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December 4, 2009

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Material covered: Ch. 13, 14, 15, 16 + movie Marine Vertebrates Bony fishes Primitive sturgeons dominant early Teleosts evolved mobile jaws, swim bladders Ex: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: December 4, 2009


1
December 4, 2009
http//dsc.discovery.com/dinosaurs/?campaigndsc-c
od-1-bbc006
  • Reading Ch. 14
  • Final Exam date TU, Dec. 15
  • Material covered Ch. 13, 14, 15, 16 movie

2
Marine Vertebrates
  • Bony fishes
  • Primitive sturgeons dominant early
  • Teleosts evolved
  • mobile jaws, swim bladders
  • Ex Xiphactinus
  • Sharks (cartilagenous)
  • Megaladon

http//www.fossilien.de/seiten/haizaehne/megalodon
.htm http//www.bbc.co.uk/science/seamonsters/fact
files/xiphactinus.shtml
3
Marine Vertebrates
  • Reptiles
  • Nothosaurs and placodonts
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v-JJdKhGW-HY
  • Plesiosaurs
  • Ichthyosaurs
  • Mosasaurs

Mosasaur
http//biology.fullerton.edu/life/hol/hol_ch14.htm
l http//www.exn.ca/dinosaurs/story.asp?id2000032
152namecreaturs http//current.com/items/9109597
2_ancient-sharks-fed-on-plesiosaurs.htm http//www
.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/220Lepidosauromorph
a/220.300.html http//www3.interscience.wiley.com
8100/legacy/college/levin/0470000201/chap_tutorial
/ch12/chapter12-08.html
4
Triassic Mass Extinction (4)
  • Wiped out 30 of genera
  • Mostly archosaurs
  • Cause?

http//universe-review.ca/R10-19-animals.htm
5
Mesozoic Land Plants
  • Gymnosperms (non-flowering)
  • Cycads
  • Look like palm trees
  • Ginkgos
  • Ginkgo biloba survived
  • Conifers

http//faculty.ncwc.edu/ekosal/arboretum/gingko.ht
m http//www.galenotech.org/ginkgo.htm http//www.
plantoftheweek.org/week241.shtml http//www.scienc
e.siu.edu/landplants/Cycadophyta/cycadophyta.html
6
Mesozoic Land Plants
  • Evolution of angiosperms (flowering)
  • Flowers help pollination
  • Double fertilization
  • Faster recovery and growth
  • Fertilization of same species guaranteed
  • Coevolution with insects
  • Faster evolution

http//www.museum.vic.gov.au/prehistoric/fossils/k
oonwarra.html http//www.amnh.org/exhibitions/dino
saurs/gallery/diorama.php?image1pforestasino
http//www.pbase.com/gaocus/image/18369846
7
Mesozoic Land Reptiles
  • Two major reptile groups
  • Lepidosaurs
  • Ancestors of snakes, lizards
  • Archosaurs
  • Ancestors of crocs, birds

http//higheredbcs.wiley.com/legacy/college/levin/
0471697435/chap_tut/chaps/chapter14-06.html
8
Age of the Dinosaurs
  • Dino distinctions
  • Upright posture
  • Ankle joint
  • Two major groups
  • Saurischia group
  • Lizard-like pelvis
  • Ornithischia group
  • Bird-like pelvis

http//universe-review.ca/R10-19-animals.htm
9
Saurischians (lizard-hipped)
  • Sauropods
  • Giant herbivores
  • Brachiosaurus
  • Apatosaurus (Brontosaurus)

http//www.nhm.uio.no/palmus/wwd/brachiosaurus.htm
l http//blogevolved.blogspot.com/2009/09/sauropod
s-in-art.html http//www.amnh.org/exhibitions/dino
saurs/gallery/diorama.php?image1pforestasino
10
Dino-to-Bird
Archaeopteryx
  • Transitional fossils
  • Archaeopteryx
  • Limusaurus

http//rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect20/A12d.html http//w
ww.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/microraptor/prod-04.html http
//www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2009/06/18/2601
531.htm http//www.cosmosmagazine.com/news/2469/ea
rliest-dinosaur-feathers-shed-light-avian-developm
ent
Limusaurus
11
Ornithischians (bird-hipped)
Hadrosaurus
  • Armored
  • Stegosaurus
  • Ankylosaurus
  • Duck billed
  • Hadrosaurus
  • Rimmed head
  • Triceratops

http//www.ftschool.org/fourth/s_studies/sg.unit3.
html http//www.geologicresources.com/dinosaur_pla
ce.html
12
Flying Reptiles
  • Pterosaurs (flying reptiles)
  • Pterodactyls
  • Likely rode on updrafts due to size

http//www.amnh.org/exhibitions/dinosaurs/gallery/
diorama.php?image1pforestasino http//www.ucm
p.berkeley.edu/diapsids/archosauria.html http//in
struct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/biog105/labs/deuts
/homolanalogy.html
13
Evolution of Mammals
  • Evolved from synapsids (mammal-like reptiles)
  • Skeletal distinctions
  • Middle ear--3 bones
  • Lower jaw--1bone
  • Teeth were differentiated
  • Palate

Repenomamus
http//www.calstatela.edu/faculty/acolvil/dino_rep
tile.html http//ib.berkeley.edu/courses/ib173/lec
tures/lecture3/173-jaws.html http//www-rohan.sdsu
.edu/rhmiller/chordates2/Chordates2.htm http//ww
w.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID00016D38-9B8F-11
E5-9B8F83414B7F0000
14
Evolution of Mammals
  • Egg layers
  • Monotremes (Platypus)
  • Live birth
  • Marsupials (pouched)
  • Premature births
  • Safer for mom
  • Placentals
  • Birth when ready
  • Mom at risk

http//www.australianfauna.com/platypus.php
15
K/T Extinction
  • 3rd largest
  • Wiped out 1/2 life
  • Puzzling evidence
  • Marine environment
  • Total loss of ammonites reptiles (both in
    decline)
  • Tropical groups hit hard
  • Water cooling and regressing
  • Land environment
  • Decline of angiosperms
  • Dinosaurs in decline
  • Not affected
  • Mammals--placentals became dominant
  • Turtles, snakes, lizards

http//we.vub.ac.be/dglg/Web/Claeys/Chicxulub/Chi
xproject.html
16
Extinction Hypotheses
  • Impact hypothesis
  • Based on iridium anomaly
  • Chicxulub crater
  • Global cooling, acid rain, fires
  • Regression
  • Altered habitats, climate

http//we.vub.ac.be/dglg/Web/Claeys/Chicxulub/Chi
xproject.html http//evolution.berkeley.edu/evosit
e/evo101/VIIB1dMassExtinctions.shtml http//www.ge
o.uu.nl/ngv/geonieuws/images/600q.jpg
17
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