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Designing Targeted Small Group Instruction

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Designing Targeted Small Group Instruction S. Greenlaw, Adapted from work of McKenna and Stahl, Debbie Diller, Linda Dorn, Tyner and Green WCC October 12, 2010 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Designing Targeted Small Group Instruction


1
Designing Targeted SmallGroup Instruction
  • S. Greenlaw,
  • Adapted from work of
  • McKenna and Stahl,
  • Debbie Diller,
  • Linda Dorn,
  • Tyner and Green

WCC October 12, 2010
Models by S. Estabrook, Houlton RF
2
Set Purpose and Poll the Audience
  • Poll the Audience
  • Purpose Walk-through a series of
  • Small Group instruction options that target
    student assessment needs
  • Turn and talk about how these fit the needs of
    your students
  • Discuss how this fits RtI (GEI) for Tiers I II

3
Key Words
  • Guided reading is all about differentiation.
    Differentiation is instruction that helps
    children accomplish challenging tasks that are
    just out of their reach, instruction that targets
    a particular group of childrens needs directly
    and temporarily, instruction that applies a
    developmental model.
  • - Sharon Walpole Mike McKenna, 2008

4
A Basic Reading Group Template
___________ Whole Group Instruction ___________
Lowest Group Center or Intervention Center
Center Middle Group Center
Center Center Highest Group
___________ Whole Group Instruction ___________
5
Traditional small group reading Instruction
  • THREE KINDS OF GROUPS (See handout)
  • Flexible Groups
  • Ability/Aptitude Groups
  • Cooperative Groups
  • NOW LETS LOOK AT CURRENT PRACTICE.

6
Gather your instructionalresources
  • Review the state standards Common Core
    Standards
  • And the scope and sequence in your instructional
  • Materials (See K-3 Early Reading Target Areas and
  • Maine Grade 3-5 GLEs/HMH scope and sequence).
  • Review the state assessments (NECAP)
  • district assessments (NWEA,DRA,OS, DIBELS) and
  • Any Assessments that come with your core program
    (Integrated
  • theme test)
  • When needed do diagnostic assessments---Fill in
    gaps with additional assessments (Pre-Literacy
    Screening, Phonics/decoding screening,
    DSA-developmental spelling assessment)

7
Turn and Talk
  • What resources are already in place in your
    School?
  • What are you current using for assessments that
    inform teaching?
  • How do you use this information (data) when
    planning daily small group lessons?
  • What types of assessments are being used for
  • Universal Screening,
  • progress monitoring,
  • diagnostic measures, and
  • Outcome (summative measures)?

8
Consider your childrensneeds (KcKenna and
Stahl2008)
  • Given your screening data, you will know that
    some portion of children are likely at benchmark
    (or above), some are just
  • below grade level, and some are well below
    grade level.
  • For children at benchmark, you can decide to
    focus small-group time on skills, skills and
    fluency, or on
  • vocabulary and comprehension.
  • Only the below-grade-level children
  • need additional diagnostic assessments

9
McKenna and Stahl (Walpole)---2008
  • The
  • Cognitive Model
  • See Handout
  • Brief Q and A discussion

10
Turn and Talk Cognitive Model
  • Look at the parallel development of reading in
    McKenna and Stahls Cognitive Model, and
    think/talk about where some of your students fit
    on this model?
  • Think/Talk about how the assessments show you
    were your students are in their reading
    acquisition using this model?

11
A Basic Reading Group Template
___________ Whole Group Instruction ___________
Lowest Group Center or Intervention Center
Center Middle Group Center
Center Center Highest Group
___________ Whole Group Instruction ___________
12
Scientifically Based Reading Programs
  • Instructional Content Instructional Design
  • Ingredients Recipe
  • --Phonemic Awareness --Explicit
    Instructional
  • --Phonics
    Strategies
  • --Fluency
    --Coordinated Instructional
  • --Vocabulary
    Sequences
  • --Comprehension
    --Ample Practice Opportunities
  • Ingredients Recipe

13
  • So.
  • How do we do this ?
  • and
  • What does it look like?
  • (In small groups)

14
Things to consider for Flexible Groupingwith
Targeted small group instruction
  • Weekly Focus of Instruction
  • Differentiation of Instruction
  • Key Elements to Consider
  • Checklist for Forming Needs Based Groups
  • A Differentiation Plan (Samples)

15
Levels of Intensity of Small Group Instruction
  • High Teacher Support/Highly Explicit Systematic
  • Skills Focused Groups
  • (Walpole and McKenna)
  • Differentiated Guided
  • Reading

  • (Diller, Dorn. Southall, Tyner)

  • Guided Reading

  • (Fountas Pinnell)

  • Low Teacher
    Support/Less Explicit


  • and Systematic

  • L. Larsen. MDOE

16
We will exploreSmall Group Lesson Models
  • Flexible grouping plan
  • Walpole and McKenna
  • Debbie Diller Model
  • Linda Dorn/Fountas and Pinnell Models
  • Tyner and Green models

17
Walpole and McKenna Lessons--2009
  • Phonemic awareness and word recognition
  • Word recognition and Fluency
  • Fluency and Comprehension
  • Vocabulary and Comprehension

18
Sample Phonemic Awareness and word Recognition
GroupMcKenna and Walpole-2008
  • Alphabet Review 3
    Min
  • Initial Sound Sorting 3
    Min
  • 2 New Letter Sounds
  • Review Old Letter Sounds 3
    Min
  • 2 New HF Words
  • Review Old High Frequency Words 3 Min
  • Concept of Word 3
    Min

19
Sample Phonemic Awareness and Word Recognition
GroupMcKenna and Walpole-2008
  • Oral Segmenting and Blending 3 min
  • Short vowel Patterns 6 min
  • 4 New High frequency words
  • Review old HF words 6 min

20
Sample Word Recognition and Fluency
GroupMcKenna and Walpole--2008
  • Teach Letter Patterns ----- 6 min
  • New HF words
  • Review old HF words------3 min
  • Decodable Text -------------6 min

21
Sample Fluency and Comprehension GroupKcKenna
and Walpole---2008
  • Pre-teach difficult words
    2 min
  • Choral or Echo read
  • new text or passage
    5 min
  • Partner or whisper read
  • Same text
    5 min
  • Summary or inference or
  • Questions (use-comprehension skill and
  • strategy from core scope and sequence) 3 min

22
Sample Vocabulary and Comprehension
GroupMcKenna and Walpole--2008
  • Pre-teach Vocabulary 3 min
  • Preview Comprehension skill
  • and strategy 1
    min
  • Teacher read-aloud or
  • Whisper read 7
    min
  • Comprehension Discussion 4 min

23
Turn and TalkWalpole and McKenna Lessons
  • Pick a group of students
  • Thinking about the data you have and needs you
    have observed when working with this group of
    students, talk about which lesson might work for
    Targeting their needs?

24
More than Guided ReadingAdapted from L. Dorn,
et al Fountas Pinnell D. Miller Tyner and
Green and others
  • Before Reading
  • ---Pre-teach tier-2 words
  • ---Pre-teach vocabulary
  • ---Build background
  • ---Set purpose for reading
  • ---review comprehension skill and stragtegy
  • During Reading
  • Students partner read
  • text or passage
  • After Reading
  • ---Comprehension discussion
  • --- Targeted skills review from difficult
    words in text
  • ---word work connected to text
  • ---writing response to text

25
Targeted Guided Reading Lessons
  • Debbie DillerTargeted small group lessons PA,
    Phonics, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension
  • Linda Dorn Guided Reading Plus
  • Reading and writing lesson over two days
  • familiar read, new book, word work, writing.

26
Making the Most of small group instruction---Debbi
e Diller, (2008)
  • Using data, design flexible groups to target
    specific needs in the five essesntial elements
    (walkthrough lesson frames)
  • Phonemic Awareness and Rhyme
  • Phonics
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary
  • Comprehension

27
Turn and Talk Debbie Diller Lessons
  • Pick a group of students
  • Thinking about the data you have and needs you
    have observed when working with this group of
    students, talk about which lesson/s might work
    for Targeting their needs?

28
More than Guided ReadingAdapted from L. Dorn,
et al Fountas Pinnell D. Miller Tyner and
Green and others
  • Before Reading
  • ---Pre-teach tier-2 words
  • ---Pre-teach vocabulary
  • ---Build background
  • ---Set purpose for reading
  • ---review comprehension skill and strategy
  • During Reading
  • Students partner read
  • text or passage
  • After Reading
  • ---Comprehension discussion
  • --- Targeted skills review from difficult
    words in text
  • ---word work connected to text
  • ---writing response to text

29
Guided Reading Plus, Comprehension Focus Groups
---Linda Dorn (2006-09in print)
  • Two Types of Lessons
  • (walkthrough lesson frame)
  • Guided Reading Plus A two day lesson framework
    that includes Reading and writing
  • Comprehension Focus Groups The lesson framework
    foci is teaching strategic reading through
    comprehension strategies

30
Turn and talk Linda Dorn Lessons
  • Pick a group of students
  • Thinking about the data you have and needs you
    have observed when working with this group of
    students, talk about which lesson/s might work
    for Targeting their needs?

31
Components and Activities for Small-Group
Differentiated Reading Tyner and Green (2005)
  • Lesson Models for Intermediate Readers
  • Using both Narrative and Expository texts
  • Evolving Reader
  • Mature Reader
  • Advanced Reader
  • (walkthrough lesson frames)
  • See handouts

32
Organizational Models
  • Flexible grouping plan
  • Walpole and McKenna
  • Debbie Diller Model
  • Linda Dorn/Fountas and Pinnell Models
  • Tyner and Green models
  • (SAMPLES in handout)

33
Model for Student Success

Instruction
34
Case Study on Johnny
  • In October, Johnnys kindergarten teacher notices
    that he is still having a hard time in school.
    She is trying to figure out how to best meet his
    needs during small group reading time. She has
    looked at the data and found the following
  • DIBELS Johnny received a score of O on PSF and
    is struggling on ISF.
  • Running Record A CAP test showed that Johnny is
    still struggling with 11 matching,
    directionality and sound symbol association.
  • Classroom data he cannot segment, knows only 6
    letters (J, O, X, T, S, H) and only 5 sight words
    (Johnny, yes, no, mom, dad)
  • Informal Data/Teacher Observation he cant sing
    the alphabet, still does not know all the letters
    in his name, struggles with rhyming

35
What does Johnny need in small group
instruction?Skills Focused Lesson
Alphabet Review Initial Sound Sorting 2 New Letter Sounds Review Old Letter Sounds 2 New HF Words Review old HF words Concept of a Word 3 minutes 3 minutes 3 minutes 3 minutes 3 minutes (McKenna Walpole, 2008)
36
Case Study on Sylvia
  • In January, Sylvias first grade teacher notices
    that she struggles with automatically solving
    sight words. She only uses initial and/or
    initial and final visual information. She has
    looked at the data and found the following.
  • DIBELS She knows letters sound by sound, but she
    cannot blend on NWF. She is below benchmark in
    this area.
  • Running Record She confuses HF words and is not
    fluent. She is currently reading at level 6/E.
  • Scott Foresman Shows that she still confuses
    short and long vowels in reading and writing.
  • Informal data/Teacher Observation Teacher
    notices that Sylvia often mimics student answers
    at groups and confuses HF words like was/saw,
    on/no, here/he/her

37
What does Sylvia need in small group
instruction?Skills Focused Lesson
Decodable text Whisper Reading Sounding and Blending New HF Words Review Old High Frequency Words Decodable text Whisper Reading 3 minutes 4 minutes 4 minutes 4 minutes (McKenna Walpole, 2008)
38
SO WHAT---NOW WHAT?Now we have set the stagefor
PRESCRIPTIVE TEACHING (differentiated reading
instruction)
  • It is time to plan So keep in mind
  • ----- your resources (classroom assessments, core
    materials/scope and sequence, leveled texts).
  • -----Consider your childrens needs
  • plan ONE WEEK OF
  • Small group targeted instruction

39
It is time to plan So keep in mind
  • -------your Resources
  • Assessments (both formal and informal),
  • core materials/scope and sequence,
  • Teaching tools lesson frames, manipulatives
    leveled texts.
  • -----Consider your childrens needs
  • plan ONE WEEK OF
  • Small group targeted instruction

40
Options for MORE Learning
  • Digging deeper into what DRA and DSA
  • Planning for Skills-Focused small group
    instruction
  • Plan for Targeted Small group teaching
  • Explore classroom diagnostic reading assessment
    options

41
3-2-1 Feedback/ticket to go
  • Jot down
  • 3 new things you learned?
  • 2 things you will need to know more about?
  • 1 thing you can start doing tomorrow?

42
Sources
  • Walpole and McKenna. (2009). How to Plan
    Differentiated Reading Instruction. Guilford
    Press
  • Walpole and McKenna (2007). Differentiated
    Reading Instruction for the Primary Grades.
    Guilford Press.
  • Southall.(2009). Differentiated Small-Group
    Lessons. Scholastic
  • Diller. (2007). Making the Most of Small Groups
    Differentiation for all. Stenhouse.
  • Tyner and green. (2006) Small-Group Reading
    Instruction A Differentiated Teaching Model for
    Intermediate Readers, Grades 3-8. IRA.
  • Dorn (2008-2009) Select CIM Workshops offered at
    University of Maine, Orono.
  • Dorn and Soffos. (2011).Interventions that Work
    A Comprehensive Intervention Model for Reversing
    Reading Failure. Allyn Bacon.
  • Dorn and Soffos. (2009). Interventions that Work
    Guided reading Plus and Interventions that Work
    Comprehension Focus Groups DVD. Stenhouse.

43
Thank You
  • And
  • Have a fabulous day!!!
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