The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. In humans it includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, the urethra, and two sphincter muscles. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. In humans it includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, the urethra, and two sphincter muscles.

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Title: The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. In humans it includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, the urethra, and two sphincter muscles.


1
The urinary system is the organ system that
produces, stores, and eliminates urine. In humans
it includes two kidneys, two ureters, the
bladder, the urethra, and two sphincter muscles.
2
ORGANS THAT MAKE UP THE URINARY SISTEM
  • - Liver- Respiratory system- Urinary system -
    Sweat glands

3
Urinary tracts
- The ureters The ureters are two tubes that are
approximately 21 to 30 cm long. They are long,
thin, and have an irregular caliber. They
transport the urine from the renal pelvis of the
kidneys to the bladder, whose base forms the so
called urethral meatus, whose disposition in the
valve allows the urine to pass drop by drop from
the ureters to the bladder, but not vice versa.
The bladders interior is lined with an
epithelium and its wall contains smooth muscle.
4
- The urethra is a highly systematized conduit
that allows the urine contained in the bladder to
exit. It differs considerably in both sexes. In
women, it is a simple channel from 3 to 4 cm
long. It is narrower in both extremities, is
almost vertical and is situated in front of the
vagina its opened in the vulva above the vaginal
orifice. In the man the urethra is 18 to 20 cm
long. Its diameter is irregular, and has parts
that expand and contract. In addition, it is not
straight but has certain angles. It has many
segments prostate urethra (part of the prostate)
and the membranous and spongy urethra, which is
what surrounds the spongy body. This in turn can
be subdivided into several segments.
5
The kidneys
  • The principal function of the kidney is to form
    urine. This is achieved in the following way
    first, the blood that comes to the kidney goes
    from the glomerulus to the Bowman's capsule, and
    undergoes filtering. The newly formed liquid is
    similar to the plasma, although it practically
    lacks the plasmatic proteins. Secondly, the
    leaked liquid joins a system of tubes where the
    water and some specific substances are
    re-absorbed and / or secreted. This changes the
    composition and concentration of the liquid.
    Finally, the modified liquid is excreted after
    leaving the kidney and crossing the urinary tract.

6
The bladder
- The bladder The bladder is a hollow organ
placed in the lower part of the abdomen which is
above the pelvis. It stores the urine that
comes from the kidneys through the ureters. When
it is empty, its upper and lower walls contract,
taking an ovoid form when it is full. Its
capacity is approximately 700-800 mL. Its
interior is lined with mucous in a polystratified
pavimentosum epithelium. Its wall contains a
smooth muscle, which contracts along with the
abdominal muscles and triggers the emptying of
the bladder through the urethra. This is called
a micturition. The part of the bladder connected
to the urethra is provided with a circular muscle
or sphincter, which normally prevents the
involuntary exit of the urine.
7
The formation of the urine
  • There are three mechanisms for which it is
    possible to form the urine filtration,
    re-absorption and secretion. These mechanisms are
    carried out in the glomerulus and in the renal
    tubule.
  • Filtration is carried out in the glomerulus of
    the renal nephrons. The arterial pressure allows
    filtration by means of the glomerulus membrane.
    If the arterial pressure diminishes, the
    filtration does also and there is no formation of
    urine.
  • Re-absorption is the step where substances go
    from the renal tubules to the blood stream .
    Re-absorption of glucose, water, in 97-99 , and
    sodium take place.
  • Secretion is the step where substances go to the
    urine from the blood and then to the tubules.
    Protons, potassium and some medicaments are
    secreted by active transport . Ammonia is
    secreted by diffusion.

8
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9
Diseases of the urinary device
Uretritis
It consists of the inflammation of the walls of
the urethra due to a bacterial infection or
chemical substances that cause a tightening of
the urethral duct. A diet with little ingestion
of liquids can lead to dehydration in warmer
days, which produces a concentrated urine that
favours this inflammation.
Cystitis It is the sharp or chronic
inflammation of the urinary bladder, with or
without infections. It can have different causes.
The most frequent symptoms are the increase of
the micturition frequency and presence of
turbidity in the urine. The most common cause of
cystitis is the infection caused by gram-negative
bacteria . In order for a germ to produce
cystitis, it must first colonise the urine of the
bladder (bacteriuria) and later produce an
inflammatory response in the mucous lining of the
bladder. This form of cystitis is called a
bacterial sharp cystitis.
10
NEPHRITIC COLIC IT IS AN INTENSE PAIN IN THE
KIDNEY ZONE AND THE GENITAL ORGANS, WHICH ON
OCCASIONS, IS ACCOMPANIED BY LOSSES OF BLOOD FROM
THE URINE. IT IS DUE TO RENAL CALCULI (KIDNEY
STONES) THE PRECIPITATION OF DIVERSE SUBSTANCES
SUCH AS PHOSPHATES, URATES AND OXALATES. ONCE
EXPELLED FROM THE KIDNEYS VIA THE URETERS, THESE
CALCULI PRODUCE PAINS AND DAMAGES DUE TO THE
ANGULAR EDGES OF THEIR SURFACE.PIELONEFRITIS
IT CONSISTS OF THE INFLAMMATION OF THE BODY OF
THE KIDNEY AND THE RENAL PELVIS. IT IS DETECTED
BY ABDOMINAL PAIN, HIGH FEVER AND SCANTY URINE,
OFTEN ACCOMPANIED WITH BLOOD.
11
BY
  • Jesús de la Huerta Ros
  • Sergio Artillo Caro
  • David Pacheco Moreno
  • David Parra Guerra
  • Francisco Javier Romero Moreno
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