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Manufacturing Various Shapes

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Manufacturing Various Shapes Manufacturing Processes Outline Milling Slab Milling Face Milling End Milling Other Broaching Sawing Machining Gears Milling Types of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Manufacturing Various Shapes


1
ManufacturingVarious Shapes
  • Manufacturing
  • Processes

2
Outline
  • Milling
  • Slab Milling
  • Face Milling
  • End Milling
  • Other
  • Broaching
  • Sawing
  • Machining Gears

3
Milling Typesof Milling
  • Slab Milling
  • Face Milling
  • End Milling
  • Various Special Operations

4
Various Milling Tools
5
Action of aMilling Cutter
6
Conventional Millingand Climb Milling
7
Slab Milling
  • Axis of tool rotation is parallel to the
    workpiece surface
  • Cutters may have straight or helical teeth

8
Slab MillingTools
9
Slab MillingTools
10
Face Milling
  • Axis of cutter rotation is perpendicular to the
    workpiece surface
  • Leaves feed marks that vary with the feed rate

11
Face MillingTools
12
End Milling
  • Axis of cutter rotation is usually perpendicular
    to the workpiece surface
  • Ball mill cutters have hemispherical ends and can
    be used to mill curved surfaces

13
End MillingTools
14
End MillingTools
15
End MillingTools
(left to right) roughing end mill, center-cut end
mill, ball mill. Center-cut end mills can be fed
into the workpiece like a drill.
16
End MillingTools
Close-up view of a roughing end mill (left) and a
center-cut end mill (right)
Result of using a non-center-cut end mill while
feeding into the workpiece the center has been
clogged with wood. A metal workpiece would cause
the tool to shatter.
17
End Milling
18
Freeform Surfaces
Example of a surface that can be milled with a
computer-controlled ball mill
19
Milling Freeform Surfaces
20
Milling and Feed Marks
21
Milling and Feed Marks
The difference in feed marks between a larger
cutting increment (left) and a smaller cutting
increment (right).
22
Other MillingOperations and Tools
23
Other MillingOperations and Tools
24
Other MillingOperations and Tools
25
Other MillingOperations and Tools
26
Other MillingOperations and Tools
27
Milling Feedand Speed
  • V pDN
  • V Cutting speed, ft/min or m/min
  • D Cutter Diameter
  • N RPM of the cutter
  • f v/Nn
  • f Feed, in/tooth or mm/tooth
  • v Linear speed of the workpiece into the cutter
  • N RPM of the cutter
  • n Number of teeth on the cutter edge
  • Make sure to account for unit differences.

28
Milling Feedand Speed
29
Milling Feedand Speed
  • Example
  • Workpiece Material titanium alloy
  • Cutter Diameter 3 in.
  • Cutting Teeth 10
  • Conditions general
  • V(titanium, general) 175-200 ft/min (from
    table) 2100-2400 in/min
  • N V/pD
  • N (2100-2400)/(p3)
  • 223-255 RPM
  • f(titanium, general) .005-.006 in/tooth (from
    table)
  • v Nnf
  • v 22310(.005-.006)
  • 11.2-13.4 in/min

30
Milling MaterialRemoval Rate
  • MRR wdv
  • w Width of the cut
  • d Depth of the cut
  • v Linear speed of the workpiece into the cutter

31
Milling MaterialRemoval Rate
  • Example
  • Cut Width 4 in
  • Cut depth .2 in
  • Workpiece Speed 11.2 in/min
  • MRR wdv
  • MRR 4.211.2
  • 8.96 in3/min

32
Milling inGeneral
  • Design Considerations
  • Use standard milling cutters avoid expensive
    special cutters
  • Use chamfers instead of radii (fillets)
  • Avoid internal cavities and pockets with sharp
    corners
  • Use materials rigid enough to minimize clamping
    and cutting deflections

33
Milling inGeneral
  • Avoiding Vibration and Chatter
  • Mount cutters close to the spindle base to reduce
    tool deflection
  • Use rigid tool holders and fixtures
  • If vibration and chatter occur, change the tool
    shape and use cutters with fewer cutting teeth or
    random tooth spacing

34
Broaching
  • Used to machine internal and external surfaces of
    varying shapes
  • Produces parts with fine surface finish and
    dimensional accuracy

35
Broaching Machine
36
Broaching Machine
37
Cutting Actionof a Broach
38
Broaches
39
Broaching
  • Design Considerations
  • Design parts so that they can be clamped securely
    in broaching machines and withstand cutting
    forces
  • Avoid blind holes, sharp corners, dovetail
    splines and large flat surfaces
  • Use chamfers instead of round corners when
    possible

40
Sawing
  • Used to separate large pieces of material by
    removing the connecting material
  • Wastes little material because the width of the
    cut is thin

41
Sawing
42
Machining Gears
  • Gears are cut from gear blanks (disks)
  • The following may be used to cut gear teeth
  • A form cutter
  • Broaches (often for internal teeth)
  • A single-point cutting tool guided by a template
  • A pinion-shaped cutter
  • A rack-shaped cutter
  • A hob

43
Machining Gears
44
Machining Gears
45
Summary
  • Many types of complicated and irregular shapes
    can be created by milling, broaching and sawing
  • Gears can be shaped by these and similar means

46
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