in from abroad
  • Brand value at potential risk from climate change
    is 5 of market value

19
MEDIUM Carbon Sector Case Study Food Retail
  • Whole Foods
  • Largest wind energy credit purchase in the
    history of the United States and Canada
  • Only Fortune 500 Company purchasing wind energy
    credits to offset 100 of its electricity use
  • Purchasing more than 458,000 megawatt-hours (MWh)
    of renewable energy credits from wind farms. This
    purchase will avoid more than 700 million pounds
    of carbon dioxide pollution this year.

20
Our Recommendations
  • Companies should take an industry-relevant
    approach to carbon offsets.
  • High Risk mitigation through legitimate/aggressi
    ve offset targets and active participation in
    policy development.
  • Medium Push strategy to raise overall level of
    awareness and provide critical mass for climate
    among key stakeholders.
  • Low Remain active in carbon offset discussion,
    critically review operations for other areas of
    risk-exposure.
  • Companies need to take a three-pronged approach
    (Efficiency, Offset, Renewables).
  • Carbon offsets cannot be a stand-alone strategy
    for Climate Change.
  • Increased regulation around regulatory and
    voluntary offset programs.
  • Universal guidelines, improved traceability
  • Validate reforestation credibility and offset
    value.

21
Where is the Debate Headed
  • Climate change will become a mainstream consumer
    issue by 2010 (purchasing decisions)
  • Drivers Severe weather, regulatory impact,
    politics, commercial adaptation
  • Carbon and environmental impact will become a
    standard in CSR reporting
  • Companies in high carbon industries will gain by
    leading on this issue and integrating into their
    operations and reporting structures

22
Key Facts
  • A ton of CO2e is Emitted When you
  • Travel 2,000 miles in an airplane
  • Drive 1,350 miles in a large SUV
  • Drive 1,900 miles in a mid-sized car
  • Drive 6,000 miles in a hybrid car
  • Run an average US household for 60 days
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