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ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT

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ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT Managing Organizational Change ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT Managing Organizational Change Change is the process of moving from one state (current ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT


1
ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT
  • Managing Organizational Change

2
What is Change?
Change is the process of moving from onestate
(current state) to another (future state)
Current State
Future State
Transition
3
Change Facts Dynamics
Dynamics of Change
Facts about Change
  • People ...
  • feel awkward, self-conscious
  • think first about what they have to give up
  • feel alone
  • can only handle so much
  • are at different levels of readiness
  • revert to the old as soon as the pressure is off
  • Change is inevitable
  • Change is uncomfortable
  • Change is disruptive
  • The complexity of change has increased

4
How Does Change Take Place?
  • External Forces
  • Economic
  • Social
  • Organizational
  • Environmental
  • Legal
  • Internal Transition
  • Psychological process to shift behavior
  • Let go of the old and embrace the new
  • Occurs at your own pace
  • Internal transitions must occur before
    change is fully realized

5
The Cycle of Transition
Denial
Commitment
Reward and Motivate
Inform, Communicate and Motivate
teamwork satisfaction clear focus and
plan cooperation balance clear vision of the
future
it will be over soon this wont
happen apathy numbness minimize the change ignore
Resistance
Exploration
Facilitate, Problem Solve and Motivate
Listen, Share and Understand
seeing possibilities exploring alternatives feelin
g I can make it high creativity and energy too
many new ideas lack of focus indecisiveness have
too much to do start being in the future
sense of loss of control concerned with
competency future contribution unclear lack of
focus or direction cant sleep at
night anger/fights withdrawal from the
team blaming
ZIGZAG
Adapted from Managing Change at Work by Cynthia
Scott and Dennis Jaffe
6
Strategies for Managing Reactions to Change
Denial Gain Power Through Information
Commitment Keep the Momentum
  • Gather information from reliable sources.
  • Avoid getting caught up in rumors and
    speculation. Discuss rumors openly with your
    manager and verify facts.
  • Allow yourself time to internalize and reflect
    on how you feel about the change. Dont be
    swept away by others emotion.
  • Avoid staying stuck in this stage. It can be
    draining and defeating.
  • Continue to find new solutions to the new
    situation.
  • Revisit and refine your goals.
  • Continue to rally people around the change.
  • Avoid complacency by assuming a new status quo.
  • Continue to expand your skills and knowledge.
  • Break out of your comfort zone by taking on new
    assignments and challenges.

Exploration Venture into Uncharted Territory
Resistance Stop Spinning Your Wheels
  • Accept that this is a period of emotional
    turmoil and that you may experience feelings
    of anger, hurt, disappointment, depression,
    betrayal and loss.
  • Seek emotional support from trusted friends,
    family, peers and managers.
  • Avoid self-defeating behavior such as acting
    like a victim, developing a bad attitude, and
    rallying others to fight the change.
  • Avoid staying stuck in this stage A prolonged
    negative attitude can earn you a poor
    reputation and undo a lot of your good work.
  • Continue to suggest ideas and think
    unconventionally.
  • Focus on changes that can be made to work rather
    than listing all the things that can go
    wrong.
  • Focus on priorities and set short term goals
    for yourself.
  • Acquire new skills and knowledge.

Adapted from Managing Change at Work by Cynthia
Scott and Dennis Jaffe
7
Shifting Behaviors
  • For people to consistently behave in a new
    way, three conditions must be met
  • the person must
  • be aware of what the new desired behavior is
  • have the skills to perform the desired behavior
    successfully
  • be motivated to change his/her old behavior

8
Managing Organizational Change
a disciplined approach to help organizations
manage transition
9
Guiding Principles of MOC
  • People are our only sustainable competitive
    advantage - they are the intellectual capital of
    the organization.
  • Those who are closest to the work have the best
    information about what is needed to do it most
    effectively.
  • People tend to support more readily what they
    help to create.
  • People need to understand the context of the
    change. Understanding is found through
    dialogue.
  • To build a sustainable change, people must
    experience some personal results.

10
MOC Areas of Focus
Team Effectiveness Assessing team dynamics and
assisting the project manager
11
Creating Your Business Case
  • The purpose of a business case for change
  • To influence alignment around project objectives,
    deliverables, and metrics
  • Business case should articulate
  • The objectives of the project
  • The intended outcomes and benefits
  • Specific deliverables (including specific
    results)
  • The driving forces
  • The costs (fixed, short term, long term) and ROI
  • The timeline and expected delivery date
  • The constraints, risks, and challenges
  • The proposed project structure who is leading,
    who is participating

12
Creating Your Business Case
  • Critical Success Factors
  • Gain alignment and agreement between sponsors and
    key stakeholders.
  • Created to be used in future communications to
    end users
  • Consider this a decision checkpoint should we
    proceed with this investment or not?
  • Lack of alignment indicates the need for
    continued refinement of the business case or a
    halt to the project

13
Stakeholder Analysis
  • The purpose of the stakeholder analysis
  • To specifically identify all members of the
    community that will be directly or indirectly
    impacted by the project
  • To assess the reach or magnitude of the project
  • Creating a stakeholder analysis
  • List all groups and individuals you expect to be
    impacted
  • Useful to include the following attributes
    initially
  • Group name / individual name
  • Manager name
  • Classification (sponsor, focus/target, change
    agent)
  • Directly or indirectly impacted
  • Impact Assessment (high, medium, low)
  • Key interests or expectations

14
Stakeholder Analysis 2
  • Do early and update often
  • Use for assessments of needs, expectations, and
    success factors for key stakeholders by
    conducting interview sessions
  • Utilize this information throughout the project
    communication planning, focus groups, training
    assessments, and identification of risk areas
  • Avoid the temptation to create multiple lists.
    Use a master list and design to future intentions.

15
Communication
  • The purpose of communication planning
  • To provide discipline around reviewing your
    communication strategy
  • To identify objectives and messages for key
    communications moments within a project
  • To provide a process to follow for creating
    messages.

It can take 7-11 times for us to hear a message
before we internalize
16
Communication 2
The communication planning process
START
Determine key messages and communication
objectives
From stakeholder analysis
Determine audience
Get feedback and analyze effectiveness
Communication Process
Determine our desired outcomes
Deliver the communication
What would be observable?
Determine communication vehicles, owners, and
timing
17
Sponsorship Alignment
Sponsorship Alignment Maintain Sponsor Alignment
and Commitment
  • The purpose of sponsorship alignment
  • To help build the partnership between the project
    and the sponsors
  • To set expectations about what the sponsors will
    be asked to do to support the MOC activities of
    the project.
  • Sponsorship alignment includes
  • Specify sponsor roles and expectations
  • Validate adequate sponsor representation
  • Determine engagement model (expectations for
    future meetings and checkpoints)
  • Periodic sponsorship assessments
  • Determining escalation model
  • Clearly stating accountability
  • Establishing effective relationships with
    sponsors keeping in touch

18
Sponsorship Alignment - 2
Sponsorship Alignment Maintain Sponsor Alignment
and Commitment
  • Sponsor Roles Responsibilities
  • Maintaining program priority
  • Championing the program through personal actions
    and conversations to peers and own organization
  • Resolves conflicts over policies or objectives
  • Providing political influence at high levels
  • Acts as an escalation board for unresolved issues
    or cross-functional decisions
  • Approving scope changes to site project plans
  • Removing roadblocks and supporting key project
    decisions
  • Creating the cultural shifts necessary to realize
    the business results and benefits.

EXECUTIVE SPONSORS
Note There may be different levels of
sponsorship needed throughout the life of the
project
19
Training
  • The purpose of training strategy/planning
  • To identify the educational needs required to
    update or alter the skills needed by the directly
    impacted audience
  • To effectively deliver the training required
  • Training strategy/plan should articulate
  • A holistic picture of the education required to
    shift to future state
  • Training goals and objectives
  • Audience analysis
  • Training needs analysis
  • Delivery approach
  • Cost proposals
  • Use the stakeholder analysis for needs assessment

20
Training Strategy/Plan
  • Audience analysis is key to training success
  • Critical to understand what is the same and what
    is different to create that bridge between the
    familiar and the unknown
  • Critical to accommodate multiple learning styles
    in training design
  • Ensure your business community reviews and
    sponsors your strategy and delivery plan
  • Ensure appropriate logistics

21
Change Impact and Organizational Readiness
  • The purpose of these activities
  • To assess the magnitude of the change to the
    organization
  • To help assess organizational readiness for go/no
    go decision checkpoints
  • Change impact should articulate
  • What will stay the same
  • What will be different
  • What community is impacted how

22
Change Impact and Organizational Readiness
Sample Change Impact




Who does this
What systems are
Other processes
Current State
today?
used?
impacted?
Process Step
Engineer
Designer RA400
Supplier
Notification
Are there
What systems will
What are the key
What is the impact
Future State
Who will do this?
differences?
be used?
differences?
of this change?
Yes or No
Process Step
Procurement
New System
Yes
Transitioning to
Need training for
Procurement
procurement - need to
assess readiness to
transition
23
Knowledge Transfer
  • The purpose of knowledge transfer
  • To identify your strategy for leveraging team
    knowledge
  • To articulate tactical steps in knowledge
    capture, sharing, and transfer
  • To identify trends in learning within the
    organization
  • Knowledge transfer strategy should articulate
  • Recommendations for sharing key learnings from
    past projects
  • Recommendations for conducting retrospectives at
    end of each project phase
  • Strategy and process for communicating and
    sharing key learnings
  • Process for storing and retrieving key learnings
  • Process for analyzing trends
  • Critical Success Factors
  • Understand the intent for capturing knowledge
    how will it be used?
  • Develop a psychologically safe environment where
    learnings are valued

24
Team Effectiveness
  • The purpose of team effectiveness
  • To improve team effectiveness and project
    performance
  • To assess team processes in decision making,
    problem solving, and communication

Team Effectiveness Assessing team dynamics and
effectiveness
  • Teams are most effective when
  • Commitment to a common purpose
  • Clearly articulated goals
  • Mutual accountability for success
  • Roles are understood and aligned
  • Processes for decision making are clear
  • Team is able to self-learn about their own
    effectiveness
  • Team is able to observe and respond to group
    norms
  • Ability to share leadership
  • Ability to collaborate

ARE WE GETTING THE RESULTS WE WANT? IF NOT,
WHAT DO WE DO ABOUT IT?
25
Why is it important to focus on Organizational
Change?
  • Today is a world of complex and frequent change
  • Cultural and behavioral factors are the essence
    of organizational change
  • Supports consistent leadership and communication
    practices

26
Barriers to Success for Organizational Change
82
Resistance To Change
72
Inadequate Sponsorship
65
Unrealistic Expectations
Poor Project Management
46
Case For Change Not Compelling
Scope Expansion / Uncertainty
Directly Relates to
Project Team Lacked Skills
Managing
Organizational
Change
No Change Management Program
Not Horizontal Process View
IT Perspective Not Integrated
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
of Firms
27
How to Hit the Ground Running in Your New
Management Job
35 of managers who change jobs fail in their
new ones and either quit or are asked to leave
within 18 months. . . Most managers who
blow it have fine technical skills but stumble
over the softer side.
Fortune March 7, 2005
28
Management Transition Meeting
  • Phase 1. Group talks, manager listens
  • Facilitator leads brainstorm Issues that affect
    the group
  • Issues are prioritized (multi-vote) in three
    categories technical, interpersonal and
    administrative
  • Manager stays in background, takes notes,
    observes group processes
  • Manager publishes list of issues and priorities
  • Group members come prepared to answer
  • Name a recent group accomplishment
  • What area does the group need to develop?
  • What is a strength of the group?
  • What is the atmosphere of the group?
  • If I could only change one thing it would be . .
    .

29
Management Transition Meeting
  • Phase 2. Manager talks, group asks questions
    and listens
  • Questions to focus on manager and his/her style,
    not on issues from Phase 1
  • Manager can respond Ill get back to you on
    that
  • Manager can ask and answer his/her own
    questions(including issues from Phase 1 if so
    desired)
  • Possible questions for the group
  • What strengths do you bring to the group?
  • What pressures do you believe you will face in
    this job?
  • What do you expect of the people reporting to
    you?
  • What makes you angry?
  • What should we do if we think youre making a
    mistake?

30
Management Transition Meeting (in the
first 2 weeks in the job)
  • Reduces the transition time for the group
  • Provides the new manager with group opinions
    on issues and priorities
  • Helps the new manager get off on the right foot
  • Helps the new manager set the tone for the
    future

31
Assignment
  • Case brief Allentown Last names beginning with
    N Z
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