ATMOS 397G Biogeochemical Cycles and Global Change Lecture 26: Climate, Energy and Carbon Sequestration (cont.) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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ATMOS 397G Biogeochemical Cycles and Global Change Lecture 26: Climate, Energy and Carbon Sequestration (cont.)


Lecture 26: Climate, Energy and ... cover crops, manures ... but much more work is necessary to understand and optimize the process. Energy Sustainability ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ATMOS 397G Biogeochemical Cycles and Global Change Lecture 26: Climate, Energy and Carbon Sequestration (cont.)

ATMOS 397GBiogeochemical Cycles and Global
ChangeLecture 26 Climate, Energy and Carbon
Sequestration (cont.)
  • Don Wuebbles
  • Department of Atmospheric Sciences
  • University of Illinois, Urbana, IL
  • May 1, 2003

Terrestrial Sequestration
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Average C Sequestration (Pg
C/year) Strategy Low
Estimate High Estimate Forestry Converting
marginal crop/pasture to forest 0.033 0.119 Inc
reasing timber growth on timber
land 0.138 0.190 Growing short-rotation woody
crops for energy 0.091 0.180 Increasing tree
numbers/canopy cover in urban areas 0.011 0.034
Planting trees in shelter belts 0.003 0.006 To
tal (wood only) 0.276 0.529 Cropland Cropla
nd conversion to CRP (excluding
agroforestry) 0.006 0.014 Conservation
tillage/residue management 0.035 0.107 Altered
cropping systems (fertilizer, cover crops,
manures, irrigation) 0.024 0.063 Total (SOC
only) 0.065 0.184 Pasture Management 0.010
0.010 Soil Restoration (eroded land, mine land,
salt affected soil) 0.011 0.025 Total
Forestry (wood) and Cropland/pasture
(soil) 0.362 0.748
Potential for U.S. Sequestration
The Global Potential of Carbon Sequestration by
The map shows the potential rate of carbon
sequestration during 2008 -2012 -- the period
when the Parties of the protocol must reduce
their emissions or compensate them by carbon
sequestration -- that may achieved in course on
an afforestation project launched in 2000.
Carbon Capture and Separation
Carbon Capture and Sequestration Components
Fossil Fuel Combustion
Flue/Syn Gas
Flue Gas
Atmospheric Concentration
Separation Capture
Geological Storage or Disposal
Fixation or Reuse
Ocean Disposal(1)
Terrestrial Uptake
Deep Coal Seam
Saline Aquifer
Oil/Gas Reservoir
(1) Environmental and public perception concerns
may cause ocean disposal to be an unacceptable
Carbon Reuse
  • An alternative to storing CO2 is to convert it
    into another chemical compound.
  • Numerous CO2 conversion phenomena are found in
  • The most common is photosynthesis
  • Mollusks use carbon dioxide that is dissolved in
    ocean water to build their shells
  • Sandstone reacts with CO2 in the air to form
  • CO2 trapped in geologic formations over eons can
    be converted to methane, carbonates and other
    species though biochemical processes that are not
    fully understood. 
  • CO2 conversion processes can both reduce net
    carbon emissions and provide significant
    collateral benefits. 
  • Both photosynthetic processes and other no-light
    biochemical processes can convert CO2 back to
    fuel, creating regenerable energy systems that
    displace the need for new fossil resources. 
  • Certain biological processes produce valuable
    pharmaceutical compounds or specialty chemicals
    that can be recovered and used to off-set the
    cost of CO2 capture.
  • Mineralization converts CO2 into carbonate rocks,
    which can be used for soil amendments,
    construction fill, and other applications. 

Examples of advanced process concepts focused
solely on sequestration could include Creation
of novel manufactured products from captured CO2
with large potential markets Direct capture
of CO2 from the air Use of CO2 to manufacture
polymers that are currently in wide commercial
use Capture of CO2 in magnesium-containing
materials to form magnesium carbonates Produce
ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) fertilizer from
water, ammonia and carbon dioxide Increase
plant enzyme activity for carbon (rubisco, PEP
carboxylase) and nitrogen fixation (nitrogenase)
pathways to increase biomass yields Modify
plants to produce more durable or
cost-competitive carbon-based materials. An
additional category emphasizes integration of
capture technologies into energy production
schemes Use supercritical CO2 to form man-made
geothermal hot-rock reservoirs and as the
heat-transfer fluid in geothermal power plants.
Develop offshore energy complexes that generate
power from undersea resources and return captured
CO2 to undersea formations.
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Fuel Cells in Energy Production
Ocean Sequestration
Direct Injection
Ocean Fertilization is a sequestration strategy
aimed at enhancing the transport of carbon
through the base of the euphotic zone into the
deep sea. A possible useful by product is
increased fish yields. Research is required to
avoid bad side effects such as toxic blooms.
Direct Injection of CO2 into the mid-water
column seeks to short circuit the natural
delivery of CO2 into the deep sea and minimize
environmental impacts by avoiding the
biologically rich upper 1000 m
from Brewer et al.
Geologic Sequestration
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Coal Bed Methane. Coal beds typically
contain large amounts of methane-rich gas that is
adsorbed onto the surface of the coal. The
current practice for recovering coal bed methane
(CBM) is to depressurize the bed, usually by
pumping water out of the reservoir. An
alternative approach is to inject carbon dioxide
gas into the bed, as shown. Tests have shown
that CO2 is roughly twice as adsorbing on coal
as methane, giving it the potential to
efficiently displace methane and remain
sequestered in the bed. CO2 recovery of CBM has
been demonstrated in limited field tests, but
much more work is necessary to understand and
optimize the process.
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Energy Sustainability A Blueprint for a Clean
Energy Future
U.S. Electricity Mix, 2001
  • US dependency on fossil fuels particularly
    natural gas forecasted to grow over next two

Includes oil, municipal solid waste, and other
fuels. Source EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2003.
Measuring Sustainability
  • Resource Availability
  • Economic Costs
  • Environmental and Public Health Impacts
  • Vulnerability (Security)

Fossil Fuels - Sustainable?
  • Coal
  • Abundant and cheap supply
  • Natural Gas
  • Abundant supply, subject to price spikes
  • Petroleum
  • U.S. Production in decline, Imports are
  • Persian Gulf two-thirds of remaining proven

Electricity is a MajorContributor to Air
Electric generation
Source EPA, 1998
Unacceptable costs of air pollution
  • Soot, smog and toxins
  • Respiratory disease among children, elderly
  • Smog shrouding cities, national parks, forests
    and highest peaks
  • Acid rain destroying forests and lakes
  • Mercury in food chain

Air pollution harms human health
  • 30,000 early U.S. deaths each year from power
    plant particulates
  • Smog impacts (all sources)
  • 6.2 million asthma attacks
  • 117,300 ER visits
  • 58,600 hospital admissions

Environmental impacts Mountaintop removal coal
  • 15-25 of southern WV mountain tops removed
  • 300,000 acres of forests
  • 1,000 miles of streams buried

Source Citizens Coal Council http//www.citizensc
Environmental impacts Big Sandy River, KY mine
waste spill
  • 250 million gallon spill
  • 75 miles of streams contaminated
  • Arsenic, mercury, lead, copper, chromium

Source Southern Alliance for Clean
Energy http//
oal/ KYdisaster/index.html
Energy Insecurity
  • Disruption at a key power plant, refinery,
    transmission hub or pipeline can break flow of
    power or fuel to millions and create cost spikes
  • Breach of nuclear reactor core or spent fuel
    storage cask would be catastrophic
  • Our economy is vulnerable to Persian Gulf
    politics and OPECs market power
  • Political events in Middle East precipitated last
    three major oil price shocks each was followed
    by US recession

Security ImpactsTrans-Alaska Pipeline, 10/4/01
Refineries, pipelines, storage tanks,
transmission lines vulnerable to sabotage
U.S. obligation to lead internationally
Nuclear Power - Sustainable?
  • High cost technology
  • Radioactive waste disposal
  • Poorly regulated and enforced safety standards
  • Increased concerns over the risks to national

Yucca Mt.
Energy Sustainability Solutions
  • Renewable Energy Sources
  • Wind
  • Solar
  • Bioenergy
  • Geothermal
  • Energy Efficiency
  • Preferred option doing more with less
  • Fuel Cells

Wind Power - Fastest growing energy source in
the world, with annual growth of more than 25 in
the past decade
Technical potential Over 4 times current U.S.
electricity use! (source NREL)
Wind could realistically supply 20 of U.S.
electricity (source Battelle Pacific NW Lab)
Worldwide wind energy potential more than 15
times current world energy demand! (source DOE)
Solar Energy Potential
  • 200,000 homes in U.S. use solar PVs
  • Market expanding 20-25 annually worldwide
  • Could power US with PV on 0.3 of land area
  • Equals 1/3 of US roadways
  • (National Center for Photovoltaics, NREL)


Potential for meeting electricity needs Biomass
energy crop potential
US Energy Crop Potential in 2008, under 50/dry
ton delivered
Technical potential equals 70 of US electricity
use Tripling biomass energy use by 2020 20
billion in new income for farmers and rural areas
Source Oak Ridge National Lab, US DOE
Potential for meeting electricity needs
Geothermal resource potential
Technical potential equals 14 times proven and
unproven coal reserves
Sources UURI, USGS
Renewable Energy Success StoryPrice declines
with RD and growth
Photo Green Mountain Power Corporation
4030 20 10 0
COE cents/kWh
1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
100 80 60 40 20
COE cents/kWh
Source DOE
1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
10 8 6 4 2
COE cents/kWh
1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
Solar thermal
Solar thermal
70 60 50 40 30 20 10
COE cents/kWh
Photos Warren Gretz, US DOE
1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
Barriers to Renewable Energy
  • Commercialization Barriers
  • Infrastructure
  • Economies of Scale
  • Unequal Government Subsidies and Taxes
  • Market Failure to Value Benefits of Renewables
  • Market Barriers
  • Lack of Information
  • Institutional Barriers
  • High Transaction and Financing Costs
  • Spilt Incentives
  • Transmission Cost

Sustainable Energy Solutions
  • UCS Clean Energy Blueprint -
  • By 2020, produce 20 of our electricity from
    renewable energy and reduce overall energy use
    through a suite of policies
  • Save consumers 440 billion (350 annually per
    typical family)
  • Eliminate need for 975 new power plants, retire
    nearly 200 existing plants
  • Reduce carbon dioxide emissions by two-thirds,
    and NOx and SO2 by 55 from business as usual

Policies Advocated by Clean Energy Blueprint
  • 20 national Renewable Energy Standard
  • Public benefits fund (1/household/month)
  • Extend production tax credits for wind, biomass
    expand to include additional technologies
  • Boost RD for renewable energy and efficiency
  • Net metering for small, distributed generation
  • Increase energy efficiency standards for
    appliances (e.g. air conditioning) and equipment
  • Incentives for combined heat and power facilities
  • Enhance state building codes
  • Tax incentives for efficient buildings
  • Industrial efficiency measures
  • Blueprint policies endorsed by over 180

CHP Combined Heat and Power efficient energy
generation program
Sequential production of power (electricity or
shaft work) and thermal energy from a single fuel
source. CHP is a more efficient, cleaner, and
reliable alternative to conventional generation.
There are a variety of technologies that can be
used for CHP. In most cases, small power
generation consists of a heat engine, or prime
mover, that creates shaft power that in turn
drives an electric generator. In CHP mode, waste
heat from the prime mover is recovered to provide
steam or hot water to meet onsite needs. Prime
movers for CHP systems include reciprocating
engines, combustion or gas turbines, steam
turbines, microturbines, and fuel cells. These
prime movers are capable of burning a variety of
fuels, including natural gas, coal and oil, and
alternative fuels such as wood, biomass, black
liquor and process gas. Many of the prime movers
are commonly in use today, some are just entering
the market, and others will be available within a
few years.
Electricity generationClean Energy Blueprint vs.
Business as Usual
Electricity Generation under Business as Usual
Clean Energy Blueprint
Investment costs and energy bill savingsClean
Energy Blueprint
Net savings reach 105 billion per year in 2020
Cumulative savings 440 billion
How? Reduced electricity use and lower natural
gas prices more than offset a slight increase in
electricity prices.
Power plant CO2 emissionsClean Energy Blueprint
CO2 reduced 66 from BAU
Power plant SO2 and NOx emissionsClean Energy
SO2 and NOx reduced 55 from business as usual
Oil savingsClean Energy Blueprint and CAFE vs.
Arctic Refuge
Blueprint oil savings 2x Arctic Refuge in
2020 CAFE 10x Arctic Refuge in 2020
Photo US FWS
U.S. LeadershipIs It Headed in Wrong Direction?
  • White House National Energy Policy
  • Arctic wildlife refuge drilling
  • Rollback environmental restrictions on coal power
    plants, refineries
  • Billions in subsidies for fossil fuels and
    nuclear power
  • 1,300 new power plants
  • Thousands of miles of pipelines and power lines
  • Modest proposals for renewables and energy

Clean Energy Blueprint Summary
  • Diversifies Our Energy Supply
  • 20 Renewable Energy
  • Reduces dependence on coal, natural gas, and
    nuclear power
  • Protects the Environment
  • Significant reduction in CO2, NOx, and SO2
  • Reduces need for thousands of miles of new gas
  • 60 reduction in coal use eliminates the need to
    mine and transport 750 million tons of coal per
    year by 2020
  • Saves Consumers Money
  • 440 billion between 2002 and 2020
  • Reduces Vulnerable Facilities
  • Avoids 975 new power plants (_at_300 MW)
  • Retires 180 dirty coal plants (_at_500 MW) and 14
    nuclear plants (_at_1000 MW)

Global Energy Sustainability Options
  • Industrialized Nations
  • Policy options are similar to the United States
  • EU already doing more with renewables, with fewer
  • Greater commitment to addressing climate change
    and to the international process (i.e. Kyoto)
  • Developing Nations
  • Hundreds of millions with no access to
  • Over-reliance on hydropower
  • Need for renewable resource assessments
  • Distributed Generation (solar and wind)

Global Energy Sustainability
  • No single energy source is perfect
  • The perfect must not be the enemy of the good.
  • The good, however, must always be getting better.
  • We need to strive for
  • Fuel Diversity
  • Energy Efficiency
  • Broad access to technology investment
  • So that we can achieve
  • Long-term reliability, affordability
  • Reduced risk to public health, environment