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Lecture 7 Cabling: Types and Termination

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TIA/EIA 568 Standards TIA/EIA-568A Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard TIA/EIA-568B ... 568A Implementation offers voice and data to each ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lecture 7 Cabling: Types and Termination


1
Lecture 7 Cabling Types and Termination
2
TIA/EIA 568 Standards
  • TIA/EIA-568A
  • Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling
    Standard
  • TIA/EIA-568B

3
TIA/EIA 569-A
  • Commercial Building Standards for
    Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces
    (ANSI/TIA/EIA-569-A-98)

4
TIA 606-A Administration Standard for the
Telecommunications Infrastructure of Commercial
Buildings
5
TIA-606-A Feb. 1993
  • to provide a uniform administration scheme that
    is independent of applications, which may change
    several times throughout the life of a building.
  • This standard establishes guidelines for owners,
    end users, manufacturers, consultants,
    contractors, designers, installers, and
    facilities administrators involved in the
    administration of the telecommunications
    infrastructure or related administration system.

6
The Six Subsystems of a Structured Cabling System
  • 1.Building Entrance
  • 2.Equipment Room
  • 3.Backbone Cabling
  • Specified Topology
  • 4.Telecommunications Closet
  • 5.Horizontal Cabling
  • Specified Topology
  • Maximum Distances
  • Telecommunications Outlet
  • 8-Position Modular Jack Pair Assignments
  • 6.Work Area

7
Scope of the TIA/EIA-568A Standard
  • Minimum requirements for telecommunications
    cabling within an office environment
  • Recommended topology and distances
  • Media parameters which determine performance
  • Connector and pin assignments to ensure
    inter-connectability
  • The useful life of telecommunications cabling
    systems as being in excess of ten years

8
568A Implementation
  • offers voice and data to each workstation
  • Mandates 2 jacks (1 for voice 1 for data) per
    station
  • Voice Jacks 4 pair 100 Ohm Category 3 or better
  • Data Jacks 4 Pair Category 5 or Better or
    multi-mode fiber.

9
Media Types
  • Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable
  • Shielded Twisted Pair Cable (STP)
  • Single and Multi-Mode Fiber
  • Coaxial Cable (Grand-fathered into but not
    recognized by the TIA/EIA 568 A standard).

10
UTP Cables
  • A communications cable using one or more pairs of
    wires that are twisted together. When driven as a
    balanced line, the twisting reduces the
    susceptibility to external interference and the
    radiation of signal energy.

11
UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair)
  • Most Common type of cable installed in buildings.
  • Most common media for Ethernet and LAN cabling.
  • Often used in conjunction with Telephone
    distribution
  • Unshielded Twisted Pair is smaller, more
    flexible, and less expensive then Shielded
    Twisted Pair.

12
  • Four Pair, 24 Gauge 100 Ohm copper cable
  • Balanced
  • PVC or Plenum Jacket
  • Types of UTP Cable Category 3, 4, 5, and
    Enhanced Category 5 or Category 6

13
Twist Pitch
  • used in UTP cabling to identify the different
    length distance of different pairs within a
    single cable. The twist pitch varies between
    pairs to reduce the affects of NEXT or signals
    jumping from one pair to another.

14
Category 3
  • Transmission Frequencies up to 16 MHz
  • Intended for low speed data, telephone, 4 Mbs
    Token Ring, and 10 Mbs Ethernet applications.

Category 4
  • Transmission Frequencies up to 20 MHz
  • Suitable for all category 3 applications as well
    as 16 Mbs Token Ring

15
Category 5
  • Transmission Frequencies up to 100 MHz
  • Most popular for high speed applications
  • Suitable for all Category 3 and 4 applications as
    well as any copper based voice, video, or data
    application such as 100 Mbs "Fast Ethernet",
    CDDI (FDDI over Copper), and possibly Gigabit
    Ethernet over copper.

16
Enhanced Category 5 and Category 6
  • High frequency applications such as Gigabit
    Ethernet and certainly ATM will require better
    and higher bandwidth cables than originally
    specified by the Category 5 standard. While
    Gigabit Ethernet should be compatible with
    Category 5 cabling, it is suggested that cabling
    for high speed applications including Fast
    Ethernet should exceed Category 5 standards.
  • New standards are under development for such
    cabling, however enhanced Category 5 cabling is
    available now.

17
UTP Summary
  • Characteristics
  • Four Pair, 24 Gauge 100 Ohm copper cable
  • Unbalanced
  • PVC or Plenum Jacket
  • Types of UTP Cable Category 3, 4, 5, and
    "Enhanced Category 5" or Category 6
  • Category 3
  • Transmission Frequencies up to 16 MHz
  • intended for low speed data, telephone, 4 Mbps
    Token Ring, and 10 Mbps Ethernet applications.
  • Category 4
  • Transmission Frequencies up to 20 MHz
  • Suitable for all category 3 applications as well
    as
  • 16 Mbps Token Ring
  • Category 5
  • Transmission Frequencies up to 100 Mhz
  • Most popular for high speed applications
  • Suitable for all Category 3 and 4 applications as
    well as any copper based voice, video, or data
    application such as 100 Mbps "Fast Ethernet",
    CDDI (FDDI over Copper), and ATM.
  • Enhanced Category 5 and Category 6
  • High frequency applications such as Gigabit
    Ethernet and certainly ATM will require better
    and higher bandwidth cables than originally
    specified by the Category 5 standard. While
    Gigabit Ethernet should be compatible with
    Category 5 cabling, it is suggested that cabling
    for high speed applications including Fast
    Ethernet should exceed Category 5 standards.
  • New standards for such cabling is underway.

18
UTP Installation Considerations
  • Unshielded Twisted Pair is smaller, more
    flexible, and less expensive then Shielded
    Twisted Pair.
  • The Entire link or infrastructure (including
    jacks and cross connect blocks) must be composed
    of Category 5 components.
  • All cables and components must be installed and
    terminated properly to achieve Category 5
    standards.

19
  • Maximum distance of horizontal cabling is 295
    feet (90 meters).
  • Patch cords max length 6m
  • Horizontal Cabling 90 m
  • Equipment Cords 2 m
  • Maximum pull tension for Category 5 UTP is 25
    foot lbs. (to avoid stretching the twists of the
    pairs).
  • 12" Minimum distance from florescent lighting
  • 5" Minimum distance between power and data
    cables.
  • Minimum bend radius of 1 to 4 inches
  • Cables must be dressed, labeled, and managed
  • Cable ties must not be tightened (Velcro is
    better)
  • No staples
  • At termination points the jacket should be
    striped as little as possible lt 1/2 ".

20
Stranded UTP vs.. Solid UTP
  • Stranded UTP
  • usually used for patch cables
  • wires or conductors are made of many flexible
    strands in order to make the wire stronger and
    more flexible.
  • stranded UTP is not suitable for longer distances
    due to its lower efficiency than Solid UTP.

21
Solid UTP
  • usually used in horizontal wiring (wiring to
    jacks) in which the wires or conductors are
    solid.
  • Solid UTP cables are less flexible and more
    brittle than stranded cables, however they are
    cheaper and more efficient.

22
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23
  • Cable Distribution
  • Cable Distribution Equipment
  • UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair)
  • UTP Cable Termination Tools
  • UTP Connectors, plugs, jacks, and patch Panels
  • UTP Cable Certification and Testing
  • Shielded Twisted Pair
  • Thin-Net Coaxial Cable
  • Optical Fiber
  • Multi-Mode fiber
  • Single Mode Fiber
  • Fiberoptic Connectors

24
UTP Cable Termination Tools
  • Punch Blocks
  • Crimp Tools

25
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26
UTP Connectors
  • plugs
  • jacks
  • patch Panels
  • patch cables
  • labels

27
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28
TIA/EIA 568 Standard
29
  • Transceivers
  • AUI connectors
  • Media converters

30
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31
Thin Net Coax
  • (Coaxial Cable) Used for 10Base 2 Ethernet.
  • Coax is primarily used for its self shielding
    properties, low attenuation at LAN frequencies,
    and installation expense.
  • The construction of the cable greatly reduces
    susceptibility to outside interfering signals and
    noise, as well as minimizing the radiated
    emissions from the cable. 
  • Jacket- (sheath) The outer protective covering of
    a cable.
  • Center Conductor   Inner part of a Thin- net
    (coaxial cable). Center conductor or wire on
    which the LAN signal is carried. See Thin-net,
    shield, braided wire shield, foil shield, 10Base
    2."
  • Insulation   A material which is nonconductive to
    the flow of electric current. The coating
    (usually plastic) of a conductor which insulates
    it from other conductors.
  • Shield   A metallic foil or multi-wire screen
    mesh that is used to prevent electromagnetic
    fields from penetrating or exiting a transmission
    cable.

32
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33
Optical Fiber
  • Multi-Mode fiber
  • most commonly used in LANs and MANs.
  • A fiber wave guide which supports the propagation
    of multiple modes.
  • Multi-mode fiber may have a typical core diameter
    of 50 to 100 um with a refractive index that is
    graded or stepped.
  • It allows the use of inexpensive LED light
    sources and connector alignment and coupling is
    less critical than with single mode fiber.
  • Distances of transmission and transmission
    bandwidth are less than single mode fiber due to
    dispersion of the light signal.

34
  • Single Mode Fiber
  • A fiber wave guide in which only one mode will
    propagate. Single mode fiber has a very small
    core diameter, in some fibers aprox. 8 micron. It
    allows signal transmission for long fiber
    distances with relatively high bandwidth and is
    generally driven with a laser diode."

35
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36
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37
Indoor Fiber-optic Cables
38
Fiber-optic Connectors
  • ST
  • SC
  • FSD

39
ST
SC
FSD
40
Fiber Termination Techniques
  • Breakout Cable
  • Epoxy
  • Crimp
  • UV Cure Epoxy
  • Air Blown Fiber

41
Cable Properties and Characteristics
  • Attenuation
  • NEXT
  • Testing

42
Attenuation
  • Attenuation refers to the power loss an
    electrical signal experiences as it travels
    through a cable.
  • Communications equipment operates by detecting
    signal variations (which becomes more difficult
    as the signal becomes weaker).
  • In a Category 5 system TIA/EIA 568A limits
    attenuation to 24 dB for 100 MHz signal.
  • 20 db of attenuation means that only 1/100 th of
    the original signal reaches its destination.
  • the lower the dB means the stronger the signal
  • Distance, higher frequencies and high
    temperatures increase attenuation.

43
UTP Cable Certification and Testing
  • Attenuation and Near End Cross Talk (NEXT) are
    the two most crucial electrical parameters that
    distinguish performance characteristics of
    twisted pair cable.
  • Attenuation
  • Attenuation is the loss of communication signal
    energy.
  • Represented in dB or decibels.
  • Decibels
  • Attenuation and NEXT are reported in negative (-
    dB).
  • Attenuation and NEXT dB are relative measures of
    changes in voltage.
  • dB loss has a logarithmic progression.
  • 3 dB 2X
  • 10 dB 10X
  • 20 dB 100X
  • 30 dB 1,000X
  • 40 dB 10,000X
  • 50 dB 100,000X
  • 60 dB 1,000,000X

44
Near End Cross Talk (NEXT)
  • NEXT occurs when a portion of the signal energy
    jumps from one pair in a cable to another.
  • Cables are most susceptible to cross talk near
    their ends, or close to devices.
  • In a UTP cable one or two pairs are used to
    transmit signals while the other pair or pairs
    receive.
  • Close proximity of the transmit pairs increases
    NEXT.
  • The first 50 or 60 ft of a cable run are the most
    susceptible to NEXT.
  • Cross connects are especially susceptible to NEXT.

45
  • Too much signal "noise" prevents the receiver
    from distinguishing transmit form receive signals
    and results in garbled transmission and poor
    network performance.
  •  
  • Attenuation to Cross Talk margin
  • Category 3 Category 4 Category 5
  • Attenuation per 100m 13.1 dB 8.9 dB 8.2 dB
  • NEXT 23 dB 38 dB 44 dB
  • Peak Frequency 16 MHz 20 MHz 100 MHz

46
Pair Scanners
  • Pair Scanners
  • CAT 5 Pair Scanner (Cable Tester)
  • CAT 5 Pair Scanners Differ from normal Pair
    Scanners in that they test all pairs of the
    cables at various frequencies up to 100 MHz.
  • Measures each pair for Distance (Including Twist
    Pitch)
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