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Collocative meaning

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Title: Collocative meaning


1
Collocative meaning
2
Collocative meaning consists of the associations
a word acquires on account of the meanings of
words which tend to occur in its environment.
3
Pretty and handsome share common ground in the
meaning "good-looking", but may be distinguished
by the range of nouns with which they are likely
to co-occur.
4
Girl
boy boy
man woman
car flower
vessel pretty garden
handsome overcoat colour
airliner village
typewriter
etc. etc.
5
The ranges may well, of course, overlap handsome
woman and pretty woman are both acceptable,
although they suggest a different kind of
attractiveness because of the collocative
associations of the two adjectives.
6
Further examples are quasi-synonymous verbs such
as wander and stroll (cows may wander, but may
not stroll ) or tremble and quiver (one trembles
with fear, but quivers with excitement).
7
Not all differences in potential co-occurrence
need to be explained as collocative meaning some
may be due to stylistic differences, others to
conceptual differences.
8
It is the incongruity of combining unlike styles
that makes " He mounted his gee-gee" or " He got
on his steed "an improbable combination.
9
On the other hand, the acceptability of The
donkey ate hay", as opposed to The donkey ate
silence", is a matter of compatibility on the
level of conceptual semantics
10
Only when explanation in terms of other
categories of meaning does not apply do we need
to invoke the special category of collocative
meaning.
Collocative meaning is simply an idiosyncratic
property of individual words.
11
2.Weakpoints
12
According to Leech,pretty and handsome both mean
nice-looking,but their collocative meanings
differ,because they co-occur with different words
and they suggest two kinds of beauty.
13
But how do we interpret such words as good,
strong and high when they collocate respectively
with chance, likelihood, probability,
possibility?
14
good likelihood strong likelihood high
likelihood good probability strong probability
high probability good possibility strong
possibility high possibility good chance
strong chance high chance
15
Leech might saygood goes with chance,
likelihood, possibility,strong collocates with
likelihood, probability, possibility,high
modifies likelihood, probability ,The
differences in collocations represent the
differences in collocative meaning.
16
If we say pretty and handsome will give rise to
associations about different kinds of beauty,then
what kind of bigness do good, strong and
highconvey in our mind?
17
able When able is used predicatively, or when
it is used as a modifier of another noun,it can
be collocated with very, really, quite,not the
words perfectly, well, totally,e.g.
18
Mary is very (really, quite) able. Mary
is a very (really, quite) able student.
Mary is perfectly (well, totally)
able. Mary is a perfectly (well, totally) able
student.
19
But in the pattern,be able to do sth., it can
not be collocated with very. It can,however,
collocate with the words really, quite,
perfectly, well, totally, for example Mary
is very able to give the lecture. Mary is
really (quite, perfectly, well, totally)
able to give the lecture.
20
Leechs collocative theory is a waste basket
theory in the sense that when the combination of
words cannot be explained, it will be thrown into
the waste basket.
21
Leechs definition of collocative meaning seems
to be clearcut. But when we use his definition to
analyse collocative meaning, we often find it
difficult to find a demarcation line between
collocative meaning and other kinds of meaning.
22
First,the seven kinds of meanings are not well
defined in that very often there are overlapping
between them. Lets examine Leechs comment on
pretty and handsome again.
23
Pretty and handsome share common ground in the
meaning "good-looking", but may be distinguished
by the range of nouns with which they are likely
to co-occur.
24
Girl boy boy
man woman car
flower vessel pretty garden
handsome overcoat colour
airliner village typewriter
etc. etc.
25
Then he points out The ranges may well
overlap handsome woman and pretty woman are both
acceptable, although they suggest a different
kind of attractiveness because of the collocative
associations of the two adjectives.
26
Leech believes that both handsome woman and
pretty woman are acceptable, but they are
associated with different kinds of beauty. In
fact, their co-occurrence can also be well
explained with reference to conceptual meaning or
to connotative meaning.
27
In his discussion of connotative meaning,Leech
points out In talking about connotation, I am
in fact talking about the real world experience
one associates with an expression when one uses
or hears it. ?Leech?Semantics the study of
meaning ?12-13?
28
He cites woman as an example,in the past woman
has been burdened with such attributes as frail,
prone to tears, cowardly, emotional, irrational,
inconstant, as well as gentle, compassionate,
sensitive, hard working, etc.. All these have
formed part of the connotations of the word
woman.According to his theory of connotation,
we can well conclude that the differences in
pretty and handsome are different
associations that they give rise to in users
mind.
29
pretty delicacy, superficial,
-manliness,-big, -dignity handsome vigor,
dignity, big, manliness The differences in
connotations have affected their collocations or
co-occurrence.
30
From the angle of conceptual meaning, Leech has
neglected that the conceptual meaning is often
affected by the collocation so that new meanings
may be derived from the original meanings of a
word.
31
???,?????????????????????????????????????,????????
,??????????,?????????????????????????,????????????
???
?pretty?handsome??,???????????????????????????????
,??
32
handsome A woman who is handsome has an
attractive, smart appearance, especially with
features that are large and regular rather than
small and delicate and that are considered to
show strength of character. A building ,garden,
etc., that is handsome is large and well made
with an attractive appearance.
(Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary)
33
pretty Someone ,especially a woman or girl,
who is pretty is nice to look at and attractive
in a delicate way. A place or a thing that
is pretty is nice to look at in a rather
conventional or superficial way.

(Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary)
34
handsome (of a man) good-looking, esp. in having
regular, pleasing and well-defined features. 2.
(of a woman)fine-looking in a dignified way.
3.well-proportioned, stately, or comely
( Collins English Dictionary)
35
pretty 1.pleasing or appealing in a delicate
or graceful way 4. Informal lacking
masculinity effeminate foppish ( Collins
English Dictionary)
36
handsome 1. chiefly dial appropriate, suitable
2.moderately large 3. marked by skill or
cleverness 4. marked by graciousness or
generosity 5. having a pleasing and usu.
impressive or dignified appearance
(Webster New Collegiate Dictionary)
37
pretty 1. artful and clever 2. a. pleasing
by delicacy or grace b. Having conventionally
accepted elements of beauty c. Appearing or
sounding pleasant or nice but lacking strength
force, manliness, purpose, or intensity (Webster
New Collegiate Dictionary)
38
???????,??????????,???????????????????????????????
?????????????????????,?????????????????????,????
??????????????????,?????????
39
?????????????,????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????,??????,????? Le
ech???tremble ?quiver?????????,???? ?Leech?Seman
tics the study of meaning?17?
40
Tremble with fear Quiver with excitement
?????tremble ?quiver?????????
41
Tremble to shake involuntarily from fear,
excitement, etc. (Longman Modern English
Dictionary) to shake involuntarily with fear,
anger, cold, physical weakness, etc.) (The
Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English
with Chinese Translations) to shake involuntarily
as with cold or fear (Collins English
Dictionary) to shake involuntarily as with fear
or cold (Websters Collegiate Dictionary)
42
Quiver to tremble, to shake with a slight,
rapid movement (Longman Modern English
Dictionary) to tremble slightly or vibrate (The
Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English
with Chinese Translations) to shake with a rapid
tremulous movement (Collins
English Dictionary) to shake or move with a
slight trembling motion (Websters
Collegiate Dictionary)
43
???????,????tremble ?????,?????????,?????????tremb
le?fear???????,???quiver?????,??????????
44
??excitement ???tremble?quiver??????,???????????f
ear??????????tremble????????,??tremble with
fear??????????
45
?Leech??,?????????????????????????????????????????
???????????????????????????????,??????????????????
?????????????????????
46
?Charlotte Bronte???Jane Eyre?,??????shiver??,????
???????????cold????,?
47
it was bitter cold, and I dressed as well as I
could for shivering, (chapter 5) Mr. Mason,
shivering as some one chanced to open the door,
asked for more coal to be put on the
fire,(chapter 18)
48
I was burdened with the charge of a little
child a very small creature, too young and
feeble to walk, and which shivered in my cold
arms (chapter 25) I looked
at my love that feeling which was my master's-
which he had created it shivered in my heart,
like a suffering child in a cold cradle
(Chapter 26)
49
????,??????cold?????????shiver
???????,? shiver to shake or tremble as from
cold or fear (Collins English
Dictionary) shiver to shake
especially with cold or fear
(Longman Modern English Dictionary)
shiver to tremble or shake, as with
fear, cold or excitement
(The Cassell encyclopaedia Dictionary)
50
???The Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current
English with Chinese Translations???quiver with
cold???????,??cold????????????????quiver????????
??,???????,shiver?quiver??????????????????
51
??????????
52
?????????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????,??????
??????????????,????????????????????,?????????????
53
?????????????????????????????????????????????,????
?????????????
54
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
????????????????????????Absolutely??,
55
In her anger, she absolutely screamed at
him. In her anger, she absolutely spoke to
him. Absolutely?scream???????,??speak?????????,??
??absolutely????????????????????????????????????
?
56
????rightly?know????Rightly????????????????I
dont rightly know????,??????????,???????????????
You dont rightly know,???????He didnt rightly
know,?????????????????????????
57
Judge???????,?????????? -gradable,?????????ver
y much???,??misjudge???????,??gradable?????,??
misjudge???????,????????,???very
much????????????
58
He very much judged the situation He
badly(?????) misjudged the situation. He very
much misjudged the situation. He badly misjudged
the situation.
??????? ??????badly????????????,????????????,?
He judged the situation badly.
59
??????judge?misjudge??????? calculate
miscalculate estimate ,
overestimate, underestimate represent
misrepresent behave
misbehave manage
mismanage
60
?????,?????????????????????????
26) I like the fellow. 27)
I like the person.
61
?like, fellow??person????????,like?fellow?person?
???????????Leech????,??????????????????????,??????
???????????????????????????????????,???
62
28) like I
the
fellow. 29) like I
the
person.
63
??????????????????,??????28)????????????????????
,?????????????29)??????
64
??????????guy, man, girl, woman, bastard
???28)??fellow,???????????????gentleman, lady,
Elizabeth, person?????fellow,?????????????????????
???????????Leech???????????????,??,???????????????
???
65
?????????????????????????? He is a French
teacher. ?????French teacher,??????French??teacher
?????????
66
????????????,?????French?????,Teacher?????,??,He
is a French teacher????????,??????????
A French ,teacher teaches French.
67
??????French?????,teacher?????,??He is a French
teacher??French??????
A ,French teacher is French.
68
Old, new, pure, wrong???????????????????????,????
????????????????????,??????????,???
69
my old ,friend (old long known or long
familiar) ?????? My
friend is old. my new ,friend ??????
My friend is new. a pure
,scientist ??????
The scientist is pure. thewrong ,applicant
?????? The applicant is
wrong.
70
???????????????????????,?????????????????????????
????????????????,???????????,???????????????
???????????,????????????????
71
????,???????????????????Badly??,badly???treat?????
??????????????????????????,?treat???????????treat?
??,badly?????
72
They very badly treated me.
They treated me very badly. They
were badly treated. They were treated badly.
???badly???????,?????????????,?????,?????????????,
??????????,?????????????????,badly???????????,????
treat??,?????treat???
73
Well???????,????????????,?????????????,?
He put the point well. He
well put the point.
74
???????????????,????????????,????????????????,?
I can understand your point well. I
can well understand your point.
75
Across
?across????????????????????,?????,across??????,?
76
We walked across the field, carrying heavy
equipment.
Across the field, we walked,carrying heavy
equipment.
77
???????,??????????????,???????,across?????????????
?????????????,?
78
They didnt walk across the field, carrying heavy
equipment.
Across the field, they didnt walk,
carrying heavy equipment.
79
?towards????????????????????,?????,towards??????,?

Towards the fort, the soldiers marched.
80
???????,??????????????,???????,towards????????????
??????????????,?
81
The soldiers didnt march towards the fort.
Towards the fort, the soldiers didnt march.
82
Go
????go????????????????????????,?
He went to America from Japan.
83
??????????????????????,???????????????,?
From Japan, he went to America.
84
????????????????????????,???????????????????,?
To America, he went from Japan.
85
????????????????????,????????????,?????????,??????
??????????????????
86
???????????????????????worth while??,Leech????wort
h?while?????????????,?? worth ?while???????????
87
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
?????
88
????worth?while??????????,????????worth ones
while????????????,???????????????????????????ones
?????????,??ones?????????worth?while???????????
89
?worth ones while?????,your???worth?while????????
??,???????????????????????,? Its worth
Brians while to learn a second language.
Its worth a rich mans while to help the poor.
90
??????????,????????????????ones?????????????
Is it worth anybodys while to take up a
challenging job?
91
???????,??ones??????????my, ????????????,???????w
orth your while???????,??his??????????????,???your
?
Acceptable
unacceptable your
his their my anybodys Johns
92
???????????????????,??? We always found him
cheerful. ?We always found him glad.
???????????????????????
93
????????????,?????cheerful???found?him
????,???????????,??????,found him glad
????????????,???????,?????????????????????????????
him??????
94
???????????????
Career woman, family man
?????,???????????????????????????,?????????????
?????????????????,????????????????????????????????
?? career woman? family man???????
95
??????? woman? man???????????????????????
family woman? career man??????????????
career woman,?? family man,????????????????
??????????,????????????????,???????
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