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Confined Spaces Overview April 25, 2013

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29 CFR 1910.146 Kara * The OSHA/Mushroom Alliance meets monthly at the AMI office in Avondale For more information, e-mail any of the presenters koliver_at_southmill.com ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Confined Spaces Overview April 25, 2013


1
Confined Spaces OverviewApril 25, 2013
29 CFR 1910.146
2
Why is this important?
3
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4
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5
This is Michael Phan
6
Tragedy at Mushroom Farm
  • September 5, 2008
  • Mushroom Composting Facility
  • Langley, British Colombia
  • 3 Fatalities
  • 2 Serious Brain Injuries

7
What Why?
  • Hydrogen Sulfide low levels of Oxygen
  • 4 employees injured/killed
  • Attempting RESCUE
  • Emergency response prevented more deaths
  • Issues
  • Poor construction
  • Language/Culture barrier
  • NO CONFINED SPACES PROGRAM

8
Introduction
9
Confined Space Definition
  • Large enough to enter into and perform assigned
    work
  • Limited means of entry/exit
  • NOT designed for continuous periods of occupancy

10
MUST have all THREE elements to be classified as
a Confined Space
11
Point of Entry Plastic Wrap Test
12
Limited or Restricted Entry/Exit
1. Do you have to use your hands to enter or exit
the space?
13
Limited or Restricted Entry/Exit
2. Do you have to contort your body in any way to
get into or out of the space?
14
Limited or Restricted Entry/Exit
3. Is your entry into or exit from the space
slowed down or impeded by physical obstructions
(such as pipes, ductwork, holes in the floor,
etc.)?
15
Limited or Restricted Entry/Exit
Floating Roof Tank
4. Would you be forced to enter or exit in a
posture that might slow self-rescue (escape) or
make rescue more difficult?
16
Continuous Employee Occupancy
  • Does not mean the space must be perpetually
    occupied
  • Could be occupied continuously under
    normal operating conditions
  • Factors to consider
  • Designed to ever hold dense material (water,
    sludge, sand)
  • Lacking heat, light, ventilation
  • Too short to stand-up in
  • Too disgusting for you to put your desk
  • in and work a whole day

17
Examples
18
Boiler Tanks
19
Hoppers
20
Mixer
21
Tunnels
22
Sewers
23
Silos
24
Crawl Spaces
25
Manholes
26
Pits
27
Types
28
Confined Spaces Types
  • Non-permit Required
  • DOES NOT contain hazardous conditions capable of
    causing death or serious physical harm
  • Permit-Required
  • DOES contain hazardous conditions capable of
    causing death or serious physical harm
  • Must have ONE of the following
  • Hazardous atmosphere
  • Engulfing materials
  • Inwardly converging walls
  • Other serious hazards

29
Categorizing the Space
Space large enough to enter AND Limited or
Restricted entry or exit AND Not designed for
continuous worker occupancy
Not a Confined Space
NO
YES
Confined Space
Hazardous Atmosphere
OR
Non-Permit Required Confined Space
Permit Required Confined Space
Engulfment Hazard
YES
NO
OR
Configuration Hazard
OR
Any other recognized serious hazard
30
Hazards
31
Hazards - Types
  • Atmospheric
  • Physical
  • Other hazards

32
Atmospheric Hazards
  • Oxygen Deficient or Oxygen Rich

33
Atmospheric Hazards
  • Airborne Combustible Dust

34
Atmospheric Hazards
  • Flammable Gas, Vapor, or Mist

35
Atmospheric Hazards
  • Atmospheric conditions

36
IDLH
  • Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health
  • Poses an immediate or delayed threat to life, OR
  • Causes irreversible adverse health effects, OR
  • Interferes with ability to escape unaided from a
    permit space

37
STEL
  • Short Term Exposure Limit
  • The maximum concentration of a chemical to which
    workers may be exposed continuously
  • Up to 15 minutes without danger to health and
    safety

38
PEL
  • Permissible Exposure Limit
  • The time-weighted average threshold limit a
    person working an 8 hour shift can be exposed to
    a chemical without suffering ill effects

39
Containment What is the MAIN danger? What does it look/smell like? Explosive or Flammable? Industry Examples
Argon(Ar) Displaces oxygenMay accumulate at bottom Colorless, odorless NO Used when welding inside confined space.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Displaces oxygenMay accumulate at bottomToxic Colorless, odorless NO Fermentation process in wine storage and fermentation tanks.
Carbon Monoxide (CO) Toxic asphyxiant(causing suffocation) Colorless, odorless(NO WARNING) YES Produced by gas or propane.
Chlorine (CI2) Toxic lung and eye irritantMay accumulate at bottom Greenish yellow colorsharp pungent odor NO Could leak into confined space from nearby tanks or piping containing chlorine piping inflows.
Gasoline Vapours Fire and explosionMay accumulate at bottom Colorless sweet odor YES VERY! Use of gasoline inside a confined space vapors from spills of gasoline nearby.
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Extremely flammableVery toxic causes lung failureMay accumulate at bottom Colorless rotten egg odor YES Rotting matter has bacteria generating H2S. In pulp and paper mills, sewers, treatment plants.
Methane (CH4) Fire and explosionMay accumulate at top Colorless, odorless(NO WARNING) YES VERY! Rotting matter will generate methane. In sewers, storage tanks.
Nitrogen (N2) Displaces oxygen Colorless, odorless(NO WARNING) NO Inerting a vessel to displace the oxygen to prevent corrosion.In boilers, storage tanks.
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Toxic severe lung irritantMay accumulate at bottom Reddish brownpungent odor NO Produced by internal combustion engines, tools, and equipment that run on gasoline, propane, or diesel.
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Toxic severe lung irritantMay accumulate at bottom Colorless rotten, suffocating odor NO Nearby tanks or piping containing sulfur dioxide that could leak piping inflows.
Oxygen (O2) Low levels asphyxiantHigh levels causesspontaneous combustion, explosion Colorless, odorless Supports combustion Bacteria, rusting, and internal combustion engines will use up oxygen other gases can replace oxygen.In ballast tanks, boilers, double hulls, utility vaults, septic tanks, vats, manure pits, wine storage and fermentation tanks, reaction vessels, storage tanks, fuel tanks, tank cars, tank trucks, kilns. Welding inside any confined space may decrease the level of oxygen.
40
Oxygen Levels
41
Physical Hazards
  • Falling
  • Tripping
  • Moving parts
  • Engulfment
  • Temperature extremes
  • Tapering
  • Water

42
Other Hazards
  • Configuration Hazards
  • Fire Hazards
  • Hot Work
  • Electrical hazards
  • Exposed or frayed wires
  • Electric shock
  • Mechanical hazards
  • Lockout /Tagout

43
Controlling Hazards
  1. Elimination removal
  2. Substitution replacement
  3. Engineering Controls isolation
  4. Administrative Controls training/signs
  5. Personal Protective Equipment PPE

44
Controlling Hazards Confined Spaces
  • Elimination
  • Pull pumps up to ground level
  • Substitution
  • LOTO
  • Engineering Controls
  • Forced ventilation
  • Administrative Controls
  • Entry Permit
  • Personal Protective Equipment
  • Respirators

45
Procedure
46
Space Identification
  • 1. Assess your spaces
  • 2. Identify and limit access through
  • Barricades
  • Proper signage
  • Doors
  • Locks/chains

47
GENERAL ENTRY PROCEDURE
  • Complete the Permit
  • Perform pre-entry atmospheric and physical hazard
    monitoring
  • Gas Monitoring
  • Complete necessary safety controls
  • Ventilation
  • LOTO
  • PPE
  • Etc.

48
GENERAL ENTRY PROCEDURE
  • Pre-entry briefing
  • Discuss with everyone
  • What is on the permit hazards, tests
  • Who is on the permit roles
  • What does mean to everyone responsibilities
  • Perform entry work
  • Keep trained attendant in contact with worker
  • Perform continuous atmospheric tests
  • Use the four gas meter

49
GENERAL ENTRY PROCEDURE
  • Exit the confined space
  • Debrief
  • Review the results of continuous air monitoring
  • Verify completion
  • THIRTY MINUTES if Hot Work was completed

50
Permit Rescue
51
Permit Must Contain
  • Space to be entered
  • Purpose of entry
  • Date of entry and duration
  • Authorized entrants
  • Use a roster or tracking system
  • Attendants
  • Entry Supervisor signature required

52
Permit Must Contain
  • Hazards list control measures
  • Acceptable entry conditions
  • Results of initial testing atmospheric
  • Names/contact information for rescue or emergency
    services
  • Communication procedures
  • Necessary equipment
  • Other important information

53
ENTRY PERMITPERMIT VALID FOR 8 HOURS ONLY.
ALL COPIES OF PERMIT WILL REMAIN AT JOB SITE
UNTIL JOB IS COMPLETEDDATE SITE LOCATION and
DESCRIPTION ______________________________
PURPOSE OF ENTRY________________________________
__________ SUPERVISOR(S) in charge of crews
________________________________Phone numbers of
Crew_____________________________-____________
__________________________________________________
____________COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES
________________________________RESCUE
PROCEDURES (PHONE NUMBERS AT BOTTOM) BOLD
DENOTES MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS TO BE COMPLETED AND
REVIEWED PRIOR TO ENTRY REQUIREMENTS COMPLETED
DATE TIME Lock
Out/De-energizeVentilation ____ ____ Secure
Area (Post and Flag) ____ ____ Breathing
Apparatus ____ ____ Respirator(s) (Air Purifying)
______________Standby Safety Personnel ____ ____
Phone number____________________Full Body
Harness w/"D" ring ____ ____ Emergency Escape
Retrieval Equip ____ ____ Fire Extinguishers
____ ____ Lighting (Explosive Proof) ____ ____
Protective Clothing ____ ____Hot Work Permit
____ ____
54
RECORD CONTINUOUS MONITORING RESULTS EVERY 2
HOURS CONTINUOUS MONITORING Permissible
_________________________________ TEST(S) TO BE
TAKEN Entry Level PERCENT OF OXYGEN 19.5 to
23.5 ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ LOWER
FLAMMABLE LIMIT Under 10 ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
CARBON MONOXIDE 35 PPM ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
___ ___ Aromatic Hydrocarbon 1 PPM 5PPM ___
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Hydrogen Cyanide
(Skin) 4PPM ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Hydrogen Sulfide 10 PPM 15PPM ___ ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ Sulfur Dioxide 2 PPM 5PPM
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Ammonia 35PPM
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Short-term
exposure limit Employee can work in the area up
to 15 minutes. 8 hr. Time Weighted Avg.
Employee can work in area 8 hrs (longer with
appropriate respiratory protection).
REMARKS________________________________________
_____________________ GAS TESTER NAME
INSTRUMENT(S) MODEL SERIAL /OR CHECK USED
/OR TYPE UNIT ________________ _______________
___________ ____________ ________________
_______________ ___________ ____________ SAFETY
STANDBY PERSON IS REQUIRED FOR ALL CONFINED SPACE
WORK SAFETY STANDBY CHECK CONFINEDCONFINED
PERSON(S) SPACE CHECK SPACE CHECK
ENTRANT(S) ENTRANT(S) ______________ _______
__________ _______ SUPERVISOR AUTHORIZING - ALL
CONDITIONS SATISFIED___________DEPARTMENT/PHONE
AMBULANCE 911FIRE 911
55
Types of Rescue
There are three types of rescue
  • Self-rescue get out when alarm sounds
  • Non-entry rescue harness is used
  • Entry rescue rescue team

56
Training
57
Training Requirements
Affected Employees
  • Hazard Training
  • LOTO
  • Hot Work
  • PPE
  • Respirator
  • Harness
  • Role
  • Attendant
  • Rescue Teams
  • Annual training
  • General First Aid
  • CPR

58
Last Important Points
  • Check with your county Designated Confined
    Space Rescue Teams
  • Remember response time may vary not all fire
    companies are trained
  • Eliminate as many hazards as possible
  • Prevent entry
  • Reduce to non-permit required

59
This is Michael Phan
60
Who is he for you?
61
Giorgi MushroomExamples
62
Lagoon
63
Lagoon Pump House
64
Pump Well
65
Underground piping
66
Manhole
67
Mixer
68
Inside Mixer
69
LOTO
70
Sewer
71
Scale
72
More questions?
  • The OSHA/Mushroom Alliance meets monthly at the
    AMI office in Avondale
  • For more information, e-mail any of the
    presenters
  • koliver_at_southmill.com
  • jhillard_at_murrayins.com
  • gbraxton_at_giorgimush.com
  • You can also check out the OSHA section of AMIs
    Web site at www.americanmushroom.org
  • Click on the OSHA link
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