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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756-1791

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756-1791 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756-1791 Born in Salzburg 7th child of Leopola and Anna Maria only he and sister Nannerl survived infancy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756-1791


1
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart1756-1791
2
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart1756-1791
  • Born in Salzburg
  • 7th child of Leopola and Anna Maria
  • only he and sister Nannerl survived infancy

3
Leopold Mozart Very respected composer and
violinist
Leopold Mozart, 1765.
4
First composition age 5 transcribed by Leopold
Later composition age 6
5
Mozart played for kings and queens. This
portrait of him was painted in 1762, when he was
six years old.
Children during Mozarts time dressed just like
adults. He just finished playing for Empress
Maria Theresa of Austria.
6
The Mozart Family
7
As Mozart grew older, his reputation spread. Not
only was he a gifted musician, but he could also
compose his own music.
Mozart at 14, 1770.
8
Mozart
  • Able to hear complete pieces in his head
  • Capability for output
  • 10 years
  • 8 Symphonies
  • 17 Piano Concertos
  • 6 Operas
  • Clarinet quartet and quintet
  • Requiem Mass
  • 11 String Quartets
  • 5 String Quintets
  • Many Individual Works

9
  • Though it be long, the work is complete and
    finished in my mind. I take out of the bag of my
    memory what has previously been collected into
    it. For this reason the committing to paper is
    done quickly enough.
  • Mozart

10
  • What a delight this is I cannot tell all this
    producing takes place in a pleasing, lively
    dream.
  • Mozart

11
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13
  • People make a mistake who think that my art has
    come easily to me. Nobody has devoted so much
    time and thought to composition as I. There is
    not a famous master whose work I have not studied
    over and over.
  • Mozart

14
  • My pay is too much for what I do, too little
    for what I could do.
  • Mozart

15
Mozarts Music
  • Simple melodies
  • Contrasting moods
  • Rich orchestration
  • Perfected the serenade

16
Mozarts Music
  • Favored the piano
  • Concertos written for his performance
  • Later symphonies considered his best
  • Operas

17
Mozarts music was meant to be fun and
entertaining.
Mozart 2 years before his death in 1777.
Rondo alla Turka
18
Piano Concerto in A MajorK.488First movement,
Allegro 1786
  • sold to Prince von Furstenburg
  • combined elements of sonata and ritornello form

19
Mozart Opera
  • Opera problems Mozarts solutions

1. stockcharacters
characters have real, believable personalities
2. plots about mythology, gods, aristocracy
plots about real-life middle class characters
continuous flowarias and recitatives blended
together
3. stop go (aria) (recit.)
4. not cohesive (e.g.,
sinfonia)
style, orchestration, harmony, melody--all
contribute to setting mood adding depth to
characters
20
Don Giovanni
  • "The Best Opera Ever Written"
  • - Richard Wagner

21
Libretto
  • By Court poet Lorenzo Da Ponte (like Cosi and
    Figaro)
  • Based on a very well known existing story.
  • Don Juan is a stock character.
  • Da Ponte and Mozart worked closely together on
    the opera right up to the performance.

22
  • used contemporary characters, not mythological
    figures or ancient history from Rome or Greece
    (although he did a few of those, too)
  • biting social commentary the decadent
    aristocracy is compared to the normal, happy,
    healthy lust and love of the common folk
  • recitative still used
  • some in German with spoken dialogue

Da Ponte
23
  • -- all voice ranges used (instead of the
    Baroques treble bass preference)
  • -- ensembles (groups of solo voices) now
    contrasted with arias and recitative

24
Don Giovanni Italian comic opera Don Juan as
anti-hero critique of aristocracy Rarely
performed in the 1800s now regarded as one of
Mozarts finest operas 1787
25
Don Giovanni 1787
  • A comic opera (opera buffa) in 2 acts.
  • Commissioned by the Prague Opera company after
    the success in Prague of Marriage of Figaro.
  • Planned as entertainment for visit of newlywed
    niece of Emperor the archduchess Maria Theresia
    and Prince Anton Clemens of Saxony 14 October
    1787.

26
The Cast
  • As always the singers determined the nature of
    the music Mozart had to write to their
    capabilities. He knew them all except one as he
    had conducted them in Figaro.
  • Don Giovanni Luigi Bassi had been Count
    Almaviva a fiery Italian very handsome and
    very stupid 22 years old, an excellent mimic
    and a very good actor.
  • The cast requires 3 females (all sopranos), 5
    males (3 basses, baritone and tenor), plus
    chorus. This small cast reflects the Prague
    company exactly.

27
Characters - Male
  • Don Giovanni a cavalier and seducer of women.
    An ambivalent role that can be played a number of
    ways. Needs a great voice.
  • Leporello servant of Don his assistant in
    crime who unlike Don has some reservations about
    their activities.
  • Don Ottavio fiance of Donna Anna.
  • Masetto country peasant lover of Zerlina
  • Commendatore elderly knight and man of honour.

28
Characters Female
  • Donna Anna daughter of Commendatore and
    betrothed to Ottavio.
  • Donna Elvira a highborn lady from Burgos used
    and abandoned by Don.
  • Zerlino a country girl who Don attempts to
    seduce.

29
Synopsis
  • ACT I
  • Scene 1. The garden of the Commendatore's house
  • A disgruntled Leporello keeps watch while Don
    Giovanni tries to add Donna Anna to his list of
    conquests. Don Giovanni runs from the house,
    followed by Donna Anna, who is trying to unmask
    him and calling for help. Her father, coming to
    her aid, challenges Don Giovanni and is killed by
    him. Don Giovanni and Leporello make their escape
    before Donna Anna reappears with her betrothed,
    Don Ottavio, whom she calls on to avenge her dead
    father.
  • Scene 2. A street near an inn
  • Don Giovanni and Leporello come upon Donna
    Elvira, who has been seduced and abandoned by Don
    Giovanni and who is pursuing him. Don Giovanni
    slips away, leaving Leporello to explain to her
    that she is but one of many.
  • Scene 3. The countryside near Don Giovanni's
    house
  • Don Giovanni and Leporello come upon a peasant
    wedding. Don Giovanni orders Leporello to
    distract Masetto, the bridegroom, while he
    attempts to seduce the bride, Zerlina. He is
    interrupted by Donna Elvira, who warns Zerlina
    and persuades her to come away.
  • Donna Anna and Don Ottavio, not realising that
    Don Giovanni is the villain they are looking for,
    ask for his help. Elvira appears again and
    accuses Giovanni of faithlessness, and he tries
    to convince the others that she is mad. As he
    leaves, something in his voice and manner
    convinces Anna that he is her attacker and the
    murderer of her father.
  • Leporello reports to his master that he has all
    the peasants feasting and drinking, and Giovanni
    orders him to ply them wine, as he intends to add
    to his list of conquests.
  • Scene 4. The garden of Don Giovanni's house
  • Zerlina manages to convince the reproachful
    Masetto that she has done nothing wrong, but he
    is again suspicious when she is alarmed by Don
    Giovanni's voice. Another attempt on Zerlina
    foiled by Masetto's presence, Don Giovanni leads
    the couple into the house.
  • Donna Elvira, Donna Anna and Don Ottavio return
    wearing masks. Accepting Leporello's invitation
    to join the party, they hope this will make their
    revenge easier.
  • Scene 5. A ballroom in Don Giovanni's house
  • As the guests feast, dance and sing, Leporello
    distracts Masetto again and Don Giovanni lures
    Zerlina into another room. When she screams for
    help Giovanni accuses Leporello. But Elvira, Anna
    and Ottavio reveal themselves and confront him
    with their knowledge of his villainy. He makes
    his escape in the confusion.

30
  • ACT II
  • Scene 1. A street near an inn
  • Don Giovanni soothes Leporello's indignation with
    money. He has his eyes on Donna Elvira's maid and
    changes clothes with Leporello so he will look
    like one of her class. Elvira appears at a window
    and laments her continuing love for Don Giovanni.
    He answers from the shadows that he still loves
    her, while Leporello, dressed in his clothes,
    mimes in the street. Elvira comes down and Don
    Giovanni instructs the disguised Leporello to
    lead her away while he serenades the maid.
  • Masetto and his friends appear, armed and in
    search of Don Giovanni, who, pretending to be
    Leporello, sends the villagers off in different
    directions, then catches Masetto off guard and
    beats him. Zerlina finds Masetto and comforts
    him.
  • Scene 2. A courtyard near Donna Anna's house
  • Leporello has not managed to free himself from
    Donna Elvira, who still takes him for his master.
    Donna Anna, Don Ottavio, Zerlina and Masetto find
    them and accuse Leporello of Don Giovanni's
    crimes. Elvira tries in vain to intercede for her
    "husband" but Leporello reveals his identity,
    pleads innocence and succeeds in making a
    getaway. Don Ottavio's promises to avenge his
    beloved's wrongs.
  • Scene 3. A cemetery, where the Commendatore is
    buried
  • Don Giovanni and Leporello have escaped from
    their pursuers. Giovanni's narrative of a girl
    who took him for Leporello is interrupted by the
    voice of the statue of the Commendatore reproving
    him for his levity and libertinism. Undeterred,
    he orders the terrified Leporello to invite the
    Commendatore to dinner. The statue accepts.
  • Scene 4. A room in Donna Anna's house
  • Don Ottavio tries to calm Donna's Anna's grief by
    reminding her that they will soon be married, but
    she begs to him to delay their wedding.
  • Scene 5. A banquet hall in Don Giovanni's villa
  • Don Giovanni is interrupted at supper by Donna
    Elvira, who wants him to change his ways. He
    laughs at her and she leaves, but runs back
    screaming. Investigating, Leporello returns in
    terror the statue has come. The Commendatore
    enters and, refusing to touch earthly food,
    invites Don Giovanni to dine with him. Don
    Giovanni accepts and is engulfed by the flames of
    hell, steadfastly refusing to repent.
  • The other characters sing an epilogue about how
    the wicked receive their just deserts.

31
First Performance
  • 29 October 1787 beginning at 7pm and planned to
    end at 9.30.
  • Mozart had composed the overture the night before
    it was to be rehearsed.
  • Mozart greeted with great cheers on entering pit
    to conduct at the keyboard.
  • A great success and a long run of performances.
  • Mozart remained in Prague until 13th November.
  • Boldini wanted Mozart to stay and write another
    but Mozart had to return to Vienna.
  • Prague was always a great supporter of Mozart and
    Mozart remained very fond of the city to the end.

32
Vienna
  • The success of Don Giovanni became known in
    Vienna and helped Mozart get Glucks job as
    Kammermusikus to the Emperor.
  • Command for Vienna performance by Emperor 7th
    May 1788 in Burgtheater.
  • Joseph II already busy on battlefield of second
    Turkish War.
  • Some alterations to arias and scenes to
    accommodate Viennese taste and singers available.
  • Mozart conducted first three performances. Only
    gradually did Vienna warm to the work.
  • Vienna and Prague versions exist the Prague is
    generally preferred.

33
Terror and Effects.
  • Don Giovanni is notable for the introduction of
    terror into opera. Naked fear.
  • To do this he uses Trombones always associated
    with the underworld. They do not appear until
    Commendatore statue appears on stage to condemn
    Don Giovanni.
  • At the end of Act I three orchestras play
    simultaneously on stage. First band plays Minuet
    in G in ¾ for oboes, horns and strings then
    orchestra II turn up and play Contradanse in G in
    2/4 time orchestra three tune up and play German
    Dance in 3/8.

34
Keys
  • As always the opera is carefully constructed in
    terms of key relationships.
  • D is the opera key minor at first (overture and
    statue scene at end). Overture and opera end in
    D major.
  • Second Act leads from G major to A major, D
    major, F major, E flat (sextet). Then to D major
    for trumpets and drums. Then to D minor
    punishment key for murder. Back to D major then
    D minor for end of sextet in E flat.

35
Liberty
  • Act I scene 20 Dons grant reception in the Hall.
    After introductory scene with Don, Leporello,
    Masetto and Zerlina key changes to C major for
    entry of Don Ottavio, Donna Anna and Donna Elvira
    (all masked).
  • After greeting all Don sings E aperto tutti, a
    tutti quanti, viva, viva la liberta (it is open
    to everyone, long live liberty).
  • Every one seizes the phrase and it turns into
    triumphal march with trumpets and drums
  • IS this Da Pontes personal tribute to Joseph II
    and his ideas on personal freedom and
    enlightenment.

36
Don Giovanni--Deep thots
  1. Describe Don Giovannis character behavior.
  2. How does the opera treat the Don or portray his
    behavior? Is he portrayed as evil or just
    mischievous?
  3. Does the Don repent? Why is this significant?
    How does this contrast with thinking in the
    Baroque era?
  4. How does Don Giovanni reflect the culture,
    spirit of the classical era?
  5. What elements of Don Giovanni conflict with
    enlightenment thinking?
  6. Do you think Don Giovanni would have been more
    popular or less popular with Baroque society than
    it was in the 18th century? Defend your answer.

37
Mozart was 36 years old when he died in 1791. In
his short life he wrote over 600 compositions.
This portrait, painted after Mozarts death, is
said to look the most like him. It was painted
in 1819.
38
Mozart died penniless despite his enormous
talent. One of the greatest composers the world
has ever known is buried in an unmarked grave.
39
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40
Know about Mozart
  • his problems w/ patronage
  • unusual method of composing
  • his development of opera

41
Mozarts Symphonies
  • His first symphony was written in 1788.
  • Rameau had died, Beethoven was 18.
  • During this quarter century many changes came to
    the symphony.

42
Changes in the Classical Symphony
  • Shift in the function and valuation of the
    symphony.
  • Move from introductions to theatre, plays,
    operas, civic events.
  • Move to a piece intrinsic in itself. Symphony
    for Symphonys sake.

43
K. 550 Symphony in G minor, No. 40
  • July 25, 1788
  • One of the last and most beautiful of the master.
  • Labeled Romantic by the people of the time for
  • Intensity
  • Chromaticism
  • Unconventionality
  • Thematic development
  • Abundance of Ideas
  • Ambiguity.

44
A Roadmap for Form The First Movement
  • Sonata allegro.
  • Exposition.
  • Theme for violins in Gminor.
  • Three note motive that is prime for development,
    sequence.
  • Transition coupled with crescendo to go into the
    second theme in Bflat major.
  • Build up of tension.
  • Codetta keeps the listener in the contrasting key.

45
Development
  • Develops the three note motive from the
    beginning.
  • Changes melody.
  • Combines motives.
  • Sequences downward.
  • Inversion of motives.
  • Build up of tension.

46
Recapitulation
  • Follows the exposition.
  • G-minor remains the home key.
  • Tender this is a change from convention. Most
    composers would go to G major just to end the
    work in a triumphant sound.

47
The Classical Concerto
  • Solo Concerto a concerto which displays the
    opposition of a solo and the tutti orchestra.

48
Three Movements
  • Fast
  • Slow
  • Fast
  • ABA
  • Cadenza a solo passage found in solo concerti.
    This passage is either written out or improvised.
    It occurs toward the end of a movement and
    displays themes from the movement presented in a
    fantasy of improvisation.

49
The First Movement
  • Transforms the ritornello form of the Baroque
    period to a Sonata Allegro in the Classical
    Period.
  • Theme I is usually orchestral
  • Theme II uses Theme I and new material by the
    soloist.
  • Development is the tension building area.
  • Recapitulation in the home key symmetry!

50
The Second Movement
  • Slow and Lyrical
  • Key near the tonic but not the tonic.
  • Not so much distance from the tonic.
  • Hymn-like character by the soloist.

51
Third Movement
  • Allegro Molto (very fast) Presto (even faster)
  • Grand Finale
  • Rondo form probably shorter than the first
    movement.
  • Cadenza is usually found here also.

52
Mozart Piano Concerto in G Major, K. 453
  • 1784 Mozart wrote 6 piano concertos. This one
    is written for a 19 year old student, Barbara von
    Ployer.
  • Mozarts concerti are considered the watershed of
    classical concerti. Grand flourishes as well as
    intimate conversations make up this style in
    Mozarts mind.
  • Notice elements present from chamber music as
    well as symphony.
  • Intimate conversation.
  • Laughing strings.

53
Mozart Piano Concerto in G Major, K. 453
  • March-like character.
  • Grand contrasts.
  • Notice the similarities to the symphony.
  • Use of the woodwinds for coloration.
  • Use of classical forms ritornello sonata
    allegro rondo.
  • Dazzling writing for the piano as well as for the
    orchestra.

54
Other Forms Minuet and Trio
Minuet A Trio B Minuet A
A B A C D C A B A
A B C D A B
55
The Sonata Cycle
  • Movement I Long Dramatic, Sonata Form Allegro
    fast
  • Movement II Slow and lyrical, Theme and
    Variations or ABA. Andante, Adagio, or Largo
  • Movement III Minuet and Trio (18thC.) Minuet and
    Scherzo (19thC.), Allegretto or Allegro
  • Movement IV 18th C lively and happy ending,
    Sonata Allegro, Sonata Rondo, Theme and
    Variations. Very Fast. Allegro, Vivace, Presto.
    Grand Finale 19th C. Triumph

56
The Marriage of Figaro
- celebration of common people v. the decadent
aristocracy
Bourgeois (Genre)
Chardin The Prayer before Meal1744
57
Mozart viewing example
Cosi fan Tutte (they all do it) 3 pairs of voices
symmetry of design appeals to the Classical
mind
58
Mozart listening example
-- finale from Act II of The Marriage of
Figaro -- an ensemble scene (six voices) --
contrasting emotions presented simultaneously
(compare that to the Baroque ideal aesthetic of
Affect, one mood or emotion per piece)
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