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Major Events of the Cold War

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Major Events of the Cold War 1945-1991 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * In 1961, the US ( CIA) planned an invasion of Cuba with Cuban exiles to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Major Events of the Cold War


1
  • Major Events of the Cold War
  • 1945-1991

2
  • Cold War- after WW II, there developed a state of
    tension and hostility between the United States
    and its allies and the Soviet Union and its
    allies, just short of actual war. In several
    instances, the Cold War came dangerously close to
    nuclear war.
  • The Cold War dominated US Soviet international
    relations from the 1940s to the collapse of the
    Soviet Union in 1991.
  • In Korea and Vietnam, the US became involved in
    actual war.

3
Cold War Events
  • 1945-Yalta Conference- mistrust began to develop
    between the US and USSR at the Yalta Conference
    just before the end of WW II and again at the
    Potsdam Conference after WW II.
  • The United Nations- an organization created in
    1945 in order to maintain international security
    and peace. The five major allied nations of WW II
    were given permanent seats and veto power in the
    U.N. Security Council. All hoped that U.S.
    Soviet relations would improve.

Yalta
4
  • Satellite States- the Soviet Union began to deny
    self-determination to the countries of Central
    and Eastern Europe and soon developed satellite
    states. One by one, Communist dictators loyal
    to Moscow came to power in Poland, Romania,
    Bulgaria, Albania, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia.
  • The US became alarmed over the Soviet takeover of
    Eastern Europe.

5
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6
Iron Curtain
Speech by Winston Churchi1l at
Fulton College, Missouri- 1946
  • From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the
    Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the
    Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals
    of the ancient states of Central and Eastern
    Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest,
    Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia all these famous
    cities and the populations around them lie in
    what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are
    subject, in one form or another, not only to
    Soviet influence but to a very high and in some
    cases increasing measure of control from Moscow

7
Germany- Post WW II
  • Occupation of Germany- after WWII, Germany ( and
    Austria) were divided into four zones. The
    French, British, US, and Soviet zones. These were
    to be temporary occupation zones.


In addition, the city of Berlin, in the Soviet
Zone, was also divided.
8
East and West Germany
9
Cold War Begins
  • Gradually, the eastern zone, the Soviet zone,
    evolved into a new Communist state- East Germany-
    under Soviet control as well as East Berlin.
  • In addition, the Soviets tried to cut off all
    access to Berlin and force the others out of
    Berlin.
  • Berlin Airlift- Truman responded to the blockade
    with the Berlin Airlift- airlifting supplies
    into West Berlin for eleven months until Stalin
    finally lifted the Berlin blockade.

10
  • Truman Doctrine- 1947 a US policy of
    containment that would supply economic and
    military aid to any free people or government
    struggling against totalitarian regimes,
    especially communist led uprisings.
  • This policy increased tensions between the US and
    the Soviet Union

11
  • Marshall Plan- 1947 - an extensive US plan of
    economic aid to help the nations of Western
    Europe recover from WW II, under the leadership
    of Secretary of State George Marshall. The
    Soviet Union and its satellites refused aid.
  • By the 1950s, the 12 billion dollar plan proved
    to be successful in helping Western Europe
    recover from WW II.
  • However, it deepened the rift between Communist
    and non Communist nations.

12
  • NATO- 1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    an organization of mutual military defense
    established between the United States and its
    allies. Twelve nations were included in 1949.
  • Warsaw Pact- 1955- an organization of mutual
    military defense between the Soviet Union and its
    Eastern European allies. Seven nations joined
    in 1955.
  • Both organizations further increased US/Soviet
    tensions.

13
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14
NATO and Warsaw Pact
RedWarsaw Pact
BlueNATO
15
  • China- in 1949 mainland China had fallen into
    Communist forces under Mao Zedong. Mao
    established a Communist government in the
    Peoples Republic of China
  • The former Nationalist leader of China, Chaing
    Ki shek ( Jiang Jie shi) was forced to flee to
    Formosa (Taiwan).
  • In 1950, Stalin and Mao signed the Sino-Soviet
    pact, which seemed to provide proof of a
    worldwide communist conspiracy.

16
Cold war turns Hot
  • The Korean War 1950-1953- after WWII, Korea was
    divided at the 38th parallel. Soviet armies
    occupied North Korea and US forces occupied South
    Korea, but both armies withdrew by 1950.
  • On June 25, 1950, Communist North Korea invaded
    Democratic South Korea.
  • Truman acted quickly, and a UN resolution was
    passed to send troops to South Korea to defend
    against the invaders.

17
Korea- 38th Parallel
18
  • General Douglas MacArthur commanded the UN
    expedition, which was referred to as a police
    action against communist aggression.
  • At first the war in Korea went badly for UN
    (mostly US) forces. The Chinese entered the war
    and sent masses of troops across the border into
    Korea.
  • MacArthur made statements that were critical of
    US Policy. Truman recalled MacArthur for
    insubordination.
  • General Lewis Puller (Chesty) from West
    Point and Saluda, Virginia- became the most
    decorated Marine in history.
  • In the end an armistice was reached in 1953, and
    Korea remained divided at the 38th Parallel.
    54,000 American soldiers died in Korea.

Korea- divided at 38th Parallel
19
  • The Second Red Scare- When the Soviets developed
    their own A-Bomb in 1949, many were convinced
    there existed a conspiracy of Communists spies
    that had sold secrets to the Soviet Union.
  • During the 1950s, President
  • Eisenhower would adopt a policy
  • of massive retaliation to deter
  • any nuclear strike by the Soviets.
  • In addition, many believed Communist conspiracy
    was behind civil unrest and war in Europe and
    Asia.

20
Red Scare in the US
  • HUAC- The House of Representatives, Un-American
    Activities Committee began investigations of
    government officials, Hollywood officials,
    actors, writers and directors.
  • Those from Hollywood were known as the Hollywood
    Ten.
  • Many that refused to testify were blacklisted in
    their industry and therefore could not find
    employment.
  • Senator Joseph McCarthy also gained power through
    televised sensationalism as a red witch hunter.
    He went too far when he accused the army of
    being infiltrated with Communists. His witch
    hunts are referred to as McCarthyism.

21
Espionage Cases
  • Espionage Case against Alger Hiss, a prominent
    government official for spying for the Soviets.
  • Whitaker Chambers testified against Hiss.
  • Richard Nixon, a young Congressman at the time,
    led the investigation against Alger Hiss.
  • Hiss was found guilty and sentenced to five
    years.
  • Another case was against Ethel and Julius
    Rosenberg for selling
  • atomic secrets to the Russians.
  • 1951-The Rosenberg's were found guilty and
    executed.
  • Many believed prejudice and fear contributed
    to these convictions.

22
Vietnam
Chinese Control-207 BC-938 Chinese Dynasties-
1285-1887 French Imperialism- 1887-1940 Occupati
on by Japan- WW II French Occupation-
1945-1955 (1st Vietnam War) Divided- 17
Parallel- Geneva Accords 1955 (2nd Vietnam War-
1955-1975) United Communist Vietnam-1975
Geographic Regions Highlands Central
Highlands Coastal Lowlands Mekong River
Delta 1200 miles long Tropical Monsoon
Climate 41 F Winter 98 F Summer 90 rain
summer monsoon.
23
Vietnam War
  • Chronology
  • 1954- French forces are defeated in Indochina
    (Vietnam) at the battle of Diem Bien Phu.
  • 1955- Geneva convention divides Vietnam at the
    17th Parallel.
  • North Vietnam- Communist government led by
  • Ho Chi Minh.
  • South Vietnam- Democratic government led by
  • President Dinh Diem

24
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25
  • 1955-1964- US aids South Vietnam with economic
    assistance and military advisors.
  • President Eisenhower and later President Kennedy
    believe that if Vietnam falls to Communism, all
    of Southeast Asia will fall.
  • This is known as the Domino Theory.

26
Vietnam
27
  • 1964- The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. Congress
    gives President Lyndon Johnson the authority to
    send US troops to fight in Vietnam.
  • 1968- 500,000 US troops are in Vietnam.
  • 1968- Tet Offensive- large Vietcong
    ( Communist) offensive in South Vietnam.
  • After the Tet Offensive, public opinion about
    Vietnam begins to change against the war.

28
KENT STATE
  • Antiwar protests increase in the US, especially
    on college campuses.

Student crying over the body of a student killed
by the National Guard at Kent State University,
1970. Four students were killed and nine were
wounded ( Four Dead in Ohio I Feel Like Im
Going to Die))
29
1969- President Nixon announces a policy of
Vietnamization- South Vietnam troops will take
over most of the fighting to defend South
Vietnam as US troops gradually withdraw. 1973-
Vietnam War Agreement-US Withdrawal 1975-
Vietnam falls to Communist control and is united
as one nation.
South Vietnamese attempt to leave on last US
helicopter at the US Embassy-Saigon.
30
  • Summary
  • US sent economic aid and military aid to Vietnam
    until 1964.
  • 1965-1975- US fighting in Vietnam
  • Approximately 57,000 US soldiers died in the
    Vietnam War.
  • Unlike WW II veterans, Vietnam veterans often
    faced indifference and outright hostility. The
    wounds of the Vietnam war were slow to heal.
  • Vietnam still remains a controversial topic.

31
Hungarian Revolt- 1956
  • Hungarian freedom fighters revolted against
    Soviet controlled government in 1956.
  • The Soviet Union responded by sending in 300,000
    troops and over 200 tanks into Hungary.
  • The Soviets ruthlessly crushed the revolt,
    killing over 25,000 Hungarians. This represented
    a dark time in the Cold War.
  • The world saw first hand how the Soviet Union
    reacted to others seeking freedom from Soviet
    control.

Hungarian students take Soviet tank
32
Cuba
  • 1959- communist rebel Fidel Castro overthrew the
    Batista government in Cuba. The loss of Cuba ( 90
    miles from Florida) to Communism was perhaps one
    of the most alarming Cold War developments.

Fidel Castro
33
President Kennedy- 1961-1963
  • President Kennedy pledged in his inaugural
    address that the US would pay any price, bear
    any burden, meet any hardship, support any
    friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the
    survival and the success of liberty.
  • He also stated , Ask not what your country can
    do for you, ask what you can do for your country.

34
  • In 1961, the US ( CIA) planned an invasion of
    Cuba with Cuban exiles to overthrow the Castro
    government. This invasion failed at the Bay of
    Pigs, Cuba. President Kennedy went along with
    this plan which had been planned under the
    Eisenhower administration and this failed
    invasion completely embarrassed the United
    States.

35
Berlin Wall- 1961
  • In order to stop citizens from leaving East
    Berlin and seeking freedom in West Berlin, the
    Soviets erected a wall, shutting off access to
    the West.
  • This continued to increase tension between the US
    and the Soviet Union.

West Berliners look over wall into East Berlin.
36

Cuban Missile Crisis- 1962
  • The most dangerous challenge from the Soviet
    Union during the Cold War came in October of
    1962.
  • US reconnaissance planes revealed the Soviets had
    built underground missile sites in Cuba that were
    capable of launching nuclear missiles against the
    US, 90 miles off the coast of Florida.

37
  • President Kennedy responded by establishing a
    naval blockage ( quarantine) of Cuba until the
    missiles were removed.
  • A full scale nuclear war between the superpowers
    seemed possible. These thirteen days in October
    were a tense moment.
  • Premier Khrushchev of the USSR finally agreed to
    remove the missiles if Kennedy agreed the USA
    would never invade Cuba. ( US secretly agrees to
    remove missiles from Turkey.)

President Kennedy signs orders for a naval
quarantine of Cuba.
38
  • President Kennedy, a veteran of WW II, was
    assassinated on November 22, 1963 in Dallas,
    Texas.
  • This event shook American confidence and began a
    period of internal conflict and divisiveness
    spurred by divisions over Vietnam and social
    issues.

39
Prague Spring 1968
  • Led by reformer Alexander Dubcek, rebellion broke
    out against Soviet led communist control of
    Czechoslovakia in the spring of 1968.

  • Soviet Tank in Prague
  • The Soviet Union responded with extreme force
    aided by other Warsaw Pact nations and ruthlessly
    crushed the uprising in Prague, Czechoslovakia
    thus ending what has been called the Prague
    Spring.

40
Détente with China
  • President Richard Nixon and Secretary of State
    Henry Kissinger took advantage of the rivalry
    between China and the Soviet Union by
    establishing détente, or a diplomatic reduction
    in cold war tensions.
  • In 1972, Nixon travelled to China to meet with
    Chairman Mao.
  • In 1979, the US officially recognized the
    Communist government of China and diplomatic
    relations are established.

41
Cold War Ends
  • 1985- Mikhail Gorbachev becomes leader of the
    USSR and declares glasnost (openness) and
    perestroika ( economic restructuring).
  • 1989- Poland under the slogan of Solidarity
  • establishes a non Communist government.
  • Hungary soon follows with a free government.

42
  • 1989- President Ronald Regan pressures Gorbachev
    Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall and they
    begin to end the Cold War.

43
  • 1989- Berlin Wall is torn down- and migration
    into West Germany is allowed.
  • 1990- US President George Bush and USSR Premiere
    Gorbachev agree to the reunification of Germany

Berlin wall comes down
44
  • 1991-Hard-line Communists stage unsuccessful coup
    against Gorbachev
  • 1991- Soviet Union is abolished and the
  • CIS- Commonwealth of Independent States are
    established- the fifteen former soviet states
    become independent nations.
  • The collapse of the Soviet Union represents one
    on the most important events of the 20th century.
  • Heavy military expenditures during the Cold War
    benefited Virginias economy proportionately more
    than any other state.

45
  • Cold War Presidents
  • Truman
  • Eisenhower
  • Kennedy
  • Johnson
  • Nixon
  • Ford
  • Carter
  • Reagan
  • H W Bush

46
US redirects its policies in post Cold War Era.
  • President George H.W. Bush 1989-1993
  • Reunification of Germany
  • Collapse of Yugoslavia
  • Breakup of USSR and creation of CIS
  • Persian Gulf War of 1990-91
  • Women in combat
  • Operation Desert Storm

47
  • President William Jefferson Clinton 1993-2001
  • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
  • Diplomatic relations with Vietnam
  • Sanctions against South Africa were lifted with
    the end of apartheid.
  • NATO action against Yugoslavia

48
President George W. Bush 2001-2009
  • Terrorists attacks on
  • US soil on 9/11/2001
  • War in Afghanistan
  • War in Iraq

49
  • President Barack Obama 2009- Present
  • National Health Care
  • War in Afghanistan
  • National Debt Crisis
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