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The Enjoyment of Music 10th Shorter Edition


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Title: The Enjoyment of Music 10th Shorter Edition

The Enjoyment of Music 10th Shorter Edition
Unit XXV The New Music
From Schoenberg I learned that tradition is a
home we must love and forgo. Lukas Foss
75. New Directions
  • innovations in the last half of the twentieth
    century have outstripped the most far-reaching
    changes of earlier times

The Arts since the Mid-Twentieth Century
  • Social turmoil reflected in the arts
  • Movements in the arts
  • Abstract Expressionism
  • Pop Art
  • Post-Modernism
  • Feminist and ethnic art and literature
  • Widespread experimentation in poetry, literature

The Arts since the Mid-Twentieth Century
  • Performance art
  • John Cage
  • Laurie Anderson
  • National schools of filmmaking
  • Germany
  • China
  • Poland

John Cage
As these two formshuman and machinebegin to
merge a little bit, were talking about
technology really as a kind of new nature,
something to measure against, to make rules from,
to investigate. Laurie Anderson
Toward Greater Organization in Music
Arnold Schoenberg
  • Application of Schoenbergs 12-tone method
  • Total serialism

Toward Greater Freedom in Music
  • Counter to total serialism
  • Chance determines portions of happening
  • Indeterminate
  • aleatoric music
  • open form
  • Collage
  • Microtonal scales

My music liberates because I give people the
chance to change their minds in the way Ive
changed mine. John Cage
The Postwar Internationalism
  • United States
  • Milton Babbitt
  • John Cage
  • Earle Brown
  • Morton Feldman
  • Italy
  • Luciano Berio
  • Greece
  • Iannis Xenakis

The Postwar Internationalism
  • Poland
  • Krzysztof Penderecki
  • Germany
  • Karlheinz Stockhausen
  • France
  • Pierre Boulez
  • Russia
  • Sofiya Gubaidulina

Pierre Boulez
The Enjoyment of Music 10th Shorter Edition
76. The New Virtuosity of the Modern Age
  • Contemporary virtuosity
  • Avant-garde specialists
  • Cathy Berberian

George Crumb (b. 1929) and Avant-Garde
  • American Composer
  • Emotional, dramatic, expressive music
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • Federico García Lorca

Music is a system of proportions in the
service of a spiritual impulse. George Crumb
Crumb Ancient Voices of Children (Listening
  • Cycle of songs
  • Soprano, boy soprano, oboe, mandolin, harp,
    electric piano, percussion
  • Voice is used like an instrument
  • Vocalise
  • Singing into amplified piano, singing microtones
  • International percussion
  • Dark intimations of poetry

Listening Guide PDF
I feel that the essential meaning of this poetry
is concerned with the most primary things Life,
death, love, the smell of the earth, the sounds
of the wind and the sea.
George Crumb
The Enjoyment of Music 10th Shorter Edition
77. Contemporary Composers Look to World Music
  • Important Experimenters
  • Henry Cowell (18971965)
  • Music
  • Japan, India, Iran, rural Ireland, America
  • Foreign scales
  • Tone clusters
  • Harry Partch (19011974)
  • Microtonal music

I believe composers must forge out of the many
influences that play upon them and never close
their ears to any part of the world of
sound. Henry Cowell
John Cage (19121992)
  • American Composer
  • Prepared piano to simulate Javanese gamelan
  • Items inserted in the piano strings
  • East Asian philosophy
  • Quest for tranquility
  • Indeterminacy
  • Role of silence 433

I thought I could never compose socially
important music. Only if I could invent something
new, then would I be useful to society. John
Cage Sonata V, from Sonatas and Interludes
(Listening Guide)
  • Written for prepared piano
  • Percussive effects
  • Non-Western timbre
  • Seemingly without a clear meter

Listening Guide PDF
The Javanese Gamelan
Indonesian music Music for ritual
ceremonies Court and shadow puppet theater Two
tunings sléndro pentatonic pélog
heptatonic Cyclical rhytmic structure (colotomic)
Simply said, gamelan music is the most beautiful
music in the world, and I for one see no reason
to do any other kind of music ever again.
- Lou Harrison
Javanese Gamelan Music Patalon (Listening Guide)
Listening Guide PDF
  • Central Javanese music
  • Shadow-puppet theater piece
  • Pentatonic melodies
  • Colotomic rhythmic structure

Bright Sheng and the Meeting of Musical Cultures
  • Bright Sheng (b.1955)
  • Innovative contemporary composer
  • Blends Western and Asian ideas
  • Artistic suffering during the Cultural Revolution
  • Arrived in US in 1982
  • Teaches now at the University of Michigan

Bright Shengs Music
  • Integrates Western and Eastern elements
  • Compositional style and instruments
  • Pipa, sheng, erhu, yangqin, dizi, suona
  • Evokes Chinese folk songs
  • China Dreams is a nostalgic work
  • Set in four movements
  • Scored for large Western orchestra

Sheng China Dreams, Prelude (Listening Guide)
  • Prelude is the first of four movements
  • Evocative of Chinese folk music
  • Pentatonic melodies contrast dissonant chords
  • Syncopation creates meter-free sound
  • ABA structure

Listening Guide PDF
An Introduction to Chinese Traditional Music
Abing (18831950)
  • Chinese composer, born Hua Yanjun,
  • Orphaned, adopted by Daoist monk
  • Expelled for playing Daoist music in secular
  • His works are now standards at Chinese music
  • Six works recorded before 1950

Abing The Moon Reflected on the Second Springs
(Listening Guide)
  • Solo erhu
  • Modern version adds jangqin
  • Based on a pentatonic scale (D-E-G-A-B)
  • Melody played 3 times, with ornamentation

Listening Guide PDF
The Enjoyment of Music 10th Shorter Edition
78. Music for Films
A film is a composition and the musical
composition is an integral part of the design.
H. G. Wells
The Role of Music in Film
  • Establishes mood, characters, creates a sense of
    place and time
  • Irony (running counter to the action)
  • Principal types of music in a film
  • Underscoring
  • Source music
  • Leitmotifs

Nonsense. The idea originated with Richard
Wagner. Listen to the incidental scoring behind
the recitatives in his operas. If Wagner had
lived in this century, he would have been the
Number One film composer. Max Steiner
(responding to the idea that he had invented film
Music in the Silent-Film Era
  • Accompanied by solo piano or organ
  • Special organs produced effects
  • Three types of music
  • Classical
  • Well-known tunes
  • New music

The Sound Era
  • Late 1930s Golden Age of films and film music
  • Max Steiner
  • Eric Korngold
  • Germany, France, and the Soviet Union also
    pursued filmmaking

The Postwar Years
  • Popular genres included with 20th-century art
  • Bernard Herrmann
  • Miklós Rózsa
  • Theremin included for eerie effects
  • Later composers
  • Aaron Copland
  • Leonard Bernstein
  • Post-1940s film music
  • Elmer Bernstein
  • Jerry Goldsmith

Beyond Star Wars
  • Revolutionary visual effects in Star Wars (1977)
  • Score by John Williams
  • Full symphony orchestra
  • Use of leitmotifs

John Williams
  • Television in the 1950s and 1960s
  • Turned to film in the 1960s
  • 1970s successes
  • Star Wars
  • Close Encounters of the Third Kind
  • Superman
  • 80s, 90s, and currently
  • Indiana Jones
  • Jurassic Park
  • Harry Potter films, Munich, etc.

Williams Raiders March, from Raiders of the Lost
Ark (Listening Guide)
  • Heard during closing credits of Raiders of the
    Lost Ark (1981)
  • Fashioned from two leitmotifs
  • Indiana Jones and Marion
  • Three-part form
  • Indiana Jones theme, Marion's theme, Indiana
    Jones theme
  • Instrumentation and beat of a traditional march

Listening Guide PDF
James Horner
  • Los Angeles
  • Studied at the University of Southern California,
  • Successes
  • Star Trek II and III
  • Apollo 13
  • Titanic, etc.

Synthesizers in 1980s Film Scores
  • Instrument of choice for popular musicians

Danny Elfman
  • Oingo Boingo
  • Tim Burton
  • Successes
  • Beetlejuice
  • Batman
  • Men in Black
  • Spiderman films
  • Charlie and the Chocolate Factory

Writing the melody is the easy part. But then,
its what you do with it. Thats the skill,
thats the art, thats what makes a great film
score. Danny
Hans Zimmer
  • Popular music background
  • Successes
  • Rain Man
  • The Lion King
  • Madagascar
  • Pirates of the Caribbean Dead Mans Chest, etc.

Rachel Portman
  • First woman to win an Academy Award for Best
  • Successes
  • Emma
  • The Joy Luck Club
  • The Cider House Rules
  • Legally Blonde II
  • Love Actually
  • The Princess Diaries II

The Enjoyment of Music 10th Shorter Edition
79. Technology and Music
  • Two technological trends in the late 1940s and
    early 50s
  • Musique concrète
  • Paris
  • Pierre Schaeffer
  • Tape music

I have been waiting a long time for electronics
to free music from the tempered scale and
limitations of musical instruments. Electronic
instruments are the portentous first step toward
the liberation of music. Edgard Varèse
Electronische Musik
  • Cologne
  • Herbert Eimert
  • Karlheinz Stockhausen
  • Oscillator (electronic waveform generator)
  • Waveform manipulation
  • Synthesizer

Evolution of the Synthesizer
  • RCA 1955
  • Columbia-Princetons Electronic Music Center in
  • Robert Moog and Donald Buchla synthesizer in the
  • Morton Subotniks Silver Apples of the Moon
  • Widespread popularity, Switched-On Bach (1968)
  • Walter (later Wendy) Carlos

Electronic Music cont
  • Digital frequency modulation synthesis replaced
    analog systems
  • John Chowning at Stanford University
  • Yamaha DX7 (1983)
  • Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)
    adopted 1983
  • Digital samplers

Computer Music
  • Computer savvy and musical inspiration
  • Bell Laboratories in the 1950s
  • Max Mathews
  • Hiller and Issacsons software MUSIC (1956)

Important Figures in Electronic Music
  • Edgard Varèse (18831965)
  • French composer
  • Poème electronique (195658)
  • Philips Pavilion at Brussels Worlds Fair
  • Electronic and concrète sounds, multi-channel
  • Colaborated with Le Corbusier and Iannis Xenakis
  • Lighting effects and projected images
  • 400-plus speakers
  • 2 million people experienced the work

Mario Davidovsky (b. 1934)
  • American composer
  • Electronic sounds with live music
  • Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in
    New York
  • Harvard University
  • Synchronisms (196388)

Tod Machover and Musical Interactivity
  • Tod Machover (b.1952)
  • A leader in the contemporary music scene
  • Goal in music is to "make people pay attention
    and listen carefully"
  • Creates "smart" computers that follow gestures
    and intentions of performers
  • Dextrous Hand Master

The technique we invented is a fantastic way
not only to extend virtuosic instruments but to
break down boundaries and open doors to musical
experiences for ordinary music lovers. -Tod
Machover Hyperstring Trilogy Begin Again Again
. . . , excerpts (Listening Guide)
  • Piece for solo cello
  • Inspired by J. S. Bach's Cello Suite No. 2
  • Cellist controls live computer electronics
  • Written for Yo-Yo Ma
  • premiered at Tanglewood in 1991, recently revised
  • Conceived as the first in a trilogy based on
    Dante's Divine Comedy
  • Form two large parts
  • each with a theme and four variations

Listening Guide PDF
The Enjoyment of Music 10th Shorter Edition
80. Some Current Trends
  • Minimalism and New Romanticism

Now that things are so simple, theres so much
to do. Morton Feldman
Minimalism and Post-Minimalism
  • Barest essentials
  • Features
  • repetition
  • very little variation
  • Turns away from serialists
  • Non-Western ideas
  • Primary Composers
  • Terry Riley
  • Steve Reich
  • Philip Glass

Spiritual Minimalism
  • European trend
  • Nonpulsed music
  • Chains of lush modal or tonal progressions
  • Primary composers
  • Arvo Pärt
  • Henryk Górecki
  • John Taverner

Arvo Pärts music accepts silence and death, and
thus reaffirms the basic truth of life, its
frailty compassionately realised, its sacred
beauty observed and celebrated. Paul Hiller
Arvo Pärt (b. 1935)
  • Estonian composer
  • Concert, film, and stage composer
  • Neoclassicism, serialism
  • Religious convictions and Soviet Union
  • West Berlin
  • Latin and Orthodox church choral music

Pärt Cantate Domino canticum novum (Listening
  • Inspired by medieval chant
  • Latin text, based on Psalm 95
  • Untraditional notation
  • SATB chorus and organ
  • Tintinnabular (bell) style
  • Word painting
  • Varied texture, use of counterpoint

Listening Guide PDF
John Adams (b. 1947) and Post-Minimalism
  • American composer
  • Harvard-trained, wrote serial music
  • Interest in rock
  • Based in San Francisco
  • Advocate for contemporary music
  • Late Romanticism and minimalism
  • Collaborations with Peter Sellars

Adams Tromba lontana (Distant Trumpet)
(Listening Guide)
  • 1986 fanfare commissioned by Houston Symphony
  • Repetitive accompaniment
  • 2 solo trumpets at opposite sides of the stage
  • Bell-like timbres in percussion
  • Sustained harmonics in strings
  • Repeated notes in woodwinds

Listening Guide PDF
New Romanticism
  • Reaction to the intellectual and alienating
    12-tone movement
  • Favors a harmonic language from the late Romantic
  • Precursors Samuel Barber, Ned Rorem

Libby Larsen and the Musical Voice of Women
  • Libby Larsen (b.1950)
  • One of few composers making a living with music
    alone (not an academic position)
  • Born in Delaware and raised in Minneapolis
  • Co-founded the Minnesota Composers' Forum
  • Now the American Composers' Forum
  • Inspired largely by nature and writings of women

Music exists in an infinity of sound. I think
of all music as existing in the substance of the
air itself. It is the composers task to order
and make sense of sound, in time and space, to
communicate something about being alive through
Larsen Sonnets from the Portuguese, Nos. 5 and
6 (Listening Guide)
  • Worked closely with singer Arleen Auger
  • Auger premiered the work the recording won a
    Grammy in 1994
  • Set to poetry of Elizabeth Barrett Browning
  • Love poems secretly written during the courtship
    with Robert Browning
  • Larsen describes the songs as "metaphors of
    resolved and unresolved harmonies"

Listening Guide PDF
Larsen Songs from the Portuguese Nos. 5 and 6
(Listening Guide)
  • No. 5 "Oh, yes!"
  • Disjunct lines
  • Alternation of speechlike quality with lyrical
  • Dissonance and chromaticism with reference to
    Musselmans and Giaours
  • No. 6 "How do I love thee?"
  • Free-flowing, arched lines according to the text
  • Expressive use of instruments
  • Subtle text-painting

Just listen with the vastness of the world in
mind. You cant fail to get the message. -
Pierre Boulez
  • Perceptive listening is achieved gradually, with
    practice and effort
  • Enjoy music!